Corporate Restructuring is a comprehensive process wherein a business enterprise undertakes the redesigning of one or more aspects of the company, with the aim of consolidating its operations and bolstering its position to achieve both short-term and long-term corporate objectives. While businesses may naturally grow over time as the value of their products and services becomes evident, this growth is typically a gradual and time-consuming process. Alternatively, growth can be achieved through an inorganic process characterised by rapid expansion in workforce, customer base, infrastructure resources, leading to an overall increase in the entity’s revenues and profits.
Here are some examples of corporate restructuring:
Corporate restructuring can be a complex and challenging process, but it can also be a way for a company to turn around its fortunes and achieve long-term success.
Mergers and acquisitions were not common in India before 1991. The MRTP Act of 1969 made it difficult for companies to merge or acquire each other. However, in 1988, Swarj Paul made an unsuccessful attempt to acquire DCM Ltd. And Escorts Ltd. This event raised awareness of mergers and acquisitions in India.
After 1991, the Indian economy was liberalised, and the regulatory framework was relaxed. This led to an increase in mergers and acquisitions. Companies began to restructure their businesses to meet the challenges of globalisation and technological change.
Restructuring is a way for companies to become more competitive. By merging or acquiring other companies, companies can gain access to new markets, technologies, and resources. They can also reduce costs and improve efficiency.
In the era of hyper competitive capitalism and technological change, restructuring is essential for companies that want to remain competitive. By restructuring, companies can reach a size comparable to global companies and effectively compete in the global economy.
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Rational and objectives
Corporate restructuring is the process of reorganising a company’s business activities to achieve certain pre-determined objectives. These objectives can include:
Restructuring can be done through a variety of methods, such as:
1. Mergers and acquisitions
2. Asset sales
3. Debt Restructuring
4. Organisational changes
The goal of restructuring is to improve the company’s competitive position and maximise its contribution to corporate objectives. By restructuring, companies can reduce costs, improve efficiency, and gain access to new markets and technologies. This can help them to become more competitive and achieve their strategic goals.
In a highly competitive world, cost cutting and value addition are essential for companies to succeed. Restructuring can help companies to achieve these goals by streamlining operations, eliminating unnecessary costs, and focusing on their core competencies.
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1. Restructuring can be complex and challenging process. It is important to have a clear understanding of the company’s goals and objectives before embarking on a restructuring plan.
2. Restructuring can have a significant impact on employees. It is important to communicate with employees throughout the restructuring process and to provide them with support.
3. Restructuring can be a risky proposition. There is no guarantee that a restructuring plan will be successful. However, if done correctly, restructuring can help companies to achieve their strategic goals and become more competitive.
Exploring the Motives Behind Companies’ Pursuit of International Acquisitions
Structural Reorganisation Method
1. Financial Restructuring–
Financial restructuring is a strategic process aimed at reshaping a company’s capacity structure and obtaining funding for new projects. This essential step enables a firm to overcome financial distress without restoring liquidation. There are various compelling reasons for businesses to engage in financial restructuring:
Financial restructuring encompasses two primary components:
1. Equity Restructuring: This aspect involves measures like buy-back of shares and alteration/reduction of capital, which aim to optimise the company’s equity structure and strengthen its ownership position.
2. Debt Restructuring: Debt restructuring pertains to the reorganisation of long-term secured and unsecured borrowings, as well as short-term borrowing. This process aims to manage and restructure debt obligations in a more viable and sustainable manner.
Through a well-executed financial restructuring plan, companies can navigate challenging financial situations, reinforce their financial position, and pave the way for future growth and success.
2. Market and Technological Restructuring –
Market restructuring revolves around strategic decisions concerning the specific product market segments in which a company aims to operate, leveraging its core competencies. It entails a focused approach to identify and target markets where the company can best utilise its strengths and capabilities. By aligning its offerings with the demands of these targeted segments, the company can enhance its competitiveness and maximise its market presence.
3. Technological Restructuring –
Technological restructuring occurs when a company develops or adopts a new technology that fundamentally transforms the industry’s operations. Embracing innovative technologies often necessitates adjustments in the workforce and operational processes. Such restructuring may lead to new training initiatives to equip employees with the required skills to adapt to the technological advancements. In some cases, there might be workforce realignment, resulting in layoffs as the company seeks to enhance efficiency and optimise its operations.
Moreover, technological restructuring frequently involves forming strategic alliances or partnerships with third parties possessing complementary technical expertise or resources. These collaborations allow the company to access cutting-edge technologies, share knowledge, and expand its capabilities, fostering growth and innovation.
Both market and technological restructuring are vital components of a company’s adaptive strategy in a dynamic business environment. By strategically leveraging core competencies and embracing transformative technologies, organisations can position themselves for long-term success and relevance in the ever-changing marketplace.
Joint Venture, Strategic Alliances, Franchising are some of the examples of market and technological restructuring.
4. Organisational Restructuring –
Organizational restructuring encompasses the establishment of internal structures and procedures aimed at enhancing the organization’s capacity to adapt effectively to changes. This process requires active cooperation from all levels of employees within the organization. Companies undertake organizational restructuring for various reasons, each tailored to specific needs and circumstances.
Expanding Market Presence:
In response to growth opportunities in new or expanding markets, some companies opt to reconfigure their organizational structure by establishing new departments or divisions. This proactive approach allows the organization to better serve the demands of growing markets, efficiently allocate resources, and capitalize on emerging opportunities.
Streamlining for Efficiency:
Conversely, other companies undertake organisational restructuring to streamline their corporate structure and optimise operational efficiency. This may involve downsizing or eliminating certain departments to reduce overhead costs, simplify decision-making processes, and enhance overall agility.
In both cases, the key objective of organisational restructuring is to create a responsive and adaptable framework that aligns with the company’s strategic goals and market conditions. By fostering a culture of cooperation and empowering employees to embrace change, organisations can effectively position themselves for sustained success in today’s dynamic business landscape.
Key Considerations for Successful Corporate Restructuring Strategies
The restructuring process require various aspects to be considered before, during and after the restructuring. They are:
Tools for Corporate Restructuring –
1. Merger – A merger can be defined as the fusion or absorption of one company by another. It may also be understood s an arrangement, whereby the assets of two (or more) companies get transferred to, or come under the control of one company (which may or may not be one of the original of two companies).
2. Amalgamation – Amalgamation is a legal process by which two or more companies are joined together to form a new entity or one or more companies are to be absorbed or blended with another and as a consequence the amalgamating company loses its existence and its shareholders become the shareholders of new company or the amalgamated company.
3. Takeover – Takeover is an acquisition of shares carrying voting rights in a company with a view to gain control over the management of the company. It takes place when an individual or group of individuals or a company acquire controls over the assets of a company either by acquiring majority of its shares or by obtaining control of the management of the business and affairs of the company.
4. Reconstruction – Reconstruction means the “act of Construction again, Repairing, and Restoring to former condition or appearance”. Reconstruction means the transfer of an undertaking or business of a company to another company, specially formed for the purpose.
5. Disinvestment – It refers to the transfer of the assets/shares/control from the government to the private sector. The concept of Public Sector Undertaking Disinvestment takes different forms i.e., from minimum government investment (privatisation) to partnership with private sector, where the government is the majority shareholders.
6. Joint Venture – Joint venture is a venture in which an enterprise is formed with participation in the ownership, control and management of minimum of two parties. In Joint Venture, a business enterprise is formed for profit in which parties of joint venture share responsibilities in an agreed manner, by providing risk capital, technology, trademark & access to market, etc.
7. Franchising – Franchising is an agreement whereby the franchiser grants the right to the franchisee to carry on the business. The franchisee is authorised to sell and distribute goods and services.
8. Slump Sale – As per section 180(1)(a) of Companies Act 2013 Sale of the whole or substantially the whole of undertaking. It provides that in case of all company the whole of the undertaking of the company or where the company owns more than one undertaking of the whole or substantially the whole of any such undertaking only with the consent of shareholders in general meeting by way of Special Resolution.
9. Demerger – Demerger is often used to describe division or separation of different undertakings, of a business functioning under a common corporate umbrella. A scheme of demerger, is in effect a Corporate Partition of a company into two undertakings, thereby retaining one undertaking with it and transferring the other undertaking to the resulting company.
10. Strategic Alliance – Alliance means an agreement between two or more organisation to cooperate with each other to accomplish their common goals and to strive for the benefits of both of them. It is an understanding between firms whereby resources capabilities & core competencies are combined to pursue mutual interests.
Emergence of Corporate Restructuring in Global and National Perspective
The Crucial Role of Professionals in Corporate Restructuring
The restructuring process extends far beyond strategic decision-making, encompassing various technical and legal dimensions. In addition to conducting market studies, competitor analyses, and forecasting synergies, there are essential considerations related to mutual benefits and expected social impact.
Integral to the process are technical evaluations, including the valuation of organisations involved in the restructuring. Determining the swap ratio of shares, if applicable, is a critical aspect that requires careful attention. Furthermore, navigating the legal and procedural requirements with relevant regulators, such as the Registrar of Companies and NCLT, is crucial to ensure compliance and smooth transitions.
The restructuring also entails optimising tax benefits following the merger and addressing the intricacies of human and cultural integration. Moreover, considering stamp duty costs plays a significant role in assessing the overall financial implications of the restructuring.
Thus, the restructuring process entails a holistic approach, encompassing a wide array of technical and legal facets that complement strategic decision-making. By addressing these multifaceted aspects, organisations can successfully navigate the complexities of corporate restructuring and pave the way for sustainable growth and prosperity.