CBDT has released the synthesised text for India-Poland tax treaty. It represents their shared understanding of the modifications made to the Agreement by MLI.

SYNTHESISED TEXT OF THE MLI AND THE CONVENTION BETWEEN
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN
IRELAND AND THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF
DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION
WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND ON CAPITAL GAINS

This document was prepared in consultation with the competent authority of Poland
and represents our shared understanding of the modifications made to the Convention by the MLI.

This document presents the synthesised text for the application of the Convention between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Republic of Poland for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital Gains signed on 20 July 2006 (the “Convention”), as modified by the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting signed by the United Kingdom and Poland on 7 June 2017 (the “MLI”).

The document was prepared on the basis of the MLI position of the United Kingdom submitted to the Depositary upon ratification on 29 June 2018 and of the MLI position of Poland submitted to the Depositary upon ratification on 23 January 2018. These MLI positions are subject to modifications as provided in the MLI. Modifications made to MLI positions could modify the effects of the MLI on the Convention.

The authentic legal texts of the Convention and the MLI take precedence and remain the legal texts applicable.

The provisions of the MLI that are applicable with respect to the provisions of the Convention are included in boxes throughout the text of this document in the context of the relevant provisions of the Convention. The boxes containing the provisions of the MLI have generally been inserted in accordance with the ordering of the provisions of the 2017 OECD Model Tax Convention.

Changes to the text of the provisions of the MLI have been made to conform the terminology used in the MLI to the terminology used in the Convention (such as “Covered Tax Agreement” and “Convention”, “Contracting Jurisdictions” and “Contracting States”), to ease the comprehension of the provisions of the MLI. The changes in terminology are intended to increase the readability of the document and are not intended to change the substance of the provisions of the MLI. Similarly, changes have been made to parts of provisions of the MLI that describe existing provisions of the Convention: descriptive language has been replaced by legal references of the existing provisions to ease the readability.

In all cases, references made to the provisions of the Convention or to the Convention must be understood as referring to the Convention as modified by the provisions of the MLI, provided such provisions of the MLI have taken effect.

References

The authentic legal texts of the MLI and the Convention can be found at the following links:

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/3323/pdfs/uksi_20063323_en.pdf

http://www.oecd.org/tax/treaties/multilateral-convention-to-implement-tax-treaty-relatedmeasures-to-prevent-BEPS.pdf

The MLI position of the United Kingdom submitted to the Depositary upon ratification on 29 June 2018 and of the MLI position of Poland submitted to the Depositary upon ratification on 23 January 2018 can be found on the MLI Depositary (OECD) webpage.

The provisions of the MLI applicable to the Convention do not take effect on the same dates as the original provisions of the Convention. Each of provisions of the MLI could take effect on different dates, depending on the types of taxes involved (taxes withheld at source or other taxes levied) and on the choices made by the United Kingdom and Poland in their MLI positions.

Dates of the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval: 29 June 2018 for the United Kingdom and 23 January 2018 for Poland.

Entry into force of the MLI: 1 October 2018 for the United Kingdom and 1 July 2018 for Poland.

Unless it is stated otherwise elsewhere in this document, the provisions of the MLI have effect with respect to the Convention:

  • In the United Kingdom and Poland, for taxes withheld at source, from 1 January 2019;
  • In the United Kingdom, from 1 April 2019 for corporation tax and from 6 April 2019 for income tax and capital gains tax; and
  • In Poland, for other taxes for taxable periods beginning on or after 1 April 2019.

CONVENTION BETWEEN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
AND NORTHERN IRELAND AND THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND FOR THE
AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF
FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND ON
CAPITAL GAINS

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Republic of Poland;

[REPLACED by paragraph 1 of Article 6 of the MLI] [Desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and on capital gains;]

The following paragraph 1 of Article 6 of the MLI replaces the text referring to an intent to eliminate double taxation in the preamble of this Convention:

ARTICLE 6 OF THE MLI – PURPOSE OF A COVERED TAX AGREEMENT

Intending to eliminate double taxation with respect to the taxes covered by [this Convention] without creating opportunities for non-taxation or reduced taxation through tax evasion or avoidance (including through treaty-shopping arrangements aimed at obtaining reliefs provided in [this Convention] for the indirect benefit of residents of third jurisdictions),

Have agreed as follows:

ARTICLE 1

Persons covered

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

The following paragraph 1 of Article 3 of the MLI applies and supersedes the provisions of this Convention:

ARTICLE 3 OF THE MLI – TRANSPARENT ENTITIES

For the purposes of [this Convention], income derived by or through an entity or arrangement that is treated as wholly or partly fiscally transparent under the tax law of either [Contracting State] shall be considered to be income of a resident of a [Contracting State] but only to the extent that the income is treated, for purposes of taxation by that [Contracting State], as the income of a resident of that [Contracting State].

The following paragraph 1 of Article 11 of the MLI applies and supersedes the provisions of this Convention:

ARTICLE 11 OF THE MLI – APPLICATION OF TAX AGREEMENTS TO
RESTRICT A PARTY’S RIGHT TO TAX ITS OWN RESIDENTS

[This Convention] shall not affect the taxation by a [Contracting State] of its residents, except with respect to the benefits granted under [paragraph (2) of Article 9, paragraph (2) of Article 17 or Articles 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, or 27] of [this Convention].

ARTICLE 2
Taxes covered

(1) This Convention shall apply to taxes on income and on capital gains imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its political subdivisions or local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.

(2) There shall be regarded as taxes on income and on capital gains all taxes imposed on total income or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property.

(3) The existing taxes to which this Convention shall apply are in particular:

(a) in the case of the United Kingdom:

(i) the income tax;

(ii) the corporation tax; and

(iii) the capital gains tax;

(hereinafter referred to as “United Kingdom tax”);

(b) in the case of Poland:

the personal income tax; and

the corporate income tax;

(hereinafter referred to as “Polish tax”).

(4) This Convention shall also apply to any identical or substantially similar taxes that are imposed by either Contracting State after the date of signature of this Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes that have been made in their taxation laws.

ARTICLE 3

General definitions

(1) For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) the term “United Kingdom” means Great Britain and Northern Ireland, including any area outside the territorial sea of the United Kingdom designated under its laws concerning the Continental Shelf and in accordance with international law as an area within which the rights of the United Kingdom with respect to the sea bed and sub-soil and their natural resources may be exercised;

(b) the term “Poland” means the Republic of Poland, including any area outside the territorial sea of the Republic of Poland designated under its laws and in accordance with international law as an area within which the rights of the Republic of Poland with respect to the sea bed and sub-soil and their natural resources may be exercised;

(c) the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean the United Kingdom or Poland, as the context requires;

(d) the term “person” includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons, and does not include a partnership;

(e) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity that is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;

(f) the term “enterprise” applies to the carrying on of any business;

(g) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

(h) the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;

(i) the term “competent authority” means:

(i) in the case of the United Kingdom, the Commissioners for Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs or their authorised representative;

(ii) in the case of Poland, the Minister of Finance or his authorised representative;

(j) the term “national” means:

(i) in relation to the United Kingdom, any British citizen, or any British subject not possessing the citizenship of any other Commonwealth country or territory, provided he has the right of abode in the United Kingdom; and any legal person, partnership, association or other entity deriving its status as such from the law in force in the United Kingdom;

(ii) in relation to Poland, any individual possessing Polish nationality and any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in Poland;

(k) the term “business” includes the performance of professional services and of other activities of an independent character.

(2) As regards the application of this Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the laws of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which this Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

ARTICLE 4

Residence

(1) For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management, place of incorporation or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes that State and any political subdivision or local authority thereof. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income or capital gains from sources in that State.

(2) Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:

(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the Contracting State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);

(b) if the Contracting State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he does not have a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;

(c) if he has an habitual abode in both Contracting States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;

(d) if he is a national of both Contracting States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

(3) [REPLACED by paragraph 1 of Article 4 of the MLI] [Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.]

The following paragraph 1 of Article 4 of the MLI replaces paragraph 3 of Article 4 of this Convention:

ARTICLE 4 OF THE MLI – DUAL RESIDENT ENTITIES

Where by reason of the provisions of [this Convention] a person other than an individual is a resident of both [Contracting States], the competent authorities of the [Contracting States] shall endeavour to determine by mutual agreement the [Contracting State] of which such person shall be deemed to be a resident for the purposes of [this Convention], having regard to its place of effective management, the place where it is incorporated or otherwise constituted and any other relevant factors. In the absence of such agreement, such person shall not be entitled to any relief or exemption from tax provided by [this Convention] except to the extent and in such manner as may be agreed upon by the competent authorities of the [Contracting States].

ARTICLE 5

Permanent establishment

(1) For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

(2) The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:

(a) a place of management;

(b) a branch;

(c) an office;

(d) a factory;

(e) a workshop;

(f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.

(3) A building site or construction or installation project constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts more than twelve months.

(4) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:

(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;

(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the enterprise;

(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;

(f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e) of this paragraph, provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article, where a person – other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph (6) of this Article applies – is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts on behalf of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph (4) of this Article which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

(6) An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

(7) The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

ARTICLE 6

Income from immovable property

(1) Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

(2) The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

(3) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

(4) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (3) of this Article shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise.

ARTICLE 7
Business profits

(1) The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

(2) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (3) of this Article, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

(3) In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

(4) Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine according to its law the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph (2) of this Article shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

(5) No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

(6) For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

(7) Where profits include items of income or capital gains which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE 8

Air transport

1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

3. For the purposes of this article, interest on funds connected with the operation of aircraft in international traffic shall be regarded as profits derived from the operation of such aircraft, and the provisions of article 12 shall not apply in relation to such interest.

4. The term “operation of aircraft” shall mean business of transportation by air of passengers, mail, livestock or goods carried on by the owners or lessees or charterers of aircraft, including the sale of tickets for such transportation on behalf of other enterprises, the incidental lease of aircraft and any other activity directly connected with such transportation.

ARTICLE 9

Shipping

1. Profits from the operation of ships in international traffic shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.

2. If the place of effective management of an enterprise carrying on shipping in international traffic is aboard a ship, then it shall be deemed to be situated in the Contracting State in which the home harbour of the ship is situated, or, if there is no such home harbour, in the Contracting State in which the operator of the ship is a resident.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits derived from the participation in a pool, a joint business or in an international operating agency.

4. Notwithstanding anything contained in paragraph 1 and article VIII of the Agreement dated 27 June, 1960 between the Government of India and the Government of the Polish People’s Republic regarding shipping cooperation, income derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships from the ports of the other Contracting State to the ports of third countries and from the ports of third countries to the ports of the other Contracting State may be taxed in the other Contracting State, but the tax imposed in that other Contracting State shall be reduced by an amount equal to 50 per cent thereof.

ARTICLE 10

Associated enterprises

(1) Where:

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State; or

(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State;

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included by a Contracting State in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

(2) Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State – and taxes accordingly – profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

ARTICLE 11

Dividends

(1) Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

7[2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

(3) The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the Contracting State of which the company making the distribution is a resident and also includes any other item which, under the laws of the State of which the company paying the dividend is a resident, is treated as a dividend or distribution of a company.

(4) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 of this Convention shall apply.

(5) Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in that other State.

ARTICLE 12

Interest

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

8[2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.]

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2,—

(a) interest arising in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State provided it is derived and beneficially owned by :

(i) the Government, a political sub-division or a local authority of the other Contracting State ; or

(ii) the Central Bank of the other Contracting State ;

(b) interest arising in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State if it is beneficially owned by a resident of the other Contracting State and is derived in connection with a loan or credit extended or endorsed by :

9[(i) in the case of Poland, Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego (BGK), to the extent such interest is attributable to financing of exports and imports only;]

(ii) in the case of India, the Export-Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) to the extent such interest is attributable to financing of exports and imports only ;

(iii) any institution of a Contracting State in charge of public financing of external trade ;

(iv) any other person provided that the loan or credit is approved by the Government of the first-mentioned Contracting State.

4. The term “interest” as used in this article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular, income from Government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purpose of this article.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of article 7 or article 15, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself, a political sub-division, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this article shall apply to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 13

Royalties and Fees for Technical Services

1. Royalties and fees for technical services arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

10[2. However, such royalties or fees for technical services may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties, or fees for technical services, is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15per cent of the gross amount of the royalties or fees for technical services.

3. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright including copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use any industrial, commercial, or scientific equipment or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

4. The term “fees for technical services” as used in this Article means payments of any kind, other than those mentioned in Articles 15 and 16, as consideration for managerial or technical or consultancy services, including the provision of services of technical or other personnel.]

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties or fees for technical services, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties or fees for technical services arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right, property or contract in respect of which the royalties or fees for technical services are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of article 7 or article 15, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Royalties and fees for technical services shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political sub-division, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties or fees for technical services, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties or fees for technical services was incurred, and such royalties or fees for technical services are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties or fees for technical services shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of royalties or fees for technical services paid exceeds the amount which would have been paid in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount, and in such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 14

Capital gains

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property, referred to in article 6, and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or together with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

11[4.[REPLACED by paragraph 4 of Article 9 of the MLI] [Gains from the alienation of shares of a company the property of which consists directly or indirectly principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.]]

The following paragraph 4 of Article 9 of the MLI replaces paragraph 4 of Article 14 of this Agreement:

ARTICLE 9 OF THE MLI – CAPITAL GAINS FROM ALIENATION OF SHARES OR INTERESTS OF ENTITIES DERIVING THEIR VALUE PRINCIPALLY FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

For purposes of [this Agreement], gains derived by a resident of a [Contracting State] from the alienation of shares or comparable interests, such as interests in a partnership or trust, may be taxed in the other [Contracting State] if, at any time during the 365 days preceding the alienation, these shares or comparable interests derived more than 50 per cent of their value directly or indirectly from immovable property (real property) situated in that other [Contracting State].

5. Gains from the alienation of shares other than those mentioned in paragraph 4 in a company which is a resident of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

6. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that mentioned in paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

ARTICLE 15

INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State from the performance of professional services or other independent activities of a similar character shall be taxable only in that State except in the following circumstances when such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State :

(a) if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other State ; or

(b) if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the relevant “previous year” or “year of income” as the case may be; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other State may be taxed in that other State.

2. The term “professional services” includes independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational, or teaching activities, as well as the independent activities of physicians, surgeons, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

ARTICLE 16

DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if :

12[(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, and; ]

(b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State ; and

(c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

ARTICLE 17

DIRECTORS’ FEES REMUNERATION OF TOP-LEVEL MANAGERIAL OFFICIALS

1. Directors’ fees and similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the Board of Directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. alaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as an official in a top-level managerial position of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

ARTICLE 18

INCOME EARNED BY ENTERTAINERS AND ATHLETES

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 15 and 16, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste or a musician or as an athlete, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or athlete in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or athlete himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 15 and 16, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or athlete are exercised.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, income derived by an entertainer or an athlete who is a resident of a Contracting State from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned Contracting State, if the activities in the other Contracting State are within the framework of cultural or sports exchange programme agreed to by both Contracting States and are supported wholly or substantially from the public funds of the first-mentioned Contracting State, including any of its political sub-divisions or local authorities.

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2 and Articles 7, 15 and 16, where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or an athlete in his capacity as such in a Contracting State accrues not to the entertainer or athlete himself but to another person, that income shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State, if the activities of that other person are within the framework of cultural or sports exchange programme agreed to by both Contracting States and are supported wholly or substantially from the public funds of that other State, including any of its political sub-divisions or local authorities.

ARTICLE 19

REMUNERATION AND PENSIONS IN RESPECT OF GOVERNMENT SERVICE

1. (a) Remuneration other than pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that Contracting State or a political subdivision or local authority thereof in discharge of functions of a governmental nature, shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

(b) However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that other State and the individual is a resident of that State who :

(i) is a national of that State; or

(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services

2. (a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of that other State.

3. The provisions of Articles 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or local authority thereof.

ARTICLE 20

NON-GOVERNMENTAL PENSIONS AND ANNUITIES

1. Any pension, other than a pension referred to in Article 19, or any annuity derived by a resident of a Contracting State from sources within the other Contracting State may be taxed only in the first-mentioned Contracting State.

2. The term “pension” means a periodic payment made in consideration of past services or by way of compensation for injuries received in the course of performance of services.

3. The term “annuity” means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time, under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money’s worth.

13[ARTICLE 21

PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY STUDENTS AND APPRENTICES

1. Payments which a student or business apprentice who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 16, remuneration which a student, or an apprentice or trainee who is or was, immediately before visiting a Contracting State, a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training, receives for dependent personal services rendered in that first-mentioned State shall not be taxable in that State, provided that such services are directly related, and incidental, to his education or training or the remuneration for those services is necessary to supplement the resources for his maintenance. However, in any case the benefits of this paragraph shall not be granted for a period of more than five consecutive years from the date of his first arrival in the first-mentioned State. ]

ARTICLE 22

PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY PROFESSORS, TEACHERS AND RESEARCH SCHOLARS

1. A professor or teacher who is or was a resident of one of the Contracting States immediately before visiting the other Contracting State for the purpose of teaching or engaging in research, or both, at a university, college, school or other approved institution in that other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that other State or any remuneration for such teaching or research for a period not exceeding two years from the date of his arrival in that other State.

2. This Article shall not apply to income from research if such research is not in public interest but is undertaken primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.

3. For the purposes of paragraph 1, “approved institution” means an institution which has been approved in this regard by the competent authority of the concerned Contracting State.

ARTICLE 23

OTHER INCOME

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, items of income of a resident of Contracting State, wherever arising, which are not expressly dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement, shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply in income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such cases, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 15, as the case may be, shall apply.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement, and arising in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. The competent authorities shall through consultations develop appropriate bilateral procedures, conditions, methods and techniques for the implementation of the mutual agreement procedure provided for in this Article.

15[ARTICLE 24

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

1. In case of India, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

(a) Where a resident of India derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in Poland, India shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the tax paid in Poland.

Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that portion of the tax as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income which may be taxed in Poland.

(b) Where in accordance with any provision of the Agreement income derived by a resident of India is exempt from tax in India. India may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.

2. In case of Poland, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

(a) Where a resident of Poland derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement may be taxed in India, shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the income tax paid in India. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to such income or capital gains derived from India.

(b) Where in accordance with any provision of this Agreement, income derived by a resident of Poland is exempt from tax in Poland, Poland may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income. ]

ARTICLE 25

NON-DISCRIMINATION

1. The nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation, and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances and under the same conditions are or may be subjected.

16[2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities in the same circumstances or under the same conditions. This provision shall not be construed as preventing a Contracting State from charging the profits of a permanent establishment which a company of the other Contracting State has in the first mentioned State at a rate of tax which is higher than that imposed on the profits of a similar company of the first mentioned Contracting State, nor as being in conflict with the provisions of paragraph 3 of Article 7. However, the difference in tax rate shall not exceed 10 percentage points.]

3. Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to persons not resident in that State any personal allowances, reliefs, reductions and deductions for taxation purposes which are by law available only to persons who are so resident.

4. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of that first-mentioned State are or may be subjected in the same circumstances and under the same conditions.

5. In this Article, the term “taxation” means taxes which are the subject of this Agreement.

6. Except where the provisions of Article 11, paragraph 7 of Article 12, or paragraph 7 of Article 13 of this Agreement apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State. Similarly, any debts of an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable capital of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been contracted to a resident of the first-mentioned State.

7. The exemptions, reliefs, reductions, deductions and allowances for taxation purposes available under the domestic laws of the two Contracting States shall not be adversely affected by any provision of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 26

MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

1. Where a resident of a Contracting State considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with this Agreement, he may, notwithstanding the remedies provided by the national laws of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident. This case must be presented within three years of the date of receipt of notice of the action which gives rise to taxation not in accordance with the Agreement.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at an appropriate solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to avoidance of taxation not in accordance with the Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the national laws of the Contracting States.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Agreement.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a Commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

17[ARTICLE 27

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents or certified copies of the documents) as is foreseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.

2. Any information received under paragraph 1 by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes referred to in paragraph 1, or the oversight of the above. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. Notwithstanding the foregoing, information received by a Contracting State may be used for other purposes when such information may be used for such other purposes under the laws of both States and the competent authority of the supplying State authorises such use.

3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

(b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

4. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph 3 but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.

5. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.

6. A Contracting State may allow representatives of the competent authority of the other Contracting State to enter the territory of the first-mentioned Contracting State to interview individuals and examine records with the written consent of the persons concerned. The competent authority of the second-mentioned Contracting State shall notify the competent authority of the first-mentioned Contracting State of the time and place of the meeting with the individuals concerned.

7. At the request of the competent authority of one Contracting State, the competent authority of the other Contracting State may allow representatives of the competent authority of the first-mentioned Contracting State to be present at the appropriate part of a tax examination in the second-mentioned Contracting State.

8. If the request referred to in paragraph 7 is acceded to, the competent authority of the Contracting State conducting the examination shall, as soon as possible, notify the competent authority of the other Contracting State about the time and place of the examination, the authority or official designated to carry out the examination and the procedures and conditions required by the first-mentioned Contracting State for the conduct of the examination. All decisions with respect to the conduct of the tax examination shall be madeby the Contracting State conducting the examination.]

18[ARTICLE 28

ASSISTANCE IN THE COLLECTION OF TAXES

1. The Contracting States shall lend assistance to each other in the collection of revenue claims. This assistance is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of this Article.

2. The term “revenue claim” as used in this Article means an amount owed in respect of taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political 1. subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Agreement or any other instrument to which the Contracting States are parties, as well as interest, administrative penalties and costs of collection or conservancy related to such amount.

3. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of collection by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That revenue claim shall be collected by that other State in accordance with the provisions of its laws applicable to the enforcement and collection of its own taxes as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State.

4. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is a claim in respect of which that State may, under its law, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of taking measures of conservancy by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That other State shall take measures of conservancy in respect of that revenue claim in accordance with the provisions of its laws as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State even if, at the time when such measures are applied, the revenue claim is not enforceable in the first-mentioned State or is owed by a person who has a right to prevent its collection.

5. When a Contracting State, under its law, takes interim measures of conservancy by freezing assets before a revenue claim is raised against a person, the competent authority of the other Contracting State, if requested by the competent authority of the first-mentioned State, shall take interim measures for freezing the assets of that person in that other Contracting State to the extent permitted in the provisions of its law.

6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for purposes of paragraph 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, be subject to the time limits or accorded any priority applicable to a revenue claim under the laws of that State by reason of its nature as such. In addition, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for the purposes of paragraph 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, have any priority applicable to that revenue claim under the laws of the other Contracting State.

7. Proceedings with respect to the existence, validity or the amount of a revenue claim of a Contracting State shall only be brought before the courts or administrative bodies of that State. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as creating or providing any right to such proceedings before any court or administrative body of the other Contracting State.

8. Where, at any time after a request has been made by a Contracting State under paragraph 3 or 4 and before the other Contracting State has collected and remitted the relevant revenue claim to the first-mentioned State, the relevant revenue claim ceases to be—

(a) in the case of a request under paragraph 3, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State that is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, or

(b) in the case of a request under paragraph 4, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State in respect of which that State may, under its laws, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection the competent authority of the first-mentioned State shall promptly notify the competent authority of the other State of that fact and, at the option of the other State, the first-mentioned State shall either suspend or withdraw its request.

9. In no case shall the provisions of this Article be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

(b) to carry out measures which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public);

(c) to provide assistance if the other Contracting State has not pursued all reasonable measures of collection or conservancy, as the case may be, available under its laws or administrative practice;

(d) to provide assistance in those cases where the administrative burden for that State is clearly disproportionate to the benefit to be derived by the other Contracting State. ]

[REPLACED by paragraph 1 of Article 7 of the MLI]

19[[ARTICLE 28A

LIMITATION OF BENEFITS

1. Benefits of this Agreement shall not be available

(a) to a resident (not being an individual) of a Contracting State if the main purpose or one of the main purposes of the creation or existence of such a resident; or

(b) with respect to any arrangement or transaction undertaken by a resident of a Contracting State, if the main purpose or one of the main purposes of the creation or existence of such an arrangement or transaction, was to obtain the benefits under this Agreement. ]]

The following paragraph 1 of Article 7 of the MLI replaces Article 28A of this Agreement:

ARTICLE 7 OF THE MLI – PREVENTION OF TREATY ABUSE (Principal Purposes Test provision)

Notwithstanding any provisions of [the Agreement], a benefit under [the Agreement] shall not be granted in respect of an item of income if it is reasonable to conclude, having regard to all relevant facts and circumstances, that obtaining that benefit was one of the principal purposes of any arrangement or transaction that resulted directly or indirectly in that benefit, unless it is established that granting that benefit in these circumstances would be in accordance with the object and purpose of the relevant provisions of [the Agreement].

ANNEXURE

PROTOCOL BETWEEN

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA

AND

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND AMENDING THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE POLISH PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME; SIGNED AT WARSAW ON THE 21ST DAY OF JUNE 1989

The Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Poland desiring to conclude a Protocol amending the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Polish People’s Republic for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income, signed at Warsaw on the 21st day of June 1989 (hereinafter referred to as “the Agreement”), Have agreed as follows:

ARTICLE 1

Paragraph 1 of Article 2 (TAXES COVERED) of the Agreement shall be deleted and replaced by the following paragraph:

“1 The taxes to which this Agreement shall apply are:

(a) in India, the income-tax including any surcharge and cess thereon imposed under the Income-tax Act, 1961;

(hereinafter referred to as “Indian tax”)

(b) in Poland:

(i) the personal income tax, and

(ii) the corporate income tax,

(hereinafter referred to as “Polish taxes”).”.

ARTICLE 2

In Article 3 (GENERAL DEFINITIONS) of the Agreement:

1. Clauses (a) and (b) of paragraph 1 shall be deleted and replaced by the following clauses:

(a) the term “India” means the territory of India and includes the territorial sea and airspace above it, as well as any other maritime zone in which India has sovereign rights, other rights and jurisdiction, according to the Indian law and in accordance with international law, including the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea;

(b) the term “Poland” means the Republic of Poland and, when used in a geographical sense, means the territory of the Republic of Poland, and any area adjacent to the territorial waters of the Republic of Poland within which, under the laws of Poland and in accordance with international law, the rights of Poland with respect to the exploration and exploitation of the natural resources of the seabed and its sub-soil may be exercised;”.

2. After clause (j) of paragraph 1 the following clause shall be inserted:

“(k) The term “fiscal year”, in the case of India, means the financial year beginning on the first day of April.”.

ARTICLE 3

In Article 4 (FISCAL RESIDENCE) of the Agreement, paragraph 1 shall be deleted and replaced by the following paragraph:

“1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes that State and any political subdivision or local authority thereof. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State.”. –

ARTICLE 4

In Article 5 (PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT), the following paragraph shall be inserted after Paragraph 2:

“2A. The term “permanent establishment” shall also include the furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by an enterprise of a Contracting State through its employees or other personnel engaged by the enterprise for such purpose, but only where such activities continue(for the same or a connected project) in the other Contracting State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate six months within any 12-month period.”.

ARTICLE 5

Article 10 (ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES) of the Agreement shall be deleted and replaced by the following Article;

“Article 10

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

1. Where:

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting. State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case, conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State -and taxes accordingly – profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.”.

ARTICLE 6

In Article 11 (DIVIDENDS) of the Agreement, paragraph 2 shall be deleted and replaced by the following paragraph:

“2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which dividends are paid.”.

ARTICLE 7

In Article 12 (INTEREST) of the Agreement:

1. Paragraph 2 shall be deleted and replaced by the following paragraph:

“2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.”.

2. Clause (i) of sub paragraph (b) of paragraph 3 shall be deleted and replaced by the following clause:

“(i) in the case of Poland, Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego (BGK), to the extent such interest is attributable to financing of exports and imports only;”.

ARTICLE 8

In Article 13 (ROYALTIES AND FEES FOR TECHNICAL SERVICES) of the Agreement, paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 shall be deleted and replaced by the following paragraphs:

“2. However, such royalties or fees for technical services may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties, or fees for technical services, is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties or fees for technical services.

3. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright including copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use any industrial, commercial, or scientific equipment or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

4. The term “fees for technical services” as used in this Article means payments of any kind, other than those mentioned in Articles 15 and 16, as consideration for managerial or technical or consultancy services, including the provision of services of technical or other personnel.”.

ARTICLE 9

In Article 14 (CAPITAL GAINS) of the Agreement, paragraph 4 shall be deleted and replaced by the following paragraph:

“4. Gains from the alienation of shares of a company the property of which consists directly or indirectly principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.”.

ARTICLE 10

In Article 16 (DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES) of the Agreement, clause a) of the paragraph 2 shall be deleted and replaced by the following clause:

“(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, and;”.

ARTICLE 11

“Article 21 (PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY STUDENTS AND APPRENTICES) of the Agreement shall be deleted and replaced by the following Article:

“Article 21

PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY STUDENTS AND APPRENTICES

1. Payments which a student or business apprentice who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 16, remuneration which a student, or an apprentice or trainee who is or was, immediately before visiting a Contracting State, a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training, receives for dependent personal services rendered in that first-mentioned State shall not be taxable in that State, provided that such services are directly related, and incidental, to his education or training or the remuneration for those services is necessary to supplement the resources for his maintenance. However, in any case the benefits of this paragraph shall not be granted for a period of more than five consecutive years from the date of his first arrival in the first-mentioned State.”.

ARTICLE 12

Article 24 (ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION) of the Agreement shall be deleted and replaced by the following Article:

“Article 24

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

1. In case of India, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

(a) Where a resident of India derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in Poland, India shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the tax paid in Poland.

Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that portion of the tax as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income which may be taxed in Poland.

(b) Where in accordance with any provision of the Agreement income derived by a resident of India is exempt from tax in India, India may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.

2. In case of Poland, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

(a) Where a resident of derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement may be taxed in India, shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the income tax paid in India. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to such income or capital gains derived from India.

(b) Where in accordance with any provision of this Agreement, income derived by a resident of Poland is exempt from tax in Poland, may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.”.

ARTICLE 13

In Article 25 (NON DISCRIMINATION,), paragraph 2 shall be deleted and replaced by the following paragraph:

“2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities in the same circumstances or under the same conditions. This provision shall not be construed as preventing a Contracting State from charging the profits of a permanent establishment which a company of the other Contracting State has in the first mentioned State at a rate of tax which is higher than that imposed on the profits of a similar company of the first mentioned Contracting State, nor as being in conflict with the provisions of paragraph 3 of Article 7. However, the difference in tax rate shall not exceed 10 percentage points.”.

ARTICLE 14

Article 27 (EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION) of the Agreement shall be deleted and replaced by the following Article:

“Article 27

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents or certified copies of the documents) as is foreseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.

2. Any information received under paragraph 1 by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes referred to in paragraph 1, or the oversight of the above. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. Notwithstanding the foregoing, information received by a Contracting State may be used for other purposes when such information may be used for such other purposes under the laws of both States and the competent authority of the supplying State authorises such use.

3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

(b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

4. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph 3 but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.

5. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.

6. A Contracting State may allow representatives of the competent authority of the other Contracting State to enter the territory of the first-mentioned Contracting State to interview individuals and examine records with the written consent of the persons concerned. The competent authority of the second-mentioned Contracting State shall notify the competent authority of the first-mentioned Contracting State of the time and place of the meeting with the individuals concerned.

7. At the request of the competent authority of one Contracting State, the competent authority of the other Contracting State may allow representatives of the competent authority of the first-mentioned Contracting State to be present at the appropriate part of a tax examination in the second-mentioned Contracting State.

8. If the request referred to in paragraph 7 is acceded to, the competent authority of the Contracting State conducting the examination shall, as soon as possible, notify the competent authority of the other Contracting State about the time and place of the examination, the authority or official designated to carry out the examination and the procedures and conditions required by the first-mentioned Contracting State for the conduct of the examination. All decisions with respect to the conduct of the tax examination shall be made by the Contracting State conducting the examination.”

ARTICLE 15

Article 28 (ASSISTANCE IN COLLECTION) of the Agreement shall be deleted and replaced by the following Article:

“Article 28

ASSISTANCE IN THE COLLECTION OF TAXES

1. The Contracting States shall lend assistance to each other in the collection of revenue claims. This assistance is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of this Article.

2. The term “revenue claim” as used in this Article means an amount owed in respect of taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Agreement or any other instrument to which the Contracting States are parties, as well as interest, administrative penalties and costs of collection or conservancy related to such amount.

3. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of collection by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That revenue claim shall be collected by that other State in accordance with the provisions of its laws applicable to the enforcement and collection of its own taxes as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State.

4. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is a claim in respect of which that State may, under its law, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of taking measures of conservancy by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That other State shall take measures of conservancy in respect of that revenue claim in accordance with the provisions of its laws as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State even if, at the time when such measures are applied, the revenue claim is not enforceable in the first-mentioned State or is owed by a person who has a right to prevent its collection.

5. When a Contracting State, under its law, takes interim measures of conservancy by freezing assets before a revenue claim is raised against a person, the competent authority of the other Contracting State, if requested by the competent authority of the first-mentioned State, shall take interim measures for freezing the assets of that person in that other Contracting State to the extent permitted in the provisions of its law.

6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for purposes of paragraph 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, be subject to the time limits or accorded any priority applicable to a revenue claim under the laws of that State by reason of its nature as such. In addition, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for the purposes of paragraph 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, have any priority applicable to that revenue claim under the laws of the other Contracting State.

7. Proceedings with respect to the existence, validity or the amount of a revenue claim of a Contracting State shall only be brought before the courts or administrative bodies of that State. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as creating or providing any right to such proceedings before any court or administrative body of the other Contracting State.

8. Where, at any time after a request has been made by a Contracting State under paragraph 3 or 4 and before the other Contracting State has collected and remitted the relevant revenue claim to the first-mentioned State, the relevant revenue claim ceases to be

(a) in the case of a request under paragraph 3, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State that is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, or

(b) in the case of a request under paragraph 4, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State in respect of which that State may, under its laws, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection

the competent authority of the first-mentioned State shall promptly notify the competent authority of the other State of that fact and, at the option of the other State, the first mentioned State shall either suspend or withdraw its request.

9. In no case shall the provisions of this Article be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

(b) to carry out measures which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public);

(c) to provide assistance if the other Contracting State has not pursued all reasonable measures of collection or conservancy, as the case may be, available under its laws or administrative practice;

(d) to provide assistance in those cases where the administrative burden for that State is clearly disproportionate to the benefit to be derived by the other Contracting State”.

ARTICLE 16

After Article 28, a new Article shall be inserted as follows:

“Article 28A

LIMITATION OF BENEFITS

1. Benefits of this Agreement shall not be available

(a) to a resident (not being an individual) of a Contracting State if the main purpose or one of the main purposes of the creation or existence of such a resident; or

(b) with respect to any arrangement or transaction undertaken by a resident of a Contracting State, if the main purpose or one of the main purposes of the creation or existence of such an arrangement or transaction, was to obtain the benefits under this Agreement.”.

ARTICLE 17

1. Each of the Contracting States shall notify through diplomatic channels to the other the completion of the procedures required by its law for the bringing into force of this Protocol. The Protocol shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of receipt of the latter of the notifications referred to above and shall have effect:

(a) in India:

(i) in respect of the taxes withheld at source – to amounts of income derived on or after the first day of the fiscal year next following the year in which the Protocol enters into force;

(ii) in respect of other taxes on income – to amounts of income derived in any fiscal year beginning on or after the first day of the fiscal year next following the year in which the Protocol enters into force.

(b) in Poland:

(i) in respect of the taxes withheld at source – to amounts of income derived on or after the first of January of the calendar year next following the year in which the Protocol enters into force;

(ii) in respect of other taxes on income – to amounts of income derived in any fiscal year beginning on or after the first of January of the calendar year next following the year in which the Protocol enters into force.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, the provisions of Articles 14 and 15 of this Protocol shall apply in respect of any matter referred to in these Articles even if such matters pre-date the entry into force of this Protocol or the effective date of any of its provisions.

In witness whereof, the undersigned, duly authorized thereto, have signed this Protocol.

Done in duplicate at Poland this 29th day of January, 2013 in Hindi, Polish and English languages, all the texts being equally authentic. In case there is any divergence between the Hindi and Polish texts the English text shall prevail.

1. The texts of the boxes in [Square brackets] and in italics indicate minor terminology changes made to the text of the MLI.

1. Paragraph 1 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said paragraph read as under :

“1. The taxes to which this Agreement shall apply are :

(a) in India :

(i) the income-tax including any surcharge thereon imposed under the Income-tax Act, 1961 ; (ii) the surtax imposed under the Companies (Profits) Surtax Act, 1964 ;

(hereinafter referred to as “Indian tax”)

(b) in Poland :

(i) the income-tax (podatek dechodowy) ;

(ii) the tax on wages and salaries (podatek od wynagrodzen) ;

(iii) the equalisation tax (podatek wyrdwanawczy) ; and

(iv) the agriculture tax (podatek rolny).

(hereinafter referred to as “Polish tax”).”

2. Clauses (a) and (b) substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [FNo.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f 1-4-2015. Prior to their substitution, said clauses read as under :

(a) the term “India” means the Republic of India and, when used in a geographical sense means the territory of the Republic of India and any maritime area adjacent to the territorial waters of the Republic of India within which, under the laws of India and in accordance with international law, the Republic of India has sovereignty or sovereign and exclusive rights ;

(b) the term “Poland” means the Polish People’s Republic and when used in a geographical sense means the territory of the Polish People’s Republic and any maritime area adjacent to the territorial waters of the Polish People’s Republic within which, under the laws of the Polish People’s Republic and in accordance with international law, the Polish People’s Republic has sovereignty or sovereign and exclusive rights;”

3. Clause (k) inserted by Notification No. 47/2014 [FNo.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9- 2014, w.e.f. 1-42015.

4. Paragraph 1 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said paragraph read as under :

“1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature.”

5. Paragraph 2A inserted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f. 14-2015.

6. Article 10 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f. 14-2015. Prior to its substitution, said Article read as under :

“ARTICLE 10

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

Where :

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case, conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.”

7. Paragraph 2 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said paragraph read as under :

“2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends where such dividends relate to contributions made after the entry into force of this Agreement.

The paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.”

8. Paragraph 2 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24- 9-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said paragraph read as under :

“2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.”

9. Clause (i) substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24- 9- 2014, w.e.f. 14-2015. Prior to its substitution, said clause read as under :

“(i) in the case of Poland, Bank Hadlowy w Warszawie SA to the extent such interest is attributable to financing of exports and imports only;”

10. Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-92014, w.e.f. 1-4-2015. Prior to their substitution, said paragraphs read as under :

“2. However, such royalties and fees for technical services may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties, or fees for technical services, the tax so charged shall not exceed 22.5 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties or fees for technical services.

3. The term “royalties” as used in this article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work, including cinematograph films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plant, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

4. The term “fees for technical services” as used in this article means payments of any amount to any person other than payments to an employee of a person making payments, in consideration for the services of a managerial, technical or consultancy nature, including the provision of services of technical or other personnel.”

11. Paragraph 4 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said paragraph read as under :

“4. Gains from the alienation of shares of the capital stock of a company the property of which consists directly or indirectly principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.”

12. Clause (a) substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said clause read as under:

“(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the relevant “previous year” or “year of income”, as the case may be; and”

13. Article 21 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said Article read as under :

“ARTICLE 21

PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY STUDENTS AND APPRENTICES

1. Payments which a student or business apprentice who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.

2. Income derived by a student or business apprentice in respect of activities exercised in a Contracting State in which he is present solely for the purpose of his education or training, shall not be taxable in that State, unless it exceeds the amount necessary for his maintenance, education or training.

3. The benefits of this Article shall extend only for such period of time as may be reasonable or customarily required to complete the education or training undertaken, but in no event shall any individual have the benefits of this Article, for more than five consecutive years from the date of his first arrival in that other Contracting State.

4. For the purposes of this Article and Article 22, an individual shall be deemed to be a resident of a Contracting State if he is resident in that Contracting State in the “previous year” or the “year of income”, as the case may be, in which he visits the other Contracting State or in the immediately preceding “previous year” or “year of income”.”

15. Article 24 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said Article read as under:

“ARTICLE 24

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

1. The laws in force in either of the Contracting States will continue to govern the taxation of income in the respective Contracting States except where provisions to the contrary are made in this Agreement.

2. In both the Contracting States, double taxation will be avoided in the following manner :

(a) Where a resident of a Contracting State derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this agreement, may be taxed in the other Contracting State, the first-mentioned State shall, subject to the provisions of sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph, exempt such income from tax but may, in calculating tax on the remaining income of that person, apply the rate of tax which would have been applicable if the exempted income has not been so exempted.

(b) Either of the Contracting States when imposing taxes on its residents may include in the tax base upon which such taxes are imposed the items of income which according to the provisions of articles 11, 12 and 13 of this Agreement may also be taxed in the other State but shall allow as a deduction from the amount of tax computed on such a base an amount equal to the tax paid in other Contracting State. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of tax leviable by the first-mentioned State, as computed before the deduction is given, which is appropriate to the income which, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 11, 12 and 13 of this Agreement, may be taxed in the other State.

3. For the purpose of sub-paragraph (b) of paragraph 2 the term “tax paid in the other Contracting State” shall be deemed to include any amount which would have been payable as tax but for any relief by way of a deduction allowed in computing the taxable income or an exemption or a reduction of tax or otherwise under the laws relating to taxation of income in force in that other Contracting State.”

16. Paragraph 2 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said paragraph read as under:

“2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities in the same circumstances or under the same conditions.”

17. Article 27 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said Article read as under:

“ARTICLE 27

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents) as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of the Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Agreement, insofar as the taxation, thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement, in particular for the prevention of fraud or evasion of such taxes. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State. However, if the information is originally regarded as secret in the transmitting State, it shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes which are the subject of the Agreement. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes but may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. The competent authorities shall, through consultation, develop appropriate conditions, methods and techniques concerning the matters in respect of which such exchange of information shall be made, including, where appropriate, exchange of information regarding tax avoidance.

2. The exchange of information or documents shall be either on a routine basis or on request with reference to particular cases or both. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall agree from time to time on the list of the information or documents which shall be furnished on a routine basis.

3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State ;

(b) to supply information or documents which are not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

(c) to supply information or documents which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process or information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.”

18. Article 28 substituted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2015. Prior to its substitution, said Article read as under:

“ARTICLE 28

ASSISTANCE IN COLLECTION

1. The Contracting States undertake to lend assistance and support to each other, in the collection of the taxes to which this agreement relates, in the cases where the taxes are definitely due according to the laws of the States making the request.

2. In the case of a request for enforcement of collection, tax claims of either of the Contracting States which have been finally determined will be accepted for enforcement by the other Contracting State to which the request is made and collected in that State in accordance with the laws applicable to the enforcement and collection of its taxes.

3. In the case of Indian tax, the request will be sent by the Central Board of Direct Taxes, Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, India to Minister of Finance, Poland or his authorised representative and will be accompanied by such certificate as is required by the laws of India to establish that the taxes have been finally determined and are due from the taxpayer.

4. In the case of Poland tax, the request will be sent by the Minister of Finance, Poland or his authorised representative to the Central Board of Direct Taxes, Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, India and will be accompanied by such certificate as is required by the laws of Poland to establish that the taxes have been finally determined and are due from the taxpayer.

5. Where the tax claim has not become final by reason of its being subject to appeal or any other proceeding, a Contracting State may, in order to protect its revenues, request the other Contracting State to take such interim measures in this behalf as are lawful under the laws of that other Contracting State.

6. A request for assistance in collection of taxes due from a taxpayer shall be made only if adequate assets of that taxpayer are not available for recovering the taxes from him in the Contracting State making the request.

7. The Contracting State in which tax is recovered in pursuance of paragraphs 1, 2 and 5 of this Article shall immediately thereafter remit the amount so recovered to the Contracting State which made the request.”

19. Article 28A inserted by Notification No. 47/2014 [F.No.501/08/1979-FTD-I], dated 24-9-2014, w.e.f. 14-2015.

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