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For financial institutions, controlling credit risk has become essential in the constantly changing financial landscape. Accounting rules underwent major adjustments as a result of the global financial crisis, which highlighted the significance of strong risk management procedures. The implementation of the Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model under Ind AS 109 is one such modification. This model, which aims to provide a more forward-looking approach to credit risk assessment, marks a paradigm shift from the previous incurred loss model. This blog post explores the meaning of ECL, how important it is, and how different financial products might use ECL.

In the ever-evolving financial landscape, managing credit risk has become a critical component for financial institutions. The global financial crisis underscored the importance of robust risk management practices, leading to significant changes in accounting standards. One such change is the introduction of the Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model under Ind AS 109. This model represents a paradigm shift from the previous incurred loss model, aiming to provide a more forward-looking approach to credit risk assessment. This article delves into the concept of ECL, its importance, and the recognition of ECL for various financial instruments.

What is Expected Credit Loss (ECL)?

Expected Credit Loss (ECL) is a concept introduced under Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments, which requires entities to recognize the expected credit losses on financial assets, loan commitments, and financial guarantee contracts at each reporting date. Unlike the incurred loss model, which recognizes credit losses only when a default occurs, the ECL model emphasizes timely recognition of potential losses, thereby enhancing the reliability of financial statements.

Importance of ECL

The ECL model’s importance lies in its proactive approach to credit risk management. By recognizing potential credit losses early, Companies & financial institutions can take pre-emptive measures to mitigate risks, ensuring greater stability and transparency in financial reporting. This forward-looking approach also aligns with the regulatory requirements aimed at maintaining the soundness of the financial system.

Recognition of ECL for Various Financial Instruments

Ind AS 109 requires the recognition of ECL for a wide range of financial instruments. Here’s a breakdown of how ECL is recognized for different types:

1. Financial Assets at Amortized Cost and Fair Value Through Other Comprehensive Income (FVOCI): For these assets, ECL is recognized using a three-stage approach:

  • Stage 1: At initial recognition, a 12-month ECL is recognized, representing the portion of lifetime ECLs that result from default events possible within the next 12 months.
  • Stage 2: If credit risk increases significantly but no default event occurs, a lifetime ECL is recognized. This stage represents a deterioration in credit quality.
  • Stage 3: When a financial asset is credit-impaired, a lifetime ECL is recognized, and interest revenue is calculated on the net carrying amount (gross carrying amount less ECL allowance).

2. Loan Commitments and Financial Guarantee Contracts: For loan commitments, ECL is recognized based on the stage of the associated financial asset. If the loan commitment is drawn down, the ECL is calculated as if it were a financial asset. For financial guarantee contracts, ECL is recognized similarly to financial assets, considering the likelihood of default on the guaranteed amount.

3. Trade Receivables and Lease Receivables: For trade receivables and lease receivables, entities can use a simplified approach. Under this approach, a lifetime ECL is recognized from the date of initial recognition without tracking changes in credit risk. This approach simplifies the process and ensures timely recognition of credit losses.

Practical Application and Challenges in Implementing ECL model

Implementing the ECL model involves several practical challenges, including:

  • Data Requirements: Accurate estimation of ECL requires extensive historical data, current conditions, and forward-looking information. Gathering and analyzing this data can be resource-intensive.
  • Modeling Techniques: Developing robust ECL models necessitates sophisticated statistical and economic techniques. Institutions need to invest in advanced analytics and modeling capabilities.
  • Judgment and Assumptions: The ECL model relies on management judgment and assumptions about future economic conditions, which introduces a degree of subjectivity and potential variability.


The Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model under Ind AS 109 marks a significant advancement in credit risk management. By shifting from an incurred loss to a forward-looking approach, the ECL model enhances the timeliness and accuracy of credit loss recognition. This proactive framework not only aligns with global regulatory standards but also bolsters the financial stability and transparency of institutions. While implementing the ECL model presents challenges, the benefits of early risk recognition and mitigation far outweigh the complexities. As financial institutions continue to adapt to this model, the overarching goal remains clear: to safeguard the integrity and resilience of the financial system.


SATISH L GUPTA & CO is an independent firm of Business Advisors and Chartered Accountants founded in the year 2005 in New Delhi offering wide range of services including Audit, Accounting, Tax and Regulatory, Business and Transaction Advisory and Corporate Law.

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June 2024