CA Goutam Jain
How to avoid tax of same income in two Country i.e. Country of Resident of Person and Country of Source of Income–
In the era of greater connectivity across globe there is significant movement of manpower from one country to another and this lead to the arisen of tax issues of income earned in more than one country in single financial year.
Let say Mr. X citizen/resident of US comes India for short span employment or to provide contractual service? Will his income earned in India and US be taxable in india OR US?
Generally resident country i.e. country where person is citizen or resident, collect tax on his global income but what if he becomes resident of both US and India as per domestic tax law of US & India.
Domestic tax laws of respective country have clause of taxing income arisen from their country by non-resident / non citizen OR it may happen that person become resident of other Country on stays of certain period of time as per its domestic tax law and his income become taxable in that country too.
Section 9 of the Indian Income Tax Act tax income arises in India OR source of income is in India. Further if he stay in India for more than 182 days than he become resident of India and his entire, both of US & Indian income become taxable in India.
How to avoid this double taxation of same income in two different country?
In order to provide tax relief to avoid double taxation, various countries have entered into Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (Tax Treaty).
Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (Tax Treaty) deals with issues where person same income being tax in two or more country as per their domestic tax laws.
For that first Mr. X first will have to find out where he is Resident for paying tax as per Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (Tax Treaty)?
Once he determined his residence country. Accordingly, Mr X would need to obtain a TRC from country of resident.
There may be a possibility that Mr. X becoming a resident in both the countries as per domestic law of respective country i.e. India & US. In such a situation a taxpayer may have to run through detailed tests provided in the Tax Treaty to break the tie of residency in favour of the other country.
Let say Mr X as per rules of Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (Tax Treaty) becomes tax residence of US.
He will show this TRC to Indian tax authorities & either get income exempt from tax in India OR will get credit of tax paid in india from his US tax liability.
(Author is Partner of G Y & Company -B-101, Purav Heights, Mugbhat Lane , Girgoan , Mumbai-04 )