So Friends, the time for Preparation of the first financial statements as per Companies Act is here. One of the most important provisions of the Act for the Companies as well as Auditors to consider is the New Method of calculating Depreciation as per Schedule II Part C of the Companies Act 2013. I would start with a comparison between Depreciation under Companies Act 1956 and under Companies Act 2013 and I believe after reading this article everything would be Crystal Clear to you.

So have Patience and read it till the End.

Happy Reading!!!!!!

SCHEDULE II OF COMPANIES ACT 2013 V/S SCHEDULE XIV OF COMPANIES ACT 1956

  • Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 requires depreciating the asset over its useful life unlike Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 which specifies minimum rates of depreciation to be provided by a company. As Per Section 123 of the Companies Act 2013, depreciation shall be calculated as per Schedule II and these have been bought into force from 1st April 2014.
  • Companies’ act 1956 does not deal with the amortization of intangible Assets but New Schedule by companies’ act 2014 provides the method to amortize them. Now for the amortization of Intangible assets the Provisions of AS-26 shall apply. Earlier no method was suggested for the amortization of Intangible assets as Schedule XIV of the Companies Act 1956 deals only with the Depreciation of Tangible assets.
  • Instead of method and rates of Depreciation (whether WDV method or Straight line Method and Single shift or double shift or triple shift) new Act prescribed only assets’ useful life. The Difference between WDV and SLM will be removed. The useful life shall not be longer than the Specified life of the Asset as given in Part C of the Act and the residual value shall not Exceed 5% of the Cost of the Asset. 95% of the Original Cost of Asset only has to be depreciated.

If Company, being a class of company specifically prescribed by MCA, can adopt a different useful life longer than what is prescribed in Schedule II, however the same shall be disclosed, as Note on Accounts together with justification. For other companies, useful life cannot be longer than what is prescribed in Schedule II.

  • The concept of 100% depreciation of assets whose cost are less than Rs. 5000/- is deleted hence under new act it will be depreciated as per other normal provisions of schedule II.
  • Under act if any component of Asset have significant cost and has useful life other than the assets then is should be considered as separate asset for depreciation. As Per Schedule II of the Companies Act Component Approach as Defined in Ind AS 16 becomes Mandatory whereas as per Schedule XIV of the Companies Act 1956 Component Approach was Optional.

CALCULATION OF DEPRECIATION UNDER COMPANIES ACT 2013- THEORETICAL VIEW

Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life. The depreciable amount of an asset is the cost of an asset or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value.

The useful life of an asset is the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use by an entity, or the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by the entity.

For the purpose of this Schedule, the term depreciation includes Amortization.

Date of Purchase is most important to calculate the remaining Useful life of the Asset as on 01.04.2014. Existing assets are to be Depreciated Over the remaining Useful life as on 01.04.2014.Date of Purchase can be found in the Fixed Asset register or the Depreciation Chart of the Company or can also be available in the Tax Audit report of the Company for Various Years.

Transitional effect of Schedule II

The most important and challenging aspect of Schedule II is the effect to be given in the books of account on the date of transition, i.e. 1st April, 2014.

Reproduced below is Note 7 to Part C of Schedule II,

“7. From the date this Schedule comes into effect, the carrying amount of the asset as on that date-

(a) Shall be depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset as per this Schedule;

(b) After retaining the residual value, shall be recognized in the opening balance of retained earnings where the remaining useful life of an asset is nil.”

There could be two possibilities regarding the assets as on 1st April, 2014 in context of the above note:

1. Asset’s remaining useful life as per Schedule II is nil:

In that case, as per Note 7(b), the carrying amount has to be adjusted in the opening balance of retained earnings in the balance sheet after retaining the residual value.

2. Asset’s remaining useful life is as per Schedule II is not nil:

If one reads Note 7, specifically clause (a), then one has to continue depreciating the balance as on 1st April, 2014 systematically over the remaining useful life after recalculating the rate of depreciation. In that case, no effect of restating the carrying amount will be needed to be given. Depreciation should be provided at a rate prescribed as under based on the remaining useful life of the Asset.

CALCULATION OF DEPRECIATION UNDER COMPANIES ACT 2013- PRACTICAL VIEW

Let us now understand everything practically

Rate of Depreciation under WDV Method:

R= (1 – n^s/c) x 100

Where R = Rate of Depreciation (in %),

n = Useful life of the asset (in years)

s = Scrap value at the end of useful life of the asset

c= Cost of the asset

Accordingly WDV rates have been worked out using this formula with 5% as the salvage value of the asset and the table for the remaining life of the asset up to 10 years is as under:-

O/s Life on an Asset WDV SLM
% of Depreciation % of Depreciation
* *
1                          95.00 95.00
2                        77.64 47.50
3                          63.16 31.67
4                          52.71 23.75
5                          45.07 19.00
6                          39.30 15.83
7                          34.82 13.57
8                          31.23 11.88
9                       28.31 10.56
10                          25.89 9.50
11                          23.84 8.64
12                          22.09 7.92
13                          20.58 7.31
14                          19.26 6.79
15                          18.10 6.33

 Let’s take an Example:-

Asset: Plant & Machinery

Original Cost: Rs. 100000

Useful Life and rate of Depreciation as per Old Provisions: 20 years & 13.91%

Useful Life and rate of Depreciation as per New Provisions: 15 Years & 18.10%

Expired Life: 5 years

Accumulated Depreciation for 5 years: 52711/-

Now the Carrying Amount as on 01.04.2014 will be 47289/- (100000-52711)

Remaining Useful life as on 01.04.2014 as per new provisions 10 years (15 years – Expired Life)

Rate of Depreciation on the basis of remaining useful life i.e 10 years is 25.89% (Refer Table above)

Depreciation chartNote 7(b) as mentioned above “From the date this Schedule comes into effect, the carrying amount of the asset as on that date after retaining the residual value, shall be recognized in the opening balance of retained earnings where the remaining useful life of an asset is nil.”

Let’s take another Example to understand this note:-

Asset: Plant & Machinery

Original Cost: Rs.100000

Useful Life and rate of Depreciation as per Old Provisions: 20 years & 13.91%

Useful Life and rate of Depreciation as per New Provisions: 15 Years & 18.10%

Expired Life: 16 years

Accumulated Depreciation for 16 years: 90896/-

Now the Carrying Amount as on 01.04.2014 will be 9104/- (100000-90896)

Remaining Useful life as on 01.04.2014 as per new provisions nil (15 years – Expired Life)

In such a case Note 7(b) comes into picture and the entry on 01.04.2014 would be

Retained Earnings           dr. 4104

       To Plant & Machinery                  4104.

(Being Shortfall in the depreciation consequent upon change in the Useful Life of Asset Provided for after retaining Residual Value of 5% charged against opening balance of retained earnings)

Residual Value should not be more than 5% of Cost of Asset i.e Rs. 5000 and accordingly the amount to be adjusted shall be Rs. 4104 ( 9104-5000).

Your Views and Comments are welcome even if they are contrary

Author: Mr. Rohit Kapoor – E-mail: rohitkpr1992@gmail.com

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27 responses to “Schedule II of Companies Act, 2013 (Depreciation) and Practical Implication”

  1. Akshaya Ranka says:

    Sir ,Suppose If the salvage value is NIL of asset and co. is following WDV method then how the Formula will work.

  2. azad singh says:

    If someone charging depreciation as per income tax in tally(books) now he want to adopt new co act 2013. So is it necessary to calculate wdv of asset on 1.04.2014 as per co act 1956 or he can take wdv as per income tax.

  3. vipul patel says:

    How the calculate Depreciation rate as per companies act.

    Two Laptop Purchase on 10/02/2015 for f.y. 2014-15

    1 Laptop cost of Rs. 59000
    2 Laptop Cost of Rs. 31000

    as per companies act what amount to be Depreciation

    plese reply me

  4. NITIN GULECHHA says:

    sir
    wat should be the treatement done if 100% depreciation is charged on asset upto 1.04.2014 but still asset is in existence till date ??
    how the salvage value shall be calculated in that case and where that will be adjusted ??

  5. yesha says:

    Sir, What about the provision for depreciation account that stands in the balance sheet ? how to treat it ? and now further should we pass entry directly to asset account or should we take the current year depreciation to provision for depreciation account ?

  6. REVANTH says:

    Dear Hariharan Sir,

    In case the WDV as on 1.4.2014 was lower than the scrap value than the WDV should be considered as the scrap value and should be retained under the assets head.

    • Suraj Dash says:

      Dear Sir

      In case of useful life is over should the residual value of the assets still to continue to be shown under asset head or to be written off in the end of useful life year.

      Please clear.

  7. maruthi says:

    Dear sir

    If any investment made about 10 cores on power project by forming a New company. how to claim depreciation on this asset. Pl clarify.

    regards
    maruthi

  8. Vijay Kumar Gupta says:

    Dear Sir,

    Our Company is 40 years old, We have not any record 40 years old, how to calculate our depreciation.

  9. pardeep says:

    Are these law maker sitting idle? had they been having any work, they would not have gone for this non-sense….

  10. amandeep singh says:

    sir, there is no chance for second situation arising unless and until useful life estimated equals the period used and depreciated till date.

  11. G K MISHRA says:

    SIR,
    company claim depre. is mendetery for the companies ACT 2013
    Y/n

    Please reply argent

  12. hiren pasad says:

    Respected sir,

    in second example if we sold the assets for suppose 10000 then what tretment ???

  13. Snehi says:

    What is the format for Justification to be submitted when the useful life of asset taken differs from schedule 2?

  14. amol saharan says:

    what will be treatment of salvage value ? i.e. rs 5000 in your example ? will it be shown in balance sheet ?

  15. CA Sourabh says:

    The formula used by under WDV Method is not correct, as the remaining residual value should come as Rs. 5000. while under your calculation it is arriving at Rs. 2,363.
    Make the correction.

  16. DEEPAK MANGLA says:

    BUT THE ABOVE FORMULA IS NOT WORK WHERE LIFE OF ASSET IS IN FRACTION, LIKE, IF RESIDUAL LIFE IS 2.25 YEARS, THEN WE DID’NT GET RESIDUAL VALUE AS WDV WHEN LIFE OF SAID ASSET IS 0 IN COMING YEARS…..

    • vignesh says:

      Yes U are correct.
      If i purchased a computer on 01.07.2014 for Rs.10000.Deprecation rate 1-(500/10000)1/3=0.63

      Depreciation till life of asset
      2014-15 10000*0.63*270/360=4725
      2015-16 (10000-4725)*0.63=3323.25
      2016-17 (10000-4725-3323.25)*0.63=1229.6 2017-18 (10000-4725-3323.25-1229.6)*0.63*90/360=113.74
      Residual Value=10000-4725-3323.3-1229.6-113.74 =608.41
      Residual Value has to come Rs.500 by applying above rate but it came to to 608. what is wroung in this calculation?

  17. Kapil says:

    Two issues :

    1. The formula for calculation of Rate of Depreciation as prescribed by the ICAI in the Application Guide on the Provisions of Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 is on page 15. The formula mentioned by you is different and leads to a different result.

    2. While calculating the rate you have considered the “c” as “Cost of the asset”. Whereas, in the calculation as per the Practical Examples No. 2 o page 17 and again on page 20 the ICAI has probably taken “c” as “WDV of the asset”.

    What is the correct “c”.

    • Rig Chen says:

      Both formula are correct. Only the thing is using them under different case.

      1. If Assets is purchased during 2014-15, such assets would not have WDV. So scrap value divided by cost

      1. If assets is being depreciated from FY prior to applicability of schedule II,
      then scrap value divided by Carrying amount(WDV).

      Thankyou and correct me if am wrong

  18. Samarth Kumar says:

    Schedule II hasn’t given clear picture of Depreciation on Leasehold Improvement especially in cases where identity of individual assets could not be estabhlished.

  19. Aditya Jindal says:

    My another quarry is that whether mca has rescribed the class of companies which can adopt a different useful life longer than what is prescribed in Schedule II.

  20. Aditya Jindal says:

    Thanx 4 d detailed guidence. I have a quarry. In d Ist exp. The residual value comes to 2.36% of original cost. Should we not require it to maintain at 5% of original cost instead of 5% of carrying cost as on 1.4.14 as cited in d exp. Ur reply is solicited.

  21. CA K.S.HARIHARAN says:

    SIR,
    IN THE SECOND EXAMPLE IF THE CARRYING VALUE AS ON 01.04.2014 IS RS.3000/-INSTEAD OF RS.9104/- ASSUMING OTHER THINGS BEING SAME WHAT ADJUSTMENT SHOULD BE DONE? KINDLY CLARIFY

  22. Rohit Kapoor says:

    Thank U M. S Kumar for appreciation.

    Mr. Ritesh Aror, I know as per ICAI guidance Note we can write off cost but these are the provisions of Companies Act and not the Guidance Note of ICAI.

  23. M.S.Kumar says:

    Very informative article.Thanks

  24. Ritesh Arora says:

    Please read icai guidance note,companies can write off cost of asset in ithe year of acquisition as per materiality level of asset

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