Simplified and Latest version of Basic Concepts of Income Tax (Including amendments up to 26/9/2019).
The Topics included are Income-tax: Basic concepts; Residential status and tax incidence; Exempted incomes; Agricultural income; Computation of taxable income under various heads; Deductions from Gross total income; Assessment of Individuals; Clubbing of incomes
I. CONCEPTS OF INCOME TAX.
A. Current Previous Year —-2019-2020
Current Assessment Year —-2020-2021
Previous year and assessment year are same in the following cases
i. If a person leaving India permanently in previous year
ii. Discontinued business
a. Tax free salary from the private sector employer
b. Awards received by the sports person
c. Loss incurred by the assesses
d. Perquisites received by employees
C. Residential status —-sec 6(1)
A. Basic conditions.
i. He is in India in the previous year for a period of 182 days or more
ii. He has been in India for at least 365 days during the previous year preceding the previous year and is the in India for at latest 60 days during the previous year.
B. Additional conditions
i. He has been resident in India at latest two out of the ten previous years preceding the relevant previous years and
ii. He should have been in India for at least 730 days in all during the seven previous years preceding the relevant previous year
Determination of residential status
1. Resident and ordinarily resident
If Satisfies any one Basic condition and two additional conditions.
2. Resident but not ordinarily resident
If satisfies any one Basic condition and does not satisfy two additional conditions
Dose not satisfies any one basic condition
1. Mr James ,a citizen of US, arrived in India for the first time on 1st July 2018 and left for Nepal on I5 th December 2018.He arrived to India again on first January 2019 and stayed till the end of the financial year 2018-2019.His residential status for the assessment year 2019-2020 is
Answer-—Resident but not ordinarily resident.
2.Mr.X. A non-resident earned 36,000 as interest on German development bond. Of this, he received 1/6 th in India. The amount to be included as interest for the remuneration of his gross total income.
I. Income from Salaries
IV. Income from Capital Gains.
III. Income from salary
Compensation received by an employee from his employer on termination of job–Profits in lieu of salary
Pension received by the widow of an employee—income from other sources
Foreign allowances for rendering services abroad—Fully exempt from tax
Children hostel allowance—Exemption up to specified limit
Maximum amount of exemption of compensation received at the time of voluntary retirement-500,000
Salary, bonus, commission, et received by a working partner from the firm-income from business or profession
Pension received by the widow of a government employee-income from other sources.
Profits on the sale of machinery used in business-income from short term
Compensation received from the government on compulsory acquisition of land and profit earned-income from capital gain
Examiner’s remuneration received by a Govt. college professor from university is taxable under the head income from other source. Since there is no employer employee relationship.
Fees received by a doctor from the patients is taxable under the head – income from business and profession.
Partners salary from the partnership firm is taxable under the head Profits and gains of business and profession.
Pension is taxable under the head – Salary
Family pension is taxable under the head income from other source.
Pension from UNO and pension to gallantry awardees are exempted from tax
A part of D A is converted in to pay is called Dearness Pay- It is always forming part of salary.
Death cum retirement gratuity received by Govt. employees and employees of local authority- Fully exempt from tax.
Salary includes allowances
A. Fully Taxable Allowances:
b) Fixed Medical Allowance
c) Tiffin Allowance
d) Servant Allowance
e) Non practicing Allowance
f) Hill allowance
g) Warden Allowance and Proctor allowance
h) Non practicing allowance
i) Deputation Allowance
j) Overtime allowance
l) Telephone allowance
m) Project allowance
n) Education allowance
o) Dinner allowance
p) Health allowance
q) Holiday allowance
r) Special qualification allowance.
B. Fully exempted allowance:
a) Foreign allowance
b) Sumptuary allowance
c) Allowances from UNO
C.HRA- House Rent Allowance
Exempted is least of the following
a) Actual HRA received
b) Rent paid less 10% salary
c) 50% salary if house is in metros otherwise 40%
Salary for HRA includes the following
DA (DA is taken only if it is as per terms of employment)
Fixed commission on turnover.
X is employed in a private company at a salary OF 70,000 per month and 10,000 per month as dearness pay. He received a 2,000 per month as HRA. He paid 2,500 per month as house rent. What is the exempted portion of HRA?
A. Actual HRA-2000
C. 40% of salary-80000*0.40=32000.
D. Special Allowances for meeting the personal expenses of employees –sec 10(14)(ii).
i. Children educational allowance-
Exempted up to 100 per month per child for two children
ii. Children Hostel allowance–
Exempted to 300 per month per child for a maximum of two children.
iii. Transport allowance:
Exempted up to 1600 pm
In the case of blind ,deaf and dump or orthopedically handicapped- 3200 per month exempted.
E. Special allowances for meeting official expenditures of employees –Sec 10(14)(i)
a) Traveling allowance
b) Daily allowance
c) Conveyance allowance
d) Helper allowance
e) Academic Allowance
f) Uniform allowance.
Salary includes Perquisites
i. Perquisites taxable in case of all employees:
a) Value of rent free house accommodation.
i. Government Employees—Amount determined by Government +10% of cost of Furniture less Amount Collected from Employee.
ii. Other Employees—15 % of Salary (Population exceeding 25 Lakhs) +10% of cost of Furniture less Amount Collected from Employee.
iii. Other Employees—10% of Salary (Population below 25 lakhs) +10% of cost of Furniture less Amount Collected from Employees
iv. Other Employees -7.5 % of salary (other places ) +10% of cost of Furniture less Amount Collected from Employee.
The value of free accommodation in Delhi provided by employer in the private sector is–15% of salary.
b) Expenditures of Employees paid by Employer
c) Interest free loan at concessional rate
d. Holiday enjoyment.
e. Free food
f. Club Expenses.
ii. Perquisites taxable in case of specified employees. Following facilities provided by employer to employees
a. Motor car
b. Facility of Sweeper,watchmen , Gardner, Personal attendant
c. Gas, water , electricity
d. Education facility
e. Transport facility.
iii. Tax free perquisites:
a) Medical benefits
b) Tea or snacks provided at office or factory
c) Residential accommodation provided at site
d) Expenses of telephone including mobile phone.
e) Employer’s contribution to staff insurance scheme
f) Facility of conveyance from the place of residence to office and vice-versa.
g) Scholarship to employees and their children paid by employer.
h) Refresher courses
i) Tax paid by employer on the value of perquisites
j) Perquisites to Govt. employees posted abroad
k) Rent free house and conveyance facility provided to high court judges and supreme court judges.
l) Laptops provided by employer.
m) Leave travel concession
G. Retirement Benefits .
i. Govt. Employees fully exempted
ii. Non Govt.Employees:
a) 1972 Gratuity Act Covered Employees
Exempted portion is least among
1. 15 days salary for every completed year of service or part thereof in excess of 6 months.
2. Rs 20,00,000
3. Gratuity actually received.
Salary – Basic+ DA (always taken)
15 days salary= salary of last month*15/26
b) Employees not covered by payment of gratuity Act 1972
Least of the following is exempted:
a) ½ months average salary for every completed year
b) Rs. 20,00.000
c) Actual gratuity received
Salary= Basic+ DA (as per terms of employment)+ Fixed commission on turn over
B. Encashment of Earned Leave:
During service – fully taxable.
Encashment after retirement:
Maximum Amount exemption -300,000
C. Commuted pension:
Govt. Employees – Fully exempted.
Private employees, Exemption will be as follows
i. 1/3 of Normal pension –If gratuity receives
ii. ½ of Normal pension —If does not receive Gratuity
H. Deductions from salary: section 16
1. Entertainment allowance:
For Govt. employees: least of the following is the deduction:
1. Amount received
2. 1/5 of salary
3. Rs 5000
Non govt. employees: No deduction.
2. Professional Tax
It means tax paid to local self-Governments.
IV.Income from house property .
Given is the information related to a house.
Actual rent—20,000 p.m
Municipal tax paid by owner is 20percent of M.V .Unrealized rent rs.40,000 .What is annual value of the house?
Gross Annual value-200,000
Less :Municipal tax-30,000
Net Annual Value-170,000.
Rent from vacant plot of land is assessable under the head – income from other sources
Rent from subletting is chargeable under the head income from other sources.
Rent from paying guest accommodation is assessable under the head profit sand gains from business or profession.
Calculate the gross annul value from the following details
Fair rental value-50,000
Gross annual value-48,000
Income from Two Self Occupied House property will be NIL from 2020-2021
One will Nil in 2019-2020
Deductions from House property
1. 30% of Net Annual Value
2. Interest on loan paid in previous Year
3. 1/5 of pre-construction period loan
4. Interest on loan in case of self -occupied property -200,000
V. Income from business or profession
A.Diminishing balance method of charging depreciation has been permitted under the income Tax Act , 1961for claiming depreciation
B. Allowable expenses
Loss due to embezzlement by an employee
Legal expenses paid to protect the building of the business
Cost of installing a new telephone
Under the income tax act, 1961 unabsorbed depreciation can be carried forward for set-off purpose.
Answer—for unspecified period .
Use maximum Electronic mode of payments
VI. Income from capital gains
Important points are as follows
Cost indexation benefits is not allowed on
Debentures issued by a company
Self- generated goodwill of the company
Bonus shares allotted 01/4/2000
Long term capital gain set off-long term capital gain only
Stock in trade is not a capital asset
Income from sale of household furniture is exempt
Deduction under Sec 54 F Shall not allowed if the assesse ,on the date of transfer owns more than one residential house
Sec 54 EC-Maximum deduction -50 lakhs
V.INCOME FROM OTHER SOURCES
It includes incomes from the following
Under section 194IB of the Income tax act ,1961an individual or HUF (Who is not required to get his accounts audited U/S 44 AB ) who is responsible for paying to a resident any rent ,shall deduct income tax ,for the use of any land and building or both ,if the rent exceeds 50,000per month.
TDS and sections
Winnings from horse races-sec 194BB.
. If your Gross Total Income (Including Interest) is less than Rs.500,000 ,You may deposit in banks /Post-Offices (Term /Fixed/Recurring) as such:-
a. Total annual Interest on such accounts is less than Rs.40,000.
Banks and Post Offices did not deduct TDS upto Rs.40,000. Banks and Co-operative Societies will deduct TDS when Interest more than 40,000.other Cases 5000
It includes the following
Rent or revenue from land
Income from agricultural operations
Income from making the produce fit for market
Income from sale of produce
Income from saplings or seedings
Income from the sale of replanted trees where denuded parts of the forest are replanted and subsequent operations in forestry are carried out
Interest on capital received by a partner from the firm engaged in agricultural operations
PARTLY AGRICULTURE INCOME
Income from growing and manufacturing tea
60% -Deemed to be agriculture income and 40% is business income
Special economic zones-sec 10AA- Allowed for-15 years
Dividend decleared by Unit trust of India or by mutual fund.
IX. Advance tax
Advance tax is payable in previous year
However ,an individual resident in India shall not liable to pay advance tax if
i. He dosenot have any income chargeable under the head profit and gains of business or profession
ii. He is of the age of sixty years or more at any time during the previous year
Due dates in respect of Advance Tax are as follows:-
A. SEC 80 C
LIC premium paid by the You in respect of self ,spouse and son and daughter can be deducted up to Rs. 150,000. In case of an individual, deduction is available in respect of policy taken in the name of taxpayer or his/her spouse or his/her children. No deduction is available in respect of premium paid in respect of policy taken in the name of any person, other than given above. Other deductions under Sec 80C are as follows
i. Tuition fees
ii.Contribution to SLI
iii.Contribution to GIS
iv. Contribution to Government Providenf Fund
B. An additional deduction of Rs. 50,000/- under Section 80CCD(1B) is available to assesse over and above the benefit of Rs. 1.50 Lakhs available as a deduction under Sec 80CCD(1). Thereby, raising the maximum limit of exemption to Rs. 2.00 Lakhs.
.Closure or Opting out of the NPS did not attract tax up to 60% of the total amount payable.
Please contribute upto14% of your Salary to NPS (If you are Covered under NPS scheme)
C. Sec 80 D
a.. Health Insurance Premium
Following are the important points
i. Self and family (Including Senior Citizen)-Maximum Rs.50,000
ii. Parents –Maximum Rs. 25,000
iii. Parents (Senior) –Maximum-50,000
iv. Self and Family including Parents –Maximum Rs. 50,000
v. Self and Family including Senior citizen Parents –Maximum Rs. 75,000
vi. Self (Senior Citizen ) and including Senior Citizen Parents –Maximum Rs. 100,000
b.. Medical Expenditure
Following are the important points
i. Self and family (Senior Citizen)-Maximum Rs.50,000
ii. Parents (Senior) –Maximum Rs.50,000
iii. Self and Family including Parents –Maximum Rs. 50,000
Payment through cash mode is not allowed for Sec 80 D Payments except the following preventive medical checkup
c..Preventive Medical checkup
Maximum Rs. 50,00 deduction is allowed for Preventive Medical checkup
D. Sec 80DD Maintenance including medical treatment of a dependant.
E. Sec 80DDB Medical treatment of Specified diseases
F. Sec 80E Interest on loan taken for Higher Education.
.FA. Sec 80EEA-Interest Up to 150,000 on loan taken for Residential House Property (Loan should be taken from 01/4/2019 to 31/03/2020)
Subject to conditions
FB. Section 80EEB –Tax Incentives for Electric Vehicles
Maximum deduction on Interest on loan taken for purchase of an electric vehicle –Rs.150,000
(Loan Should be taken from 01/04/2019 to 31/03/2023 )
G. Sec80G—Donations to certain funds and charitable Institutions
Following points are important in this respect
a. Pay any mode other than cash
b. Visit Income Tax Department Website and check eligibility of Institution Donations are as follows
a. Without qualifying Limit -100%
Donation to national childrens fund
b. Without qualifying Limit- 50%
Example-donation to Jawaharlal Nehru memorial fund
c. With qualifying Limit -100%
d. With qualifying Limit-50
X donated 20,000 to a chartable institution ,which is eligible for deduction u/s 80 G, during the financial year 2018-2019.his total income during the period was 15,0000.How much deduction he can claims u/s 80G ?
Donation to Kerala Chief Minister Draught Relief Fund can be included in Donation as 100% without limit menu.
H. Sec 80 GG-Section 80GG Deduction for Rent Paid —Rs 5,000 per month
I. Deduction in respect of Contributions Given by any Person to Political Parties or an Electoral Trust (Section 80GGC)
Any amount of contribution made by an assessee being any person to a a political party or an electoral trust except local authority and every artificial juridical person wholly or partly funded by the Government shall be allowed as deduction while computing the total income of such person.
Note : Sum contributed by way of cash shall not be allowed as deduction
J SEC 80TTA Income from interest on Saving bank Accounts
Maximum amount of Rs. 10,000 can be deducted income from interest on savings bank accounts of Banks and Post Offices included in the above Income from other sources
K. SEC 80TTB Interest on deposit in case of senior citizens.
Maximum interest of Rs,50,000 can be deducted by a senior citizen from interest on deposit income included in the above Income from other sources.
L. SEC 80QQB-Authors of books of literacy, artistic or scientific nature-300,000
M. SEC 80U In case of person with disability
Following are the important points
a. Self with disability –Maximum-Rs.75,000
b. Self with severe Disability –Maximum -125,000.
1. A. Rates are the same as those specified in Part III of the First Schedule to the Finance Act2018
Upto Rs. 250,000 Nil
Rs. 250,001 to Rs. 500,000 5 percent
Rs. 500,001 to Rs. 10,00,000 20 percent
Above Rs. 10,00,000 30 percent
B. In the case of every individual, being a resident in India, who is of the age of sixty years or more but less than the age of eighty years at any time during previous year
Up to Rs. 300,000 Nil
Rs.300,001 to Rs. 500,000 5 percent
Rs. 500,001 to Rs. 10,00,000 20 percent
Above Rs. 10,00,000 30 percent
C. in the case of every individual ,being resident in india ,who is of the age of eighty years or more at any time during the previous year
500,001 to 10,00,000 5 percent
500,001 to 10,00,000 20 percent
Above Rs.10,00,000 30 percent
New surcharge rules-
10 percent if total income 50 lakhs but does not exceed one crore
15 percent if total income exceeds 1 crore
Cess 4% on Income Tax plus Surcharge
i. All partnership firms formed under the Indian partnership act,1932 are assessed as
a. Under sec 184 Assessment
b. Not under Sec 184 Assessment
ii.. Income of a firm is taxble at flat rate of 30% without any exemption
iii. Partners’s share in the income of a firm is not chargeable to tax in the hands of partners
iv. Remuneration paid to patners of a firmis allowed as deduction subject to statutory limit
v. Interest bon capital paid by affirm to its partners under the income tax act 1961 is allowed-12%.
If the book profits of a partnership firm is 1,10,000,the remuneration admissible to the working partners under section 40(b) of the Income Tax act ,1961 is—-
XIII. Return and Assessments.
1.You may pay Your tax at any time using e-Pay facility through the following Website
Only, the following details are required.
i. Selection of relevant Challan No
ii. Net Banking Facility/Debit Card
iii. PAN Card Details and Address details.
For example, Challan No 280 is used for the following purposes
a. Payment of Advance tax,
b. Self-Assessment tax,
c. Tax on Regular Assessment,
e. Tax on Distributed Profits of Domestic Company
f. Tax on Distributed income to unit holders.
2. File tax return within the due dates. As far as individual Assessees are concerned ,due date has expired .But Due date means the following to the other type of Assessees
i. A company -30/9/2019
ii. Accounts need to be audited –30/9/2019
iii. Assessee need to furnish report under sec 92E by 30/11/2019.
iv. The audit report shall be submitted to the department electronically.
3. If you do not file return within Aug 31,2019, then you may file belated return as follows. (Due date August 31 persons)
i. Before March 31,2020
ii. Before the completion of the assessment
Whichever is earlier
4. A belated return attracts late filing fees under section 234F of the Income Tax Act.
Rs. 5,000 is required to be paid if return is furnished on or before the December 31 ,2019.
5. The penalty increases to 10,000 if the asseesee file the return next year between January 1 and March, 2020.
6. However, late filing fee cannot exceed 1,000 if the total income of an assessee does not exceed Rs. 5 lakh.
7. Besides this, a delay in filing ITR also makes one liable to pay interest u/s 234A
8. If one discovers any omission or wrong statement in the earlier return including in the belated return, you may file revised return as follows:-
i. Before March 31,2020
ii. Before the completion of the assessment
iii. Whichever is earlier.
9. Deliberate false return will attract imprisonment u/s 277.
10. Assessment means the following-
i. Self Assessment.
You need to self assess your tax and file return within due dates. Ordinary return filing is known as Self Assesment. ITR 1 is used for this purpose
ii. Assessment on the basis of return.
Centralized Processing Centre processes your return .That is known as Assessment on the basis of return.
iii. Regular Assessment by Assessing Officer.
Regular assessment means the assessment made on the basis of evidence u/s 143(3) or Best Judgement assessment u/s 144.
iv. Re assessment.
If the assessing officer has reason to believe that any income chargeable to tax has escaped assessment, he may assess or re-assess such income.
v. Precautionary Assessment.
Where it is not clear as to who has received the income,the assessing officer can commence proceedings against any or all of them to determine as to who is responsible to pay tax
11. You may get notices as follows after the return filing:-
i. Faults in the return, notice u/s 139(9)
Assessee has an opportunity to rectify the defect within a period of 15 days from the date of such intimation .If the defect is not rectified within the period ,the return shall be invalid return.
Then apply for Condonation in the following website
12.You may use Service request functionality under My account menu.
ii.Correct Tax Notice u/s 143(1) .No action is needed from your side
iii. Mis match in TDS-Notice u/s 143(1)(a)
Whenever notice is issued u/s 143(1)(a) of Income Tax Act, Department will give an opportunity to the taxpayers before making any adjustment to the returned income filed by him.
The taxpayer will be given an opportunity through the “e-proceeding” to respond to the findings made by the department during the course of processing of the returns submitted
13. Under section 119(2) (b) of the Income Tax Act CBDT can admit an application or claim in respect of
i. any exemption
iv. any other relief
after the expiry of the period specified under the Act.
Therefore, such powers of wide authority should include the powers to condone the delay in specific cases of failure to submit ITR-V.
As per the current tax laws, there is no specific time limit to file a condonation request if you missed the deadline of verifying your filed ITR. However, you should file the request as soon as you notice your mistake.
XIV. Other Important Provisions
1. A person may not have assessable income but still be an assesse
2. In some cases ,the assessment year and previous year can be same
3. An Indian company is always resident assesse.
a. Residential status of an individual—sec6
b. Agricultural income—sec10(1)
c. HRA—sec 10(13A)
d. Gratuity—sec 10(10)
4. Easy Application of Sec.89 is possible in the Assessment Year if you have received arrears of Salary (Easy Procedure).
5. Use PAN Card. Avoidance of PAN CARD attract TDS@20%. Aadhaar Card can be used as PAN CARD for certain transactions.
6. Link PAN with Aadhaar .It is most urgent
7.You cannot hide your transactions from 2020-2021 on words . CBDT will introduce Pre-filled Tax Returns in the Assessment Year 2020-2021 on words.
8. Contribute to NPS even if you are not coming under NPS Scheme. You may take NPS in Banks or Post offices. Besides, You may deduct the following deductions from your Gross Total Income (Chapter VIA)
9. Following are the important documents to file income tax return for an employed person in India
a. PAN CARD
B. form no 16 issued by employer
If your Gross Total Income is less than 5 lakhs, no special tax planning is needed from yourself. You may claim Rebate under Section 87A which amounts to a maximum of Rs.12500 in the Assessment Year 2020-2021.Gross Total Income means total of the following Income.
MAT is applicable for certain companies
Tax on income of certain domestic companies.
“115BAA. (1) The income-tax payable in respect of the total income of a person, being a domestic company, for any previous year relevant to the assessment year beginning on or after the 1st day of April, 2020, shall, at the option of such person, be computed at the rate of twenty-two per cent.
NO MAT for above companies
Amendment of section 115JB
In section 115JB of the Income-tax Act, with effect from the 1st day of April, 2020,—
(a) in sub-section (1), the following proviso shall be inserted, namely:—
“Provided that for the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 2020, the provisions of this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words “eighteen and one-half per cent.”, occurring at both the places, the words “fifteen per cent.” had been substituted.”;
If the taxable income of a domestic company for the asseseement year 2019-2020 is 900,000 ,its tax liability will be
Add :Cess @3 %=8100
Amount of penalty for failure to deduct tax at source—100 percent to the amount of tax which such person failed to deduct
BY CMA SIVAKUMAR.A, ACMA.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF COMMERCE,
SREENELAKANTA GOVERNMENT SANSKRIT COLLEGE, PATTAMBI.
Mainly focused on UGC DEC 2019 COMMERCE NET Examination.