Every registered taxable person shall himself assess the taxes payable under this Act and furnish a return for each tax period as specified under section 34.
58. Provisional Assessment
(1) Where the taxable person is unable to determine the value of goods and/or services or determine the rate of tax applicable thereto, he may request the proper officer in writing giving reasons for payment of tax on a provisional basis and the proper officer may pass an order allowing paymen t of tax on provisional basis at such rate or on such value as may be specified by him.
(2) The payment of tax on provisional basis may be allowed, if the taxable person executes a bond in such form as may be prescribed in this behalf, and with such surety or security as the proper officer may deem fit, binding the taxable person for payment of the difference between the amount of tax as may be finally assessed and the amount of tax provisionally assessed.
(3) The proper officer shall, within a period not exceeding six months from the date of the communication of the order issued under sub-section (1), pass the final assessment order after taking into account such information as may be required for finalizing the assessment:
PROVIDED that the period specified in this sub-section may, on sufficient cause being shown and for reasons to be recorded in writing, be extended by the Joint/Additional Commissioner for a further period not exceeding six months and by the Commissioner for such further period as he may deem fit.
(4) The taxable person shall be liable to pay interest on any tax payable on the supply under provisional assessment but not paid on the due date specified under sub-section (7) of section 34 or the rules made thereunder at the rate specified under sub-section (1) of section 45, from the first day after the due date of payment of tax in respe ct of the said goods and/or services till the date of actual payment, whether such amount is paid before or after the issue of order for final
(5) Where the taxable person is entitled to a refund consequent to the order for final assessment under sub-section (3), subject to sub-section (8) of section 48, interest shall be paid on such refund as provided in section 50.
59. Scrutiny of returns
(1) The proper officer may scrutinize the return and related particulars furnished by the taxable person to verify the correctness of the return in such manner as may be prescribed.
(2) The proper officer shall inform the taxable person of the discrepancies noticed, if any, after such scrutiny in such manner as may be prescribed and seek his explanation thereto.
(3) In case the explanation is found acceptable, the taxable person shall be informed accordingly and no further action shall be taken in this regard.
(4) In case no satisfactory explanation is furnished within a period of thirty days of being informed by the proper officer or such further period as may be permitted by him or where the taxable person, after accepting the discrepancies, fails to take the corrective measure in his return for the month in which the discrepancy is accepted, the proper officer may initiate appropriate action including those under section 63, 64 or section 79, or proceed to determine the tax and other dues under sub-section (7) of section 66 or under sub-section (7) of section 67.
60. Assessment of non-filers of returns
(1) Where a registered taxable person fails to furnish the return required under section 34 or section 40, even after the service of a notice under section 41, the proper officer may proceed to assess the tax liability of the said person to the best of his judgement taking into account all the relevant material which is available or which he has gathered and issue an assessment order within the time limit specified in sub-section (8) of section 67.
(2) Where the taxable person furnishes a valid return within thirty days of the service of the assessment order under sub-section (1), the said assessment order shall be deemed to have been withdrawn.
Explanation.— Nothing in this section shall preclude the liability for payment of interest under section 45 and/or for payment of late fee under section 42.
61. Assessment of unregistered persons
Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in section 66 or section 67 , where a taxable person fails to obtain registration even though liable to do so, the proper officer may proceed to assess the tax liability of such taxable person to the best of his judgement for the relevant tax periods and issue an assessment order within a period of five years from the due date for filing of the annual return for the year to which the tax not paid relates:
PROVIDED that no such assessment order shall be passed without giving a notice to show cause and without giving the person a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
62. Summary assessment in certain special cases
(1) The proper officer may, on any evidence showing a tax liability of a person coming to his notice, with the previous permission of [Additional/Joint Commissioner], proceed to assess the tax liability of such person to protect the interest of revenue and issue an assessment order, if he has sufficient grounds to believe that any delay in doing so will adversely affect the interest of revenue:
PROVIDED that where the taxable person to whom the liability pertains is not ascertainable and such liability pertains to supply of goods, the person in charge of such goods shall be deemed to be the taxable person liable to be assessed and pay tax and amount due under this section.
(2) On an application made within thirty days from the date of receipt of order passed under sub-section (1) by the taxable person or on his own motion, if the
Additional/Joint Commissioner considers that such order is erroneous, he may withdraw such order and follow the procedure laid down in section 66 or 67.
63. Audit by tax authorities
(1) The [Commissioner of CGST/Commissioner of SGST] or any officer authorised by him, by way of a general or a specific order, may undertake audit of any taxable person for such period, at such frequency and in such manner as may be
(2) The tax authorities referred to in sub-section (1) may conduct audit at the place of business of the taxable person and/or in their office.
(3) The taxable person shall be informed, by way of a notice, sufficiently in advance, not less than fifteen working days, prior to the conduct of audit in the manner
(4) The audit under sub-section (1) shall be completed within a period of three months from the date of commencement of audit:
PROVIDED that where the [Commissioner] is satisfied that audit in respect of such taxable person cannot be completed within three months from the date of commencement of audit, he may, for the reasons to be recorded in writing, extend the period by a further period not exceeding six months.
Explanation.- For the purposes of this sub-section, ‘commencement of audit’ shall mean the date on which the records and other documents, called for by the tax authorities, are made available by the taxable person or the actual institution of audit at the place of business, whichever is later.
(5) During the course of audit, the authorised officer may require the taxable person,
(i) to afford him the necessary facility to verify the books of account or other documents as he may require and which may be available at such place,
(ii) to furnish such information as he may require and render assistance for timely completion of the audit.
(6) On conclusion of audit, the proper officer shall, within thirty days, inform the taxable person, whose records are audited, of the findings, the taxable person’s rights and obligations and the reasons for the findings.
(7) Where the audit conducted under sub-section (1) results in detection of tax not paid or short paid or erroneously refunded, or input tax credit wrongly availed or utilised, the proper officer may initiate action under section 66 or 67.
64. Special audit
(1) If at any stage of scrutiny, enquiry, investigation or any other proceedings before him, any officer not below the rank of [Deputy/Assistant Commissioner] having regard to the nature and complexity of the case and interest of revenue, is of the opinion that the value has not been correctly declared or the credit availed is not within the normal limits, he may, with the prior approval of the [Commissioner], direct such taxable person by a communication in writing to get his records including books of account examined and audited by a chartered accountant or a cost accountant as may be nominated by the [Commissioner ] in this behalf.
(2) The chartered accountant or cost accountant so nominated shall, within the period of ninety days, submit a report of such audit duly signed and certified by him to the said [Deputy/Assistant Commissioner] mentioning therein such other particulars as may be specified:
PROVIDED that the proper officer may, on an application made to him in this behalf by the taxable person or the chartered accountant or cost accountant or for any material and sufficient reason, extend the said period by another ninety days.
(3) The provision of sub -section (1) shall have effect notwithstanding that the accounts of the taxable person have been audited under any other provision of this Act or any other law for the time being in force or otherwise.
(4) The taxable person shall be given an opportunity of being heard in respect of any material gathered on the basis of special audit under sub -section (1) which is proposed to be used in any proceedings under this Act or rules made thereunder.
(5) The expenses of, and incidental to, the examination and audit of records under sub-section (1), including the remuneration of such chartered accountant or cost accountant, shall be determined and paid by the [Commissioner] and that such determination shall be final.
(6) Where the special audit conducted under sub-section (1) results in detection of tax not paid or short paid or erroneously refunded, or input tax credit wrongly availed or utilised, the proper officer may initiate action under section 66 or 67 , as the case may be.
65. Power of CAG to call for information for audit
The proper officer shall, upon request made in this behalf, make available to the Comptroller and Auditor General of India or an officer authorised by him, information, records and returns furnished under the Act, required for conduct of audit as required under the Comptroller and Auditor General’s (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service) Act (56 of 1971).