CHAPTER – XVII

DEMANDS AND RECOVERY

66. Determination of tax not paid or short paid or erroneously refunded or input tax credit wrongly availed or utilized for any reason other than fraud or any wilful misstatement or suppression of facts

(1) Where any tax has not been paid or short paid or erroneously refunded, or where input tax credit has been wrongly availed or utilized for any reason, other than the reason of fraud or any willful-misstatement or suppression of facts to evade tax, the proper officer shall serve notice on the person chargeable with tax which has not been so paid or which has been so short paid or to whom the refund has erroneously been made, or who has wrongly availed or utilized input tax credit, requiring him to show cause why he should not pay the amount specified in the notice along with interest payable thereon under section 45 and a penalty leviable under the provisions of this Act or the rules made there under.

(2) The proper officer shall issue the notice under sub-section (1) at least three months prior to the time limit specified in sub-section (8) for issuance of order.

(3) Where a notice has been issued for any period under sub-section (1), the proper officer may serve a statement, containing the details of tax not paid or short paid or erroneously refunded or input tax credit wrongly availed or utilized for such periods other than those covered under subsection (1), on the person chargeable with tax. The service of such statement shall be deemed to be service of notice on such person under the aforesaid sub-section (1), subject to the condition that the grounds relied upon for such tax periods other than those covered under sub ­section (1) are the same as are mentioned in the earlier notice.

(4) The person chargeable with tax may, before service of notice under sub-section (1) or, as the case may be, the statement under sub-section (3), pay the amount of tax along with interest payable thereon under section 45 on the basis of his own ascertainment of such tax or the tax as ascertained by the proper officer and inform the proper officer in writing of such payment. The proper officer, on receipt of such information, shall not serve any notice under sub-section (1) or, as the case may be, the statement under sub-section (3), in respect of the tax so paid or any penalty leviable under the provisions of this Act or the rules made there under.

(5) Where the proper officer is of the opinion that the amount paid under sub-section (4) falls short of the amount actually payable, he shall proceed to issue the notice as provided for in sub-section (1) in respect of such amount which falls short of the amount actually payable.

(6) Where any person chargeable with tax under sub-section (1) or under sub ­section (3) pays the said tax along with interest payable under section 45 within thirty days of issue of show cause notice, no penalty shall be payable and all proceedings in respect of the said notice shall be deemed to be concluded.

(7) The proper officer shall, after considering the representation, if any, made by person chargeable with tax, determine the amount of tax, interest and a penalty equivalent to ten percent of tax or ten thousand rupees, whichever is higher, due from such person and issue an order.

(8) The proper officer shall issue the order under sub-section (7) within three years from the due date for filing of annual return for the year to which the tax not paid or short paid or input tax credit wrongly availed or utilized relates or, as the case may be, within three years from the date of erroneous refund.

67. Determination of tax not paid or short paid or erroneously refunded or input tax credit wrongly availed or utilized by reason of fraud or any willful-misstatement or suppression of facts

(1) Where any tax has not been paid or short paid or erroneously refunded or where input tax credit has been wrongly availed or utilized by reason of fraud, or any willful-misstatement or suppression of facts to evade tax, the proper officer shall serve notice on the person chargeable with tax which has not been so paid or which has been so short paid or to whom the refund has erroneously been made, or who has wrongly availed or utilized input tax credit requiring him to show cause why he should not pay the amount specified in the notice along with interest payable thereon under section 45 and a penalty equivalent to the tax specified in the notice.

(2) The proper officer shall issue the notice under sub-section (1) at least six months prior to the time limit specified in sub-section (8) for issuance of order.

(3) Where a notice has been issued for any period under sub-section (1), the proper officer may serve a statement, containing the details of tax not paid or short paid or erroneously refunded or input tax credit wrongly availed or utilized for such periods other than those covered under sub-section (1), on the person chargeable with tax. The service of such statement shall be deemed to be service of notice on such person under the sub-section (1), subject to the condition that the grounds relied upon for such periods other than those covered under sub-section (1) are the same as are mentioned in the earlier notice.

(4) The person chargeable with tax may, before service of notice under sub-section (1) or, as the case may be, the statement under sub-section (3), pay the amount of tax along with interest payable under section 45 and a penalty equivalent to fifteen per cent of such tax on the basis of his own ascertainment of such tax or the tax as ascertained by the proper officer and inform the proper officer in writing of such payment. The proper officer, on receipt of such information, shall not serve any notice under sub-section (1) or, as the case may be, the statement under sub-section (3), in respect of the tax so paid or any penalty leviable under the provisions of this Act or the rules made there under.

(5) Where the proper officer is of the opinion that the amount paid under sub-section (4) falls short of the amount actually payable, he shall proceed to issue the notice as provided for in sub-section (1) in respect of such amount which falls short of the amount actually payable.

(6) Where any person chargeable with tax under sub-section (1) or under sub­section (3) pays the said tax along with interest payable under section 45 and a penalty equivalent to twenty five per cent of such tax within thirty days of issue of the notice, all proceedings in respect of the said notice shall be deemed to be

(7) The proper officer shall, after considering the representation, if any, made by the person chargeable with tax, determine the amount of tax, interest and penalty due from such person and issue an order.

(8) The proper officer shall issue the order under sub-section (7) within a period of five years from the due date for filing of annual return for the year to which the tax not paid or short paid or input tax credit wrongly availed or utilized relates or, as the case may be, within five years from the date of erroneous refund.

(9) Where any person served with an order issued under sub-section (7) pays the tax along with interest payable thereon under section 45 and a penalty equivalent to fifty percent of such tax within thirty days of the communication of order, all proceedings in respect of the said tax shall be deemed to be concluded.

Explanation. – The expression “suppression” shall mean non-declaration of facts or information which a taxable person is statutorily required to declare in the return, statement, report or any other document furnished under the Act or the rules made there under, or failure to furnish any information on being asked for, in writing, by the proper officer.

68. General provisions relating to determination of tax

(1) Where the service of notice or issuance of order is stayed by an order of a Court, the period of such stay shall be excluded in computing the period specified in sub-sections (2) and (8) of section 66 or subsections (2) and (8) of section 67, as the case may be.

(2) Where any Appellate Authority or Tribunal or Court concludes that the notice issued under sub-section (1) or (3) of section 67 is not sustainable for the reason that the charges of fraud or any wilful mis -statement or suppression of facts to evade tax has not been established against the person to whom the notice was issued, the proper officer shall determine the tax payable by such person for the period of three years, deeming as if the notice were issued under sub-section (1) or (3) of section 66.

(3) Where any order is required to be issued in pursuance of the direction of the Tribunal or a Court, such order shall be issued within two years from the date of communication of the said direction.

(4) An opportunity of personal hearing shall be granted where a request is received in writing from the person chargeable with tax or penalty, or where any adverse decision is contemplated against such person.

(5) The proper officer shall, if sufficient cause is shown by the person chargeable with tax, grant time, from time to time , to the said person and adjourn the hearing for reasons to be recorded in writing:

PROVIDED that no such adjournment shall be granted more than three times to a person during the proceeding.

(6) The proper officer, in his order, shall set out the relevant facts and the basis of his decision.

(7) The amount of tax, interest and penalty demanded in the order shall not be in excess of the amount specified in the notice and no demand shall be confirmed on grounds other than the grounds specified in the notice.

(8) Where the Appellate Authority or Tribunal or Court modifies the amount of tax determined by the proper officer, the amount of interest and penalty shall stand modified accordingly, taking into account the amount of tax so modified.

(9) Interest on the tax short paid or not paid shall be payable whether or not specified in the order determining the tax liability.

(10) The adjudication proceedings shall be deemed to be concluded if the order is not issued within three years as provided for in sub-section (8) of section 66 or within five years as provided for in sub-section (8) of section 67.

(11) An issue on which the First Appellate Authority or the Appellate Tribunal or the High Court has given its decision which is prejudicial to the interest of revenue in some other proceedings and an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal or the High Court or the Supreme Court against such decision of the First Appellate Authority or the Appellate Tribunal or as the case may be, the High Court is pending, the period spent between the date of the decision of the First Appellate Authority and the date of decision of the Appellate Tribunal or the date of decision of the Appellate Tribunal and the date of the decision of the High Court or as the case may be, the date of the decision of the High Court and the date of the decision of the Supreme Court shall be excluded in computing the period referred to in sub-section (8) of section 66 or sub -section (8) of section 67, as the case may be, where proceedings are initiated by way of issue of a show cause notice under this section.

(12) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 66 or 67, where any amount of self-assessed tax in accordance with a return furnished under section 34 remains unpaid, either wholly or partly, or any amount of interest payable on such tax remains unpaid, the same shall be recovered under the provisions of section 72.

Explanation 1.- The expression “all proceedings in respect of the said notice” shall include proceedings under chapter XX.

Explanation 2.- Where proceedings against the main noticee liable to pay tax has been concluded under section 66 or 67, the proceedings against all co-noticees liable to pay penalty under sections 85, 86, 89, 90 or 91 in the same proceedings shall be deemed to be concluded.

(13) Where any penalty is imposed under section 66 or 67, no penalty for the same act and/or omission shall be imposed on the same person under any other provision of the Act.

69. Tax collected but not deposited with the Central or a State Government

(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any order or direction of any Appellate Authority or Tribunal or Court or in any other provision of this Act or the rules made there under or any other law, every person who has collected from any other person any amount as representing the tax under this Act, and has not paid the said amount to the Central or a State Government, shall forthwith deposit the said amount to the credit of the Central or a State Government, regardless of whether the supplies in respect of which such amount was collected are taxable or not.

(2) Where any amount is required to be paid to the credit of the Central or a State Government under sub-section (1), and which has not been so paid, the proper officer may serve on the person liable to pay such amount a notice requiring him to show cause why the said amount as specified in the notice, should not be paid by him to the credit of the Central or a State Government and why a penalty equivalent to the amount specified in the notice should not be imposed on him under the provisions of this Act.

(3) The proper officer shall, after considering the representation, if any, made by the person on whom the notice is served under sub-section (2), determine the amount due from such person and thereupon such person shall pay the amount so determined.

(4) The person referred to in sub-section (1) shall, in addition to paying the amount referred to in sub-section (1) or (3), as the case may be, also be liable to pay interest thereon at the rate specified under section 45 from the date such amount was collected by him to the date such amount is paid by him to the credit of the Central or a State Government.

(5) An opportunity for personal hearing shall be granted where a request is received in writing from the person to whom the notice was issued to show cause.

(6) The proper officer shall issue an order within one year from the date of issue of the notice.

(7) Where the issuance of order is stayed by an order of the Court or Tribunal, the period of such stay shall be excluded in computing the period of one year.

(8) The proper officer, in his order, shall set out the relevant facts and the basis of his decision.

(9) The amount paid to the credit of the Central Government or a State Government under sub-section (1) or sub-section (3) shall be adjusted against the tax payable, if any by the person in relation to the supplies referred to in sub-section (1).

(10) Where any surplus is left after the adjustment under sub-section (9) the amount of such surplus shall either be credited to the Fund or, as the case may be, refunded to the person who has borne the incidence of such amount.

(11) The person who has borne the incidence of the amount referred to in sub ­section (10) may apply for the refund of the same in accordance with the provisions of section 48 within six months of the date of issue of public notice .

70. Tax wrongfully collected and deposited with the Central or a State Government

(1) A taxable person who has paid CGST/SGST (in SGST Act) on a transaction considered by him to be an intra-state supply, but which is subsequently held to be an inter-state supply shall be granted refund of the amount of CGST /SGST (in SGST Act) so paid in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be

(2) A taxable person who has paid IGST on a transaction considered by him to be an inter-state supply, but which is subsequently held to be an intra-state supply, shall not be required to pay any interest on the amount of CGST/SGST payable.

71. Initiation of recovery proceedings

Any amount payable by a taxable person in pursuance of an order passed under the Act shall be paid by such person within a period of ninety days from the date of service of such order:

PROVIDED that where the proper officer considers it expedient in the interest of revenue, he may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, require the said taxable person, to make such payment within such shorter period as may be specified by him.

72. Recovery of tax

(1) Where any amount payable by a person to the credit of the Central or a State Government under any of the provisions of this Act or of the rules made thereunder is not paid, the proper officer shall proceed to recover the amount by one or more of the modes mentioned below: –

(a) the proper officer may deduct or may require any other specified officer to deduct the amount so payable from any money owing to such person which may be under the control of the proper officer or such other specified officer;

(b) the proper officer may recover or may require any other specified officer to recover the amount so payable by detaining and selling any goods belonging to such person which are under the control of the proper officer or such other specified officer;

(c)

(i) the proper officer may, by a notice in writing, require any other person from whom money is due or may become due to such person or who holds or may subsequently hold money for or on account of such person, to pay to the credit of the Central or a State Government either forthwith upon the money becoming due or being held, or at or within the time specified in the notice not being before the money becomes due or is held, so much of the money as is sufficient to pay the amount due from such person or the who le of the money when it is equal to or less than that amount;

(ii) every person to whom the notice is issued under this section shall be bound to comply with such notice, and in particular, where any such notice is issued to a post office, banking company or a n insurer, it shall not be necessary to produce any pass book, deposit receipt, policy or any other document for the purpose of any entry, endorsement or the like being made before payment is made, notwithstanding any rule, practice or requirement to the contrary;

(iii) in case the person to whom a notice under this section has been issued, fails to make the payment in pursuance thereof to the Central or a State Government, he shall be deemed to be a defaulter in respect of the amount specified in the notice and all the consequences of this Act or the rules made there under shall follow;

(iv) the officer issuing a notice under sub-clause (i) may, at any time or from time to time, amend or revoke such notice or extend the time for making any payment in pursuance of the notice;

(v) any person making any payment in compliance with a notice issued under sub-clause (i) shall be deemed to have made the payment under the authority of the person in default and such payment being credited to the appropriate Government shall be deemed to constitute a good and sufficient discharge of the liability of such person to the person in default to the extent of the amount specified in the receipt;

(vi) any person discharging any liability to the person in default after service on him of the notice issued under sub-clause (i) shall be personally liable to the Central or a State Government to the extent of the liability discharged or to the extent of the liability of the person in default for tax, interest and penalty, whichever is less.

(vii) where a person on whom a notice is served under sub-clause (i) proves to the satisfaction of the officer issuing the notice that the money demanded or any part thereof was not due to the person in default or that he did not hold any money for or on account of the person in default, at the time the notice was served on him, nor is the money demanded or any part thereof, likely to become due to the said person or be held for or on account of such person, nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to require the person on whom the notice has been served to pay to the credit of the appropriate Government any such money or part thereof, as the case may be.

(d) the proper officer may, on an authorisation by the competent authority and in accordance with the rules made in this behalf, distrain any movable or immovable property belonging to or under the control of such person, and detain the same until the amount payable is paid; and in case, any part of the said amount payable or of the cost of the distress or keeping of the property, remains unpaid for a period of thirty days next after any such distress, may cause the said property to be sold and with the proceeds of such sale, may satisfy the amount payable and the costs including cost of sale remaining unpaid and shall render the surplus amount, if any, to such person;

(e) the proper officer may prepare a certificate signed by him specifying the amount due from such person and send it to the Collector of the district in which such person owns any property or resides or carries on his business and the said Collector, on receipt of such certificate, shall proceed to recover from such person the amount specified there under as if it were an arrear of land revenue;

(f) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Act 2 of 1974), the proper officer may file an application to the appropriate Magistrate and such Magistrate shall proceed to recover from such person the amount specified thereunder as if it were a fine imposed by him.

(2) Where the terms of any bond or other instrument executed under this Act or any rules or regulations made there under provide that any amount due under such instrument may be recovered in the manner laid down in sub-section (1), the amount may, without prejudice to any other mode of recovery, be recovered in accordance with the provisions of that sub-section.

(3) Where any amount of tax, interest or penalty is payable by a person to the credit of the Central Government under any of the provisions of this Act or the rules made there under and which remains unpaid, the proper officer of SGST, during the course of recovery of SGST arrears, may recover the amount from the said person as if it were an arrear of SGST and credit the amount so recovered to the account of the Central Government.

(CGST ACT)

(3) Where any amount of tax, interest or penalty is payable by a person to the credit of the State Government under any of the provisions of this Act or the rules made there under and which remains unpaid, the proper officer of CGST, during the course of recovery of CGST arrears, may recover the amount from the said person as if it were an arrear of CGST and credit the amount so recovered to the account of the State Government.

(SGST ACT)

(4) Where the amount recovered under sub-section (3) is less than the amount due to the Central and State Government, the amount to be credited to the account of the respective Governments shall be in proportion to the amount due to each such Government.

73. Bar on recovery proceedings

(1) Where a person has filed an appeal under section 98 or section 101, as the case may be, against the order of demand, the proper officer may not enforce the payment of demand until the appeal is resolved.

(2) Nothing in this section shall stay any proceedings by the proper officer for the recovery of any amount due under this Act which is not under appeal before First Appellate Authority or Tribunal.

74. Payment of tax and other amount in installments.

On an application filed by a taxable person, the [Commissioner/Chief Commissioner] may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, extend the time for payment or allow payment of any amount due under the Act, other than the amount due as per the liability self-assessed in any return, by such person in monthly installments not exceeding twenty four, subject to payment of interest under section 45 with such restrictions and conditions as may be prescribed:

PROVIDED that where there is default in payment of any one installment on its due date, the whole outstanding balance payable on such date shall become due and payable forthwith and shall, without any further notice being served on the person, be liable for recovery.

75. Transfer of property to be void in certain cases

Where a person, after any amount has become due from him, creates a charge on or parts with the property belonging to him or in his possession by way of sale, mortgage, exchange, or any other mode of transfer whatsoever of any of his properties in favour of any other person with the intention of defrauding the Government revenue, such charge or transfer shall be void as against any claim in respect of any tax or any other sum payable by the said person:

PROVIDED that, such charge or transfer shall not be void if it is made for adequate consideration and without notice of the pendency of such proceeding under this Act or, as the case may be, without notice of such tax or other sum payable by the said person, or with the previous permission of the proper officer.

76. Tax to be first charge on property

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any law for the time being in force, any amount payable by a taxable person or any other person on account of tax, interest or penalty which he is liable to pay to the Central or a State Government shall be a first charge on the property of such taxable person, or as the case may be, such person.

77. Provisional attachment to protect revenue in certain cases

(1) Where during the pendency of any proceedings under section 60, 61, 62, 66, 67 or 79 the Commissioner is of the opinion that for the purpose of protecting the interest of the Government revenue, it is necessary so to do, he may by order in writing attach provisionally any property, including bank account, belonging to the taxable person in such a manner as may be prescribed.

(2) Every such provisional attachment shall cease to have effect after the expiry of a period of one year from the date of the order made under sub-section (1).

78. Continuation and validation of certain recovery proceedings

(1) Where any notice of demand in respect of any tax, penalty, interest or any other amount payable under this Act, (hereinafter in this section referred to as “Government dues”), is served upon any taxable person or any other person and any appeal, revision application is filed or other proceedings is initiated in respect of such Government dues, then –

(a) Where such Government dues are enhanced in such appeal, revision or other proceeding, the Commissioner shall serve upon the taxable person or any other person another notice of demand only in respect of the amount by which such Government dues are enhanced and any recovery proceeding in relation to such Government dues as are covered by the notice of demand served upon him before the disposal of such appeal, revision application or proceeding may, without the service of any fresh notice of demand, be continued from the stage at which such proceedings stood immediately before such disposal;

(b) Where such Government dues are reduced in such appeal, revision or in other proceeding –

(i) It shall not be necessary for the Commissioner to serve upon the taxable person a fresh notice of demand;

(ii) The Commissioner shall give intimation of such reduction to him and to the appropriate authority with whom recovery proceeding is pending;

(iii) Any recovery proceedings initiated on the basis of the demand served upon him prior to the disposal of such appeal, revision application or other proceeding may be continued in relation to the amount so reduced from the stage at which such proceedings stood immediately before such disposal.

Source- Revised Model Draft GST Law Released by CBEC

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