Clubbing of income means Income of other person included in assessee’s total income, for example: Income of husband which is shown to be the income of his wife is clubbed in the income of Husband and is taxable in the hands of the husband. Under the Income Tax Act a person has to pay taxes on his income.

A person cannot transfer his income or an asset which is his one of source of his income to some other person or in other words we can say that a person cannot divert his income to any other person and says that it is not his income. If he do so the income shown to be earned by any other person is included in the assessee’s total income and the assessee has to pay tax on it.

SECTIONNATURE OF TRANSACTIONCLUBBED IN THE
HANDS OF
CONDITIONS/

EXCEPTIONS

RELEVANT REFERENCE
60Transfer of Income without transfer of Assets.Transferor who transfers the income.Irrespective of:
1. Whether such transfer is revocable or not. 2. Whether the transfer is effected before or after the commencement of IT Act.
1. Income for the purpose of Section 64 includes losses.     [P. Doriswamy Chetty 183 ITR 559 (SC)] [also see Expl. (2) to Section 64]

2. Section 60 does not apply
if corpus itself is transferred.
[Grandhi Narayana Rao 173
ITR 593 (AP)]

61Revocable transfer of Assets.Transferor who transfers the Assets.Clubbing not applicable if: 1. Trust/transfer irrevocable during the lifetime of beneficiaries/transferee or2. Transfer made prior to 1-4-1961 and not revocable for a period of 6 years.Provided the transferor derives no direct or indirect benefit from such income in either case.Transfer held as revocable

1. If there is provision to re-transfer directly or indirectly whole/part of income/asset to transferor;

2. If there is a right to reassume power, directly or indirectly, the transfer is held revocable and actual exercise is not necessary.
[S. Raghbir Singh 57 ITR 408 (SC)]

3. Where no absolute right is
given to transferee and asset
can revert to transferor in
prescribed circumstances,
transfer is held revocable.
[Jyotendrasinhji vs. S. I.
Tripathi 201 ITR 611 (SC)]

64(1)(ii)Salary, Commission, Fees or remuneration paid to spouse from a concern in which an individual has a substantial* interest.Spouse whose total income (excluding income to be clubbed) is greater.Clubbing not applicable if:Spouse possesses technical or professional qualification and remuneration is solely attributable to application of that knowledge/qualification.1. The relationship of husband and wife must subsist at the time of accrual of the income. [Philip John Plasket Thomas 49 ITR 97 (SC)]

2. Income other than salary,
commission, fees or remune-
ration is not clubbed under
this clause

64(1)(iv)Income from assets transferred directly or indirectly to the spouse without adequate consideration.Individual transferring the asset.Clubbing not applicable if, The assets are transferred;

1. With an agreement to live apart.

2. Before marriage.

3. Income earned when relation does not exist.

4. By Karta of HUF gifting co-parcenary property to his wife.
L. Hirday Narain vs. ITO 78 ITR 26 (SC)

5. Property acquired out of pin money. [R.B.N.J. Naidu vs. CIT
29 ITR 194 (Nag.)]

1. Income earned out of Income arising from transferred assets not liable for clubbed.
[M.S.S. Rajan 252 ITR 126 (Mad)]2. Cash gifted to spouse and
he/she invests to earn
interest. [Mohini Thaper vs.
CIT 83 ITR 208 (SC)]

3. Capital gain on sale of
property which was received
without consideration from
spouse [Sevential M. Sheth
vs. CIT 68 ITR 503 (SC)]

4. Transaction must be real.
[O.N. Mohindroo 99 ITR 583
(Delhi)]

64(1)(vi)Income from the assets transferred to son’s wife.Individual transferring the Asset.Condition:
The transfer should be without adequate consideration.
Cross transfers are also covered
[C.M.Kothari 49 ITR 107 (SC)]
64(1)(vii),(viii)Transfer of assets by an individual to a person or AOP for the immediate or deferred benefit of his:
(vii) – Spouse.
(viii) – Son’s wife.
Individual transferring the Asset.Condition:

1. The transfer should be without adequate consideration.

1. Transferor need not necessarily have taxable
income of his own. [P. Murugesan 245 ITR 301
(Mad)]2. Wife means legally wedded
wife. [Executors of the will of
T.V. Krishna Iyer 38 ITR 144
(Ker)]
64(1A)Income of a minor child [Child includes step child, adopted child and minor married daughter].1. If the marriage subsists, in the hands of the parent whose total income is greater; or;

2. If the marriage does not subsist, in the hands of the person who maintains the minor child.

3. Income once included in the total income of either of parents, it shall continue to be included in the hands of some parent in the subsequent year unless AO is satisfied that it is necessary to do so (after giving that parent opportunity of being heard)

Clubbing not applicable for:—

1. Income of a minor child suffering any disability specified u/s. 80U.

2. Income on account of manual work done by the minor child.

3. Income on account of any activity involving application of skills, talent or specialized knowledge and experience.

1. Income out of property transferred for no consideration to a minor
married daughter, shall not
be clubbed in the parents’
hands. [Section 27]2. The parent in whose hands
the minor’s income is
clubbed is entitled to an
exemption up to Rs. 1,500
per child. [Section 10(32)]
64(2)Income of HUF from property converted by the individual into HUF property.Income is included in the hands of individual & not in the hands of HUF.Clubbing applicable even if:
The converted property is subsequently partitioned; income derived by the spouse from such converted property
will be taxable in the hands
of individual.
Fiction under this section must
be extended to computation of
income also. [M.K. Kuppuraj
127 ITR 447 (Mad)]

* An individual shall deemed to have substantial interest in a concern for the purpose of Section 64(1)(ii)

IF THE CONCERN IS A COMPANYIF THE CONCERN IS OTHER THAN A COMPANY
Person’s beneficial shareholding should not be less than 20% of voting power either individually or jointly with relatives at any time during the Previous Year. (Shares with fixed rate of dividend shall not be considered)Person either himself or jointly with his relatives is entitled in aggregate to not less than 20% of the profits of such concern, at any time during the previous year.

Note :The clubbed income retains the same head under which it is earned.

FAQs on Clubbing of Income

What is the meaning of clubbing of income?

Normally, a person is taxed in respect of income earned by him only. However, in certain special cases income of other person is included (i.e. clubbed) in the taxable income of the taxpayer and in such a case he will be liable to pay tax in respect of his income (if any) as well as income of other person too. The situation in which income of other person is included in the income of the taxpayer is called as clubbing of income. E.g., Income of minor child is clubbed with the income of his/her parent. Section 60 to 64 give various provisions relating to clubbing of income.

Do any clubbing provisions exist in case of transfer of income without transfer of asset?

As per section 60 , if a person transfers income from an asset owned by him without transferring the asset from which the income is generated, then the income from such an asset is taxed in the hands of the transferor (i.e., person transferring the income).

E.g., Mr. Raj has given a bungalow owned by him on rent.  Annual rent of the bungalow is Rs. 84,000. He transferred entire rental income to his friend Mr. Kumar. However, he did not transfer the bungalow. In this situation, rent of Rs. 84,000 will be taxed in the hands of Mr. Raj.

Do any clubbing provisions exist in case of a revocable transfer?

Revocable transfer is generally a transfer in which the transferor directly or indirectly exercises control/right over the asset transferred or over the income from the asset.

As per section 61, if a transfer is held to be a revocable, then income from the asset covered under revocable transfer is taxed in the hands of the transferor. The provisions of section 61 will not apply in case of a transfer by way of trust which is not revocable during the life time of the beneficiary or a transfer which is not revocable during the lifetime of the transferee.

Can remuneration received by spouse of an individual be clubbed with his/her income?

Under certain circumstances as given in section 64(1)(ii), remuneration (i.e., salary) received by the spouse of an individual from a concern in which the individual is having substantial interest is clubbed with the income of the individual. Provisions in this regard are as follows:

– The individual is having substantial interest in a concern (*).

– Spouse of the individual is employed in the concern in which the individual is having substantial interest.

– The spouse of the individual is employed without any technical or professional knowledge or experience (i.e., remuneration is not justifiable).

(*) An individual shall be deemed to have substantial interest in any concern, if such individual alone or along with his relatives beneficially

holds at any time during the previous year 20% or more of the equity shares(in case of a company) or is entitled to 20% of profit (in case of concern other than a company).

Relative for this purpose includes husband, wife, brother or sister or lineal ascendant or descendent of that individual [ section 2(41)].

Illustration for better understanding

Mr. Raja is beneficially holding 21% equity shares of Essem Minerals Pvt. Ltd. Mrs. Raja is employed as Manager (in accounts department) in Essem Minerals Pvt. Ltd. at a monthly salary of Rs. 84,000. Mrs. Raja is not having any knowledge, experience or qualification in the field of accountancy. Will the remuneration (i.e., salary) received by Mrs. Raja be clubbed with the income of Mr. Raja?

**

In this situation, Mr. Raja is having substantial interest in Essem Minerals Pvt. Ltd. and remuneration of Mrs. Raja is not justifiable (i.e., she is employed without any technical or professional knowledge or experience) and, hence, salary received by Mrs. Raja from Essem Minerals Pvt. Ltd. will be clubbed with the income of Mr. Raja and will be taxed in the hands of Mr. Raja.

Illustration for better understanding

Mrs. Kumar is beneficially holding 25% equity shares of SM Construction Pvt. Ltd. Mr. Kumar is an architect and he is employed as site observer of one of the construction sites of the company at a monthly salary of Rs. 28,400. The remuneration received by Mr. Kumar is justifiable considering his knowledge, experience and qualification. Will the remuneration received by Mr. Kumar be clubbed with the income of Mrs. Kumar because she is having substantial interest in SM Construction Pvt. Ltd.?

**

In this situation, Mrs. Kumar is having substantial interest in SM Construction Pvt. Ltd., but Mr. Kumar is deputed on the basis of his knowledge, experience and qualification and, hence, remuneration paid to him is justifiable. The clubbing provisions of section 64(1)(ii) apply only in a case where spouse is deputed without any technical or professional knowledge or experience. In this case, the remuneration of spouse is justifiable, hence, salary received by Mr. Kumar will not be clubbed with the income of Mrs. Kumar but will be taxed at in his hands.

Can income from assets transferred to spouse without adequate consideration be clubbed with the income of transferor-spouse?

As per section 64(1)(iv), if an individual transfers (directly or indirectly) his/her asset (other than house property) to his or her spouse otherwise than for adequate consideration, then income from such asset will be clubbed with the income of the individual (i.e.,transferor). Income from transfer of house property without adequate consideration will also attract clubbing provisions, however, in such a case clubbing will be done as per section 27 and not under section 64(1)(iv). The clubbing provisions of section 64(1)(iv) will apply even if the form of asset is changed by the transferee-spouse. There are certain situations in which the clubbing provisions of section 64(1)(iv) are not applicable (refer next FAQ for these situations).

Illustration for better understanding

Mr. Soham holds 8,400 debentures of Shyamal Minerals Ltd. He gifted these debentures to his wife. Will the income from debentures be clubbed with the income of Mr. Soham?

**

In this situation, the debentures are transferred to spouse. Transfer is via gift (i.e., without any consideration) and, hence, income generated from the transferred asset, i.e., interest on such debentures will be clubbed with the income of Mr. Soham.

Illustration for better understanding

Mr. Kapoor gifted Rs. 8,40,000 to his wife. The said amount is invested by his wife in debenture of a company. Will the income from the debenture purchased by Mrs. Kapoor from gifted money be clubbed with the income of Mr. Kapoor?

**

Rs. 8,40,000 is transferred to spouse. Fund is transferred via gift (i.e., without adequate consideration) and, hence, the provisions of section 64(1)(iv) will be attracted. The provisions of clubbing will apply even if the form of asset is changed by the transferee-spouse.

In this case asset transferred is money and, subsequently, the form of asset is changed to debentures, hence, income formfrom debentures acquired from money gifted by her husband will be clubbed with the income of her husband. Thus, interest on debenture received by Mrs. Kapoor will be clubbed with the income of Mr. Kapoor.

Illustration for better understanding

Mr. Kapoor gifted Rs. 8,40,000 to his wife and she started garments business from the said money. Will the income earned by Mrs. Kapoor from garments business be clubbed in the income of Mr. Kapoor?

**

The clubbing provisions of section 64(1)(iv) will apply even if the form of asset is changed by the transferee spouse. In this case, gifted money is invested in business (i.e., form of asset is changed) and hence profit from the business attributable to the gifted funds (computed on the basis of the funds invested in the business on the first day of the relevant year) will be clubbed in the income of Mr. Kapoor.

Are there any situations in which the clubbing provisions do not apply in case of income from assets transferred to spouse?

The clubbing provisions of section 64(1)(vi) are not applicable in the following situations:
· If the transfer of asset is for adequate consideration;
· If the transfer of asset is in connection with an agreement to live apart;
· If the asset is transferred before marriage, no income will be clubbed even after marriage, since the relation of husband and wife should exist both at the time of transfer of asset and at the time of accrual of income;
· If on the date of accrual of income, transferee is not spouse of the transferor (i.e. the relation of husband and wife does not exist).

Can income from assets transferred to son’s wife without adequate consideration be clubbed with the income of transferor, i.e., father-in-law/mother-in-law? 

As per section 64(1)(vi), if an individual transfers (directly or indirectly) his/her asset to his/ her son’s wife otherwise than for adequate consideration, then income from such asset will be clubbed with the income of the individual (i.e., transferor being father-in-law/mother-in-law). The provisions of clubbing will apply even if the form of asset is changed by the transferee-daughter-in-law.

If the asset is transferred before marriage of son, no income will be clubbed even after marriage, since the relation of father-in-law/mother-in-law and daughter-in-law should exist both at the time of transfer of asset and at the time of accrual of income.

If on the date of accrual of income, the relation of father-in-law/mother-in-law and daughter-in-law does not exist, then the provisions of clubbing will not apply.

Can income from assets transferred to any person for the benefit of spouse or for the benefit of son’s wife without adequate consideration be clubbed with the income of transferor?

As per section 64(1)(vii), if an individual transfers (directly or indirectly) his/her asset otherwise than for adequate consideration to a person or an association of persons for the immediate or deferred benefit of his/her spouse, then income arising from the asset so transferred will be clubbed with his income and will be charged to tax in his hands.
As per section 64(1)(viii) , if any individual transfers (directly or indirectly) his/her asset otherwise than for adequate consideration to a person or an association of persons for the immediate or deferred benefit of his/her son’s wife, then income arising from the asset so transferred will be clubbed with his income and will be charged to tax in his hands.

Is minor child’s income clubbed with the income of parent?

As per section 64(1A) , income of minor child is clubbed with the income of his/her parent (*). Income of minor child earned on account of manual work or income from the skill, knowledge, talent, experience, etc., of minor child will not be clubbed with the income of his/her parent. However, accretion from such income will be clubbed with the income of parent of such minor.

Income of minor will be clubbed along with the income of parent whose income excluding minor’s income is higher.

If the marriage of parents does not sustain, then minor’s income will be clubbed with the income of parent who maintains the minor.

The taxpayer can claim an exemption under section 10(32)) lower of Rs. 1,500 or income of minor so clubbed.

(*) Provisions of section 64(1A) will not apply to any income of a minor child suffering from disability specified under section 80U. In other words income of a minor suffering from disability specified under section 80U will not be clubbed with the income of his/her parent.

Illustration for better understanding

Mr. Raja has two minor children, viz., Master A and Master B. Master A is a child artist and Master B is suffering from diseases specified under section 80U. Income of A and B are as follows:

  • Income of A from stage shows: Rs. 1,00,000
  • Income of A from bank interest: Rs. 6,000
  • Income of B from bank interest: Rs. 1,20,000.

Will the income of minor children be clubbed with the income of their parent (Mrs. Raja is not having any income)?

**

As per section 64(1A) , income of minor children is clubbed along with the income of parent whose income excluding minor’s income is higher. In this case, Mrs. Raja is not having any income and, hence, if any income is to be clubbed then it will be clubbed with the income of Mr. Raja.

Income of minor child earned on account of manual work or income from the skill, knowledge, talent, experience, etc., of minor child will not be clubbed with the income of his/her parent. Thus, income of A from stage show will not be clubbed with the income of Mr. Raja but income of A from bank interest of Rs. 6,000 will be clubbed with the income of Mr. Raja.

Income of a minor suffering from disability specified under section 80U will not be clubbed with the income of his/her parent. Hence, any income of B will not be clubbed with the income of Mr. Raja.

The taxpayer can claim an exemption under section 10(32) of lower of Rs. 1,500 or income of minor so clubbed. Thus, in respect of interest income of Rs. 6,000 clubbed in the income of Mr. Raja, he will be entitled to claim exemption of Rs. 1,500 under section 10(32), hence, net income to be clubbed will be Rs. 4,500 (i.e., Rs. 6,000 – Rs. 1,500).

Will any clubbing provision apply in case of transfer of asset to Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) by its member?

As per section 64(2) , when an individual, being a member of HUF, transfers his property to the HUF otherwise than for adequate consideration or converts his property into the property belonging to the HUF (it is done by impressing such property with the character of joint family property or throwing such property into the common stock of the family), then clubbing provisions will apply as follows:
· Before partition of the HUF, entire income from such property will be clubbed with the income of transferor.
· After partition of the HUF, such property is distributed amongst the members of the family. In such a case income derived from such property by the spouse of the transferor will be clubbed with the income of the individual and will be charged to tax in his hands.

What are the general points to be kept in mind while applying clubbing provisions of sections 60 to 64?

While applying the provisions of sections 60 to 64, following points should be kept in mind:
· All the clubbing provisions given in sections 60 to 64 are not applicable to second generation income, i.e., income arising from accretion to the transferred assets.
E.g., Mr. Raja gifted Rs. 1,00,000 to his wife, she purchased debentures from the gifted money and earned interest of Rs. 10,000. Now in this situation, Rs. 10,000 will be taxed in the hands of Mr. Raja. If Mrs. Raja purchased bonds worth Rs. 10,000 from the aforesaid interest income and earned Rs. 1,200 as interest on these bonds, then such interest on bonds being second generation income will not be clubbed with the income of Mr. Raja.
· Under section 64, not only income (i.e. positive), but negative income (i.e. loss) is also clubbed.
E.g. Mr. Kumar transferred Rs. 84,000 to his wife. From the said amount his wife started a business and suffered a loss of Rs. 2,520. In this situation, loss of Rs. 2,520 will be clubbed with the income of Mr. Kumar, and accordingly, Mr. Kumar can adjust such loss from his income.
· Income will be clubbed under the same head of income as if such income would have been charged to tax if the clubbing provisions would have not been applied. In other words, first, the income to be clubbed is to be computed in the hands of the receiver of income under the respective head (i.e., the head of income depending upon the nature of income). Then, the income so computed will be taxed (i.e., clubbed) in the income of respective person under the same head of income.
(Compiled by Taxguru team and Republished  after amending with amendments subsequent to last publication)
Source- of FAQ – incometaxindia.gov.in

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