Analysis of Notifications dated 01.06.2016 related to Companies Act, 2013 in respect of National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) and National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) Which Come Into Force w.e.f. 01st June, 2016
Ministry of Corporate affairs wide Notification 01 June, 2016 constitutes National Company Law Tribunal and National Company Law Appellate Tribunal, and S.J Mukhopadhaya, retd. Judge of Supreme Court joins as the Chairperson of NCLAT while M.M Kumar, Judge (Retd.) joins as the President of NCLT.
With the constitution of the NCLT, the Company Law Board constituted under the Companies Act, 1956 stands dissolved.
Initially, NCLT will have eleven Benches, Two at New Delhi and one each at Ahmedabad, Allahabad, Bengluru, Chandigarh, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabad,Kolkata and Mumbai.
With the constitution of NCLT & NCLAT, Central Government exercise the power conferred by section 1(3) of Companies Act, 2013 notify the following sections of Companies Act, 2013 which come into force w.e.f. 01 June, 2016.
|1||7(7)||Incorporation of Company
Where a company has been incorporated by furnishing any false or incorrect information or representation or by suppressing any material fact or information in any of the documents or declaration filed or made for incorporating of such company or by any fraudulent action, the Tribunal may, on an application made to it, on being satisfied that the situation so warrants,—
a). Pass such orders, as it may think fit for regulation of the management of the company including changes, in its MOA & AOA in the interest of public or in the interest of company and its members.
b). direct that liability of members shall be unlimited
(c) & (d). Removal of Name form ROC and Winding up of Company
e). Pass such other order as it deem fit.
|2||14(1),second proviso||Conversion of Public company into private Company..
Without approval of the Tribunal any alteration having the effect of conversion of a public company into a private company shall not take effect and tribunal shall make such order as it may deem fit.
|14(2)||Every alteration of the articles under this section and a copy of the order of the Tribunal approving the alteration as per sub-section (1) shall be filed with the Registrar, together with a printed copy of the altered articles, within a period of fifteen days in such manner as may be prescribed, who shall register the same.
Rule 33 and form no INC – 27 of the Companies (Incorporation) Rules, 2014
|3||55(3)||Redemption of Preference Shares…
Where a company is not in a position to redeem any preference shares or to pay dividend, if any, on such shares in accordance with the terms of issue, with the consent of the holders of three-fourths in value of such preference shares and with the approval of the Tribunal on a petition made by it in this behalf, issue further redeemable preference shares equal to the amount due, including the dividend thereon, in respect of the unredeemed preference shares, and on the issue of such further redeemable preference shares, the unredeemed preference shares shall be deemed to have been redeemed:
|4||61(1)(b) Proviso||Consolidate and Division of shares
consolidate and divide all or any of its share capital into shares of a larger amount than its existing shares:
Provided that no consolidation and division which results in changes in the voting percentage of shareholders shall take effect unless it is approved by the Tribunal on an application made in the prescribed manner;
|5||62(4)||Conversion of Loans into equity…..
Where any debentures have been issued, or loan has been obtained from any Government by a company and;Government considers it necessary in the public interest so to do, it may, by order, direct that such debentures or loans or any part thereof shall be converted into shares in the company on such terms and conditions as appear to the Government to be reasonable in the circumstances of the case even if terms of the issue of such debentures or the raising of such loans do not include a term for providing for an option for such conversion:Provided that where the terms and conditions of such conversion are not acceptable to the company, it may, within sixty days from the date of communication of such order, appeal to the Tribunal which shall after hearing the company and the Government pass such order as it deems fit.
|62(5)||In determining the terms and conditions of conversion under sub-section (4), the Government shall have due regard to the financial position of the company, the terms of issue of debentures or loans, as the case may be, the rate of interest payable on such Debentures or loans and such other matters as it may consider necessary.|
|62(6)||Where the Government has, by an order made under sub-section (4), directed that any debenture or loan or any part thereof shall be converted into shares in a company and where no appeal has been preferred to the Tribunal under sub-section (4) or;
where such appeal has been dismissed, the memorandum of such company shall, where such order has the effect of increasing the authorised share capital of the company, stand altered and
the Authorised share capital of such company shall stand increased by an amount equal to the amount of the value of shares which such debentures or loans or part thereof has been converted into.
|6||71(9)||Where at any time the debenture trustee comes to a conclusion that the assets of the company are insufficient or are likely to become insufficient to discharge the principal amount as and when it becomes due, the debenture trustee may file a petition before the Tribunal and the Tribunal may, after hearing the company and any other person interested in the matter, by order, impose such restrictions on the incurring of any further liabilities by the company as the Tribunal may consider necessary in the interests of the debenture-holders.|
|71(10)||Where a company fails to redeem the debentures on the date of their maturity or fails to pay interest on the debentures when it is due, the Tribunal may, on the application of any or all of the debenture-holders, or debenture trustee and, after hearing the parties concerned, direct, by order, the company to redeem the debentures forthwith on payment of principal and interest due thereon.|
|71(11)||Default is made in complying of order of Tribunal under this section;
Every officer – Punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine which shall not be less than two lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees, or with both.
|75||Treatment of Deposit before Commencement of this Act,…
Where a company fails to repay the deposit or part thereof or any interest thereon referred to in section 74 within the time specified in sub-section (1) of that section or;
such further time as may be allowed by the Tribunal under sub-section (2) of that section,
and it is proved that the deposits had been accepted with intent to defraud the depositors or for any fraudulent purpose, every officer of the company who was responsible for the acceptance of such deposit shall, without prejudice to the provisions contained in subsection (3) of that section and liability under section 447, be personally responsible, without any limitation of liability, for all or any of the losses or damages that may have been incurred by the depositors.
Section 74(1):- where company accepted any deposit before the commencement of this Act, and the amount of such deposit or part thereof or interest due thereon remains unpaid:
Within 3 month of commencement of this act or payment due file DPT-4 to the ROC and;
Repay within one year from such commencement or from the date on which such payments are due, whichever is earlier.
|7||97||Default in holding of AGM…
If any default is made in holding the Annual General Meeting of a company under section 96, the Tribunal may, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or the articles of the company, on the application of any member of the company, call, or direct the calling of, an annual general meeting of the company and give such ancillary or consequential directions as the Tribunal thinks expedient
|8||98||Impracticable to call a meeting of a company…..
For any reason it is impracticable to call a meeting of a company, other than an Annual General Meeting,
Tribunal may, either suo motu or, on the application of any director or member of the company who would be entitled to vote at the meeting,
Order a meeting of the company to be called, held and conducted in such manner as the Tribunal thinks fit;
Where One member of the company presents in person or by proxy shall be deemed to constitute a meeting.
|9||99||Punishment for Default…
If any default is made in holding a meeting of the company in accordance with section 96 or section 97 or section 98 or in complying with any directions of the Tribunal, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees and in the case of a continuing default, with a further fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such default continues.
|10||119(4)||Refusal to Inspect of Minutes…
(1) Minutes of the proceeding of general meeting or resolutions passed by Postal ballot shall be kept At the Registered Office of the Company and open for inspection during business hours by ant member without charge;
At least two Hours in each business day allowed for inspections
(2) A copy of the same is furnished to member with in 7 days after his request made on payment of such fee as may be prescribed
(3) If company is refused to inspect or furnished the minutes of GM or resolutions of Postal Ballot, the company shall be liable to penalty of Rs 25000/- officer of company who is in default shall be liable to penalty of Rs. 5000/- for each refusal
(4) In the case of any such refusal or default, the Tribunal may, without prejudice to any action being taken under sub-section (3), by order, direct an immediate inspection of the minute-books or direct that the copy required shall forthwith be sent to the person requiring it.
|11||130||Application for re-open of Books of Accounts…..
A company shall not re-open its books of account and not recast its financial statements, unless an application in this regard is made by the Central Government, the Income-tax authorities, the Securities and Exchange Board, any other statutory regulatory body or authority or any person concerned and an order is made by a court of competent jurisdiction or the Tribunal to the effect that—
(i) the relevant earlier accounts were prepared in a fraudulent manner; or
(ii) the affairs of the company were mismanaged during the relevant period, casting a doubt on the reliability of financial statements:
Provided that the court or the Tribunal, as the case may be, shall give notice to the Central Government, the Income-tax authorities, the Securities and Exchange Board or any other statutory regulatory body or authority concerned and shall take into consideration the representations, if any, made by that Government or the authorities, Securities and Exchange Board or the body or authority concerned before passing any order under this section.
|12||131||Revision of Financial Statements…
After obtaining the approval of Tribunal, a company revised its Financial Statements or BOD Report any of the three preceding Financial Year if company think it’s not prepared as per the provision of section 129 and 134 of companies act, 2013 and a copy of order of Tribunal filed with ROC.
Provided further that such revised financial statement or report shall not be prepared or filed more than once in a financial year:
|13||140(4)||Special notice shall be required for a resolution at an annual general meeting appointing as auditor a person other than a retiring auditor, or providing expressly that a retiring auditor shall not be re-appointed,
On receipt of notice of such a resolution, the company shall forthwith send a copy thereof to the retiring auditor.
Where notice is given of such a resolution and the retiring auditor makes with respect thereto representation in writing to the company (not exceeding a reasonable length) and requests its notification to members of the company, the company shall, unless the representation is received by it too late for it to do so send a copy of the representation to every member of the company to whom notice of the meeting is sent, whether before or after the receipt of the representation by the company,
if a copy of the representation is not sent as aforesaid because it was received too late or because of the company’s default, the auditor may require that the representation shall be read out at the meeting:
If the Tribunal is satisfied on an application either of the company Or, of any other aggrieved person that the rights conferred by this sub-section are being abused by the auditor, then, the copy of the representation may not be sent and the representation need not be read out at the meeting.
|140(5)||Tribunal either suo motu or on an application made to it by the Central government or by any person concerned, if it is satisfied that the auditor of a company has, whether directly or indirectly, acted in a fraudulent manner or abetted or colluded in any fraud by, or in relation to, the company or its directors or officers, it may, by order, direct the company to change its auditors:|
|14||169(4)||Removal of Directors…
A resolution to remove a director under this section and the director concerned makes with respect thereto representation in writing to the company and requests its notification to members of the company, the company shall, if the
time permits it to do so,—
(a) in any notice of the resolution given to members of the company, state the fact of the representation having been made; and
(b) send a copy of the representation to every member of the company to whom notice of the meeting is and;
If a copy of the representation is not sent as aforesaid due to insufficient time or for the company’s default, the director may without prejudice to his right to be heard orally require that the representation shall be read out at the meeting
Provided that copy of the representation need not be sent out and the representation need not be read out at the meeting if, on the application either of the company or of any other person who claims to be aggrieved, the Tribunal is satisfied that the rights conferred by this sub-section are being abused to secure needless publicity for defamatory matter; and the Tribunal may order the company’s costs on the application to be paid in whole or in part
by the director notwithstanding that he is not a party to it
|15||213||Investigation in the affairs of the Company and appointment of Inspector to investigate into the affairs of the company;
The Tribunal may,
(a) on an application made by;
(i) not less than one hundred members or members holding not less than one-tenth of the total voting power, in the case of a company having a share capital; or
(ii) not less than one-fifth of the persons on the company’s register of members, in the case of a company having no share capital,
(b) on an application made to it by any other person or otherwise, if it is satisfied that there are circumstances suggesting that;
(i) the business of the company is being conducted with intent to defraud its creditors, members or unlawful purpose, or in a manner oppressive to any of its members or that the company was formed for any fraudulent or unlawful purpose;
(ii) persons concerned in the formation of the company or the management of its affairs have in connection therewith been guilty of fraud, misfeasance or other misconduct towards the company or towards any of its members; or
(iii) the members of the company have not been given all the information with respect to its affairs which they might reasonably expect, including information relating to the calculation of the commission payable to a managing or other director, or the manager, of the company,
|16||216(2)||Appointment of Inspector by CG to investigate and report on matter relating to membership; that is
(a) who are or have been financially interested in the success or failure, whether real or apparent, of the company; or
(c) Who are or have been able to control or to materially influence the policy of the company.
The Central Government shall appoint one or more inspectors under that sub-section, if the Tribunal, in the course of any proceeding before it, directs by an order that the affairs of the company ought to be investigated as regards the membership of the company and other matters relating to the company, for the purposes specified above.
|17||221||Where it appears to the Tribunal, on a reference made to it by the Central Government or in connection with any inquiry or investigation into the affairs of a company under this Chapter or on any complaint made by such number of members as specified under sub-section (1) of section 244 or a creditor having one lakh amount outstanding against the company or any other person having a reasonable ground to believe that;
The removal, transfer or disposal of funds, assets, properties of the company is likely to take place in a manner that is prejudicial to the interests of the company or its shareholders or creditors or
in public interest, it may by order direct that such transfer, removal or disposal shall not take place during such period not exceeding three years as may be specified in the order or may
take place subject to such conditions and restrictions as the Tribunal may deem fit.
In case of any removal, transfer or disposal of funds, assets, or properties of the company in contravention of the order of the Tribunal under sub-section (1), the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees, or with both.
|18||224(5)||Where the report made by an inspector states that fraud has taken place in a company and due to such fraud any director, key managerial personnel, other officer of the company or any other person or entity, has taken undue advantage or benefit, whether in the form of any asset, property or cash or in any other manner, the Central Government may file an application before the Tribunal for appropriate orders with regard to disgorgement of such asset, property, or cash, as the case may be, and also for holding such director, key managerial personnel, officer or other person liable personally without any limitation of liability.|
|19||241||Application to Tribunal for relief in cases of oppression….
Any member who complaints that;
The affairs of the company conducted in a manner that is prejudicial to public interest or;
Any material changes, that is not in the interest of the any Creditor, including debenture holder or any class of shareholder of the company
May apply to the Tribunal, provided such member has a right to apply under section 244, for an order under this Chapter.
The Central Government, if it is of the opinion that the affairs of the company are being conducted in a manner prejudicial to public interest, it may itself apply to the Tribunal for an order under this Chapter.
|20||242||If, on any application made under section 241, the Tribunal is of the opinion
(a) The affairs of the company conducted in a manner that is prejudicial to public interest; and
(b) that to wind up the company would unfairly prejudice such member or members, but that otherwise the facts would justify the making of a winding-up order on the ground that it was just and equitable that the company should be
The Tribunal may, with a view to bringing to an end the matters complained of, make such order as it thinks fit
|21||415||In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President or the Chairperson by reason of his death, resignation or otherwise, the senior-most Member shall act as the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be, until the date on which a new President or Chairperson appointed in accordance with the provisions of this Act to fill such vacancy enters upon his office.
When the President or the Chairperson is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the senior-most Member shall discharge the functions of the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be, until the date on which the President or the Chairperson resumes his duties
|22||416||The President, the Chairperson or any Member may, by notice in writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government, resign from his office:
Provided that the President, the Chairperson, or the Member shall continue to hold office until the expiry of three months from the date of receipt of such notice by the Central Government or until a person duly appointed as his successor enters upon his office or until the expiry of his term of office, whichever is earliest
|23||417||Removal of Members…..
Central Government may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, remove from office the President, Chairperson or any Member;
An inquiry shall be made by a Judge of the Supreme Court nominated by the Chief Justice of India on a reference made to him by the Central Government in which such President, the Chairperson or Member had been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
|24||418||Staff of Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal.
CG Consultation with the tribunal …..
|25||419||Benches of Tribunal|
|420||Order of Tribunal|
|421||Appeal from order of Tribunal
Any person aggrieved by an order of the Tribunal may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal within a period of forty-five days from the date on which a copy of the order of the Tribunal is made available to the person aggrieved and shall be in such form, and accompanied by such fees, as may be prescribed:
|422||Expeditious disposal by Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal.
Every application or petition presented before the Tribunal and every appeal filed before the Appellate Tribunal shall be dealt with and disposed of by it as expeditiously as possible and every endeavour shall be made by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be, for the disposal of such application or petition or appeal within three months from the date of its presentation before the Tribunal or the filing of the appeal before the Appellate Tribunal.
Where any application or petition or appeal is not disposed of within the period specified in sub-section (1), the Tribunal or, as the case may be, the Appellate Tribunal, shall record the reasons for not disposing of the application or petition or the appeal, as the case may be, within the period so specified; and the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be, may, after taking into account the reasons so recorded, extend the period referred to in sub-section (1) by such period not exceeding ninety days as he may consider necessary.
|423||Appeal to SC
Any person aggrieved by any order of the Appellate Tribunal may file an appeal to the Supreme Court within sixty days from the date of receipt of the order of the Appellate Tribunal to him on any question of law arising out of such order
|426||Delegation of powers.|
|427||President, Members, officers, etc., to be public servants.|
|430||Civil court not to have jurisdiction.
No civil court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal is empowered to determine by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force and no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force, by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal.
|431||Vacancy in Tribunal or Appellate Tribunal not to invalidate acts or Proceedings.|
|432||Right to legal representation
Party to any proceeding or appeal before the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be, may either appear in person or authorise one or more chartered accountants or company secretaries or cost accountants or legal practitioners or any other person to present his case before the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be.
|433||The provisions of the Limitation Act, 1963 shall, as far as may be, apply to proceedings or appeals before the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be.|
|26||441||Compounding of certain offences|
Notification Related to NCLT & NCALT Dated 01.06.2016
|S. No.||Title||Notification No.||Date|
|1||Vacation & Emergency Hearing in NCLT||File No. 10/03/2016-NCLT||03/06/2016|
|2||List of 29 Company Law Provisions effective from 01.06.2016||S.O. 1934(E)||01/06/2016|
|3||Govt constitutes Benches of National Company Law Tribunal||S.O. 1935(E)||01/06/2016|
|4||Govt constitutes NCLAT for hearing appeals against orders of NCLT||S.O. 1933 (E)||01/06/2016|
|5||NCLT to exercise & discharge powers & functions under Companies Act 2013||S.O. 1932(E)||01/06/2016|