Business scandals involving high profile organizations such as Enron and WorldCom have rocked the corporate world and be-come front-page news. This has shaken consumer confidence in both business leaders and the economy, creating concern about business ethics and governance. As a result, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important.

Corporate Social Responsibility is a company’s commitment to its stakeholders to conduct business in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable manner that is transparent and ethical. Stakeholders include employees, investors, shareholders, customers, business partners, clients, civil society groups, Government and non-government organizations, local communities, environment and society at large. Corporate enterprises are expected to conduct their business operations and activities in a socially responsible and sustainable manner at all times.

Some of the drivers pushing business towards CSR include:

1. The shrinking role of government

In the past, governments have relied on legislation and regulation to deliver social and environmental objectives in the business sector. Shrinking government resources, coupled with a distrust of regulations, has led to the exploration of voluntary and non-regulatory initiatives instead.

2. Demands for greater disclosure

There is a growing demand for corporate disclosure from stakeholders, including customers, suppliers, employees, communities, investors, and activist organizations.

3. Increased customer interest

There is evidence that the ethical conduct of companies exerts a growing influence on the purchasing decisions of customers. In a recent survey, more than one in five consumers reported having either rewarded or punished companies based on their perceived social performance.

4. Growing investor pressure

Investors are changing the way they assess companies’ performance, and are making decisions based on criteria that include ethical concerns. The Social Investment Forum reports that in the US in 1999, there was more than $2 trillion worth of assets invested in portfolios that used screens linked to the environment and social responsibility. A survey by revealed that more than a quarter of share-owning Americans took into account ethical considerations when buying and selling stocks. (More on socially responsible investment can be found in the ‘Banking and investment’ section of the site.)

5. Competitive labour markets

Employees are increasingly looking beyond paychecks and benefits, and seeking out employers whose philosophies and operating practices match their own principles. In order to hire and retain skilled employees, companies are being forced to improve working conditions.

6. Supplier relations

As stakeholders are becoming increasingly interested in business affairs, many companies are taking steps to ensure that their partners conduct themselves in a socially responsible manner. Some are introducing codes of conduct for their suppliers, to ensure that other companies’ policies or practices do not tarnish their reputation.

Current Status of CSR In India

CSR is not a new concept in India. Corporates like the Tata Group, the Aditya Birla Group, and Indian Oil Corporation, to name a few, have been involved in serving the community ever since their inception. Many other organizations have been doing their part for the society through donations and charity events. Today, CSR in India has gone beyond merely charity and donations, and is approached in a more organized fashion. It has become an integral part of the corporate strategy. Companies have CSR teams that devise specific policies, strategies and goals for their CSR programs and set aside budgets to support them.

These programs, in many cases, are based on a clearly defined social philosophy or are closely aligned with the companies‟ business expertise. Employees become the backbone of these initiatives and volunteer their time and contribute their skills, to implement them. CSR Programs could range from overall development of a community to supporting specific causes like education, environment, healthcare etc.

Best practices followed by Indian Companies related to CSR are as follows:

ONGC and Indian Oil Corporation has been spending 0.75-1 % of their net profits on CSR activities. In 2007-08 Rs. 246.70 crores was spent by oil PSUs on CSR activities. ONGC‟s CSR projects focus on higher education, grant of scholarship and aid to deserving young pupils of less privileged sections of society, facilities for constructing schools etc.

SAIL has taken successful actions in environment conservation, health and medical care, education, women upliftment providing drinking water.

BHEL & Indian Airlines have been acclaimed for disaster management efforts. BHEL has also adopted 56 villages having nearly 80,000 inhabitants.

Reliance Industries initiated a project named as “ Project- Drishti” to bring back the eyesight of visually challenged Indians from the economically weaker sections of the society. This project has brightened up the lives of over 5000 people so far.

Mahindra & Mahindra launched a unique kind of ESOPs- Employee Social Option in order to enable Mahindra employees to involve themselves in socially responsible activities of their choice.

GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals‟ CSR programs primarily focus on health and healthy living. They work in tribal villages where they provide medical check-up and treatment, health camps and health awareness programs. They also provide money, medicines and equipment to non-profit organizations that work towards improving health and education in under-served communities.

Bajaj Electricals Ltd corporate social responsibility activities include Education, Rural Development & Environment.

Provision of improved medical and sanitation facilities, building schools and houses, and empowering the villagers and in process making them more self-reliant by providing vocational training and a knowledge of business operations are the facilities that these corporations focus on. Many of the companies are helping other peoples by providing them good standard of living.

Also Corporates increasingly join hands with Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and use their expertise in devising programs which address wider social problems.

For example, a lot of work is being undertaken to rebuild the lives of the tsunami affected victims. This is exclusively undertaken by SAP India in partnership with Hope Foundation, an NGO that focuses mainly on bringing about improvement in the lives of the poor and needy. The SAP Labs Center of HOPE in Bangalore was started by this venture which looks after the food, clothing, shelter and medical care of street children.

Mandatory CSR requirements in other Countries:

 1. Saudi Arabia:

 In Saudi Arabia, the Companies are required to pay amounts “equal to 2.5% of income and capital” to the revenue department, which will then distribute the amounts to the needy around the country. Revenues are collected by the Department of Zakat, governmental organization and distributed to needy and poor people across the country. A Zakat payment made of listed companies has to be disclosed and filed with the Capital Market Authority (the Saudi Version of the SEC).

 2. United States:

 The Conglomerate Blog has reported on recent amendments to the Oregon Corporate Code that requires companies to act in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. It says:

“Oregon recently amended its Corporate Code which expressly permit corporations to include in their charter a provision authorizing or directing the corporation to conduct its business “in a manner that is environmentally and socially responsible.” The legislative history of the amendment notes that courts in other jurisdictions have interpreted corporations’ obligation to act in shareholders’ interest to mean that corporations must maximize shareholder profit, even if it results in a corporate failure to act environmentally and socially responsible. Apparently the amendment is designed to counteract this kind of interpretation, and encourage corporations to engage in sustainable behavior.”

 3. China:
Even the recent Company Law of the People’s Republic of China, enacted in 2005, has a set of obligations on companies that amount to corporate social responsibility. For example, Article 17 states:

“A company shall protect the legal rights and interests of its employees, enter into labor contracts with them according to law, take part in social insurance, improve labor protection and make production safe.

A company shall take various measures to improve the professional education and on-the-job training of its employees so as to enhance their quality.”

Salient Features of Companies Bill, 2012 on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

Clause 135:

(1) Every company having net worth of rupees five hundred crore or more, or turnover of rupees one thousand crore or more or a net profit of rupees five crore or more during any financial year shall constitute a Corporate Social Responsibility Committee of the Board consisting of three or more directors, out of which at least one director shall be an independent director.

(2) The Board’s report under sub-section (3) of section 134 shall disclose the composition of the Corporate Social Responsibility Committee.

(3) The Corporate Social Responsibility Committee shall:

(a) Formulate and recommend to the Board, a Corporate Social Responsibility Policy which shall indicate the activities to be undertaken by the company as specified in Schedule VII;

(b) Recommend the amount of expenditure to be incurred on the activities referred to in clause (a); and

(c) Monitor the Corporate Social Responsibility Policy of the company from time to time.

(4) The Board of every company referred to in sub-section (1) shall:

(a) After taking into account the recommendations made by the Corporate Social Responsibility Committee, approve the Corporate Social Responsibility Policy for  the company and disclose contents of such Policy in its report and also place it on the company’s website, if any, in such manner as may be prescribed; and

(b) Ensure that the activities as are included in Corporate Social Responsibility Policy of the company are undertaken by the company.

(5) The Board of every company referred to in sub-section (1), shall ensure that the company spends, in every financial year, at least two per cent of the average net profits  of the company made during the three immediately preceding financial years, in pursuance of its Corporate Social Responsibility Policy: Provided that the company  shall give preference to the local area and areas around it where it operates, for  spending the amount earmarked for Corporate Social Responsibility activities: Provided further that if the company fails to spend such amount, the Board shall, in its report made under clause (o) of sub-section (3) of section 134, specify the reasons for not spending the amount.

Explanation.—for the purposes of this section “average net profit” shall be calculated in accordance with the provisions of section 198.


Activities which may be included by companies in their Corporate Social Responsibility Policies Activities relating to:

(i) Eradicating extreme hunger and poverty;

(ii) Promotion of education;

(iii) Promoting gender equality and empowering women;

(iv) Reducing child mortlity and improving maternal health;

(v) Combating human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, malaria and other diseases;

(vi) Ensuring environmental sustainability;

(vii) Employment enhancing vocational skills;

(viii) Social business projects;

(ix) Contribution to the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund or any other fund set up by the Central Government or the State Governments for socio-economic development and relief and funds for the welfare of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, other backward classes, minorities and women; and

(x) Such other matters as may be prescribed.


Compiled by student of ICAI

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