Comparison of the Reporting Companies (Auditor’s Report) Order 2020 (CARO 2020) vis a vis Companies (Auditor’s Report) Order 2016 (CARO 2016)

Applicability of Companies (Auditor’s Report) Order 2020

It shall apply to every company including a foreign company as defined in clause (42) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013) [hereinafter referred to as the Companies Act], except–

  • a banking company as defined in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);
  • an insurance company as defined under the Insurance Act, 1938 (4 of 1938);
  • a company licensed to operate under section 8 of the Companies Act;
  • a One Person Company as defined in clause (62) of section 2 of the Companies Act and a small company as defined in clause (85) of section 2 of the Companies Act; and
  • a private limited company, not being a subsidiary or holding company of a public company, having a paid up capital and reserves and surplus not more than one crore rupees as on the balance sheet date and which does not have total borrowings exceeding one crore rupees from any bank or financial institution at any point of time during the financial year and which does not have a total revenue as disclosed in Scheduled III to the Companies Act (including revenue from discontinuing operations) exceeding ten crore rupees during the financial year as per the financial statements.

CARO 2020 Vs CARO 2016

Clause by Clause Comparison between CARO, 2016 and CARO, 2020

CARO 2016 CARO 2020
ISSUE DATE 29 March, 2016 25th February,2020
EFFE-CTIVE DATE Audits    of    FY    2015-16 and onwards Audits of FY 2019-20 and onwards
Para 3 – (clause by clause) (i)(a) whether the company is maintaining proper records showing full particulars, including quantitative details and situation of fixed assets; (i)(a) (A) whether the company is maintaining proper records showing full particulars, including quantitative details and situation of Property, Plant and Equipment;

(B) whether the company is maintaining proper records showing full particulars of intangible assets;

(b) whether these fixed assets have been physically verified by the management at reasonable intervals; whether any material discrepancies were noticed on such verification and if so, whether the same have been properly dealt with in the books of account; (b) whether these Property, Plant and Equipment have been physically verified by the management at reasonable intervals; whether any material discrepancies were noticed on such verification and if so, whether the same have been properly dealt with in the books of account;
(c) whether the title deeds of immovable  properties  are  held in the  name  of  the company.  If not, provide the details thereof; (c) whether the title deeds of all the immovable properties. (other than properties where the Company is the lessee and the lease agreements are duly executed in favour of the lessee) disclosed in the financial statements are held in the name of the company. If not, provide the details thereof in the format below;

Descri-ption of property Gross carrying value Held in the name of Whe-ther prom-oter, director or their relative or empl-oyee Period held              – indicate range, where appro-priate Reason for not being held in the name of the company*
*also indicate if in dispute
(d) Whether the Company has revalued its Property, Plant and Equipment (including Right of Use assets) or intangible assets or both during the year and, if so, whether the revaluation is based on the valuation by a Registered Valuer; specify the amount of change, if change is 10% or more in the aggregate of the net carrying value of each class of Property, Plant and Equipment or intangible assets;
(e) Whether any proceedings have been initiated or are pending against the company for holding any Benami property under the “Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 and Rules made there under; if so, whether the Company has appropriately disclosed the details in its financial statements;
(ii) whether physical verification of inventory has been conducted at reasonable intervals by the management and whether any material discrepancies were noticed and if so, whether they have been properly dealt with in the books of account; (ii) (a) whether physical verification of inventory has been conducted at reasonable intervals by the management and whether, in the opinion of the auditor, the coverage and procedure of such verification by the management is appropriate; whether any discrepancies of 10% or more in the aggregate for each class of inventory were noticed and if so, whether they have been properly dealt with in the books of account;
(b) whether during any point of time of the year, the Company has been sanctioned working capital limits in excess of Rs. 5 crores, in aggregate, from banks or financial institutions on the basis of security of current assets; whether the quarterly returns or statements filed by the Company with such banks or financial institutions are in agreement with the books of account of the Company. If not, give details.
(iii) whether the company has granted any loans, secured or unsecured to companies, firms, Limited Liability Partnerships or other parties covered in the register maintained under section 189 of the Companies Act, 2013. If so,

(a) whether the terms and conditions of the grant of such loans are not prejudicial to the company’s interest;

(iii) whether during the  year  the  company  has made investments in, provided any guarantee or security or granted any loans or advances in the nature of loans, secured or unsecured to companies, firms, Limited Liability Partnerships or any other parties. If so,

(a) whether during the year the company has provided loans or provided advances in the nature of loans, or stood guarantee, or provided security to any other entity [not applicable to companies whose principal business is to give loans], if so, indicate-

(A) the aggregate amount during the year, and balance outstanding at the balance sheet date with respect to such loans or advances and guarantees or security to subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates.

(B) the aggregate amount during the year, and balance outstanding at the balance sheet date with respect to such loans or advances and guarantees or security to parties other than subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates.

(b) whether the schedule of repayment of principal and payment of interest has been stipulated and whether the repayments or receipts are regular; (b) whether the investments made, guarantees provided, security given and the terms and conditions of the grant of all loans and advances in the nature  of loans and guarantees provided are not prejudicial to the company’s interest;
(c)if the amount is overdue, state the total amount overdue for more than ninety days, and whether reasonable steps have been taken by the company for recovery of the principal and interest; (c) in respect of loans and advances in the nature of loans whether the schedule of repayment of principal and payment of interest has been stipulated and whether the repayments or receipts are regular;
(d) if the amount is overdue, state the total amount overdue for more than ninety days, and whether reasonable steps have been taken by the company for recovery of the principal and interest;
(e) whether any loan or advance in the nature of loan granted which has fallen due during the year, has been renewed or extended or fresh loans granted to settle the overdue of existing loans given to the same parties; If so, specify the aggregate amount of such dues renewed or extended or settled by fresh loans and the percentage of the aggregate to the total loans or advances in the nature of loans granted during the year. [Not applicable to companies whose principal business is to give loans];
(f) whether the Company has granted any loans or advances in the nature of loans either repayable on demand or without specifying any terms or period of repayment; if so, specify the aggregate amount, percentage thereof to the total loans granted, aggregate amount of loans granted to Promoters, related parties as defined in clause (76) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013
(iv) in respect of loans, investments, guarantees, and security whether provisions of section 185 and 186 of the Companies Act, 2013 have been complied with. If not, provide the details thereof. iv) in respect of loans, investments, guarantees,  and security whether provisions of section 185 and 186 of the Companies Act, 2013 have been complied with. If not, provide the details thereof.
(v) in case, the company has accepted deposits, whether the directives issued by the Reserve Bank of India and the provisions of sections 73 to 76 or any other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and the rules framed there under, where applicable, have been complied with? If not, the nature of such contraventions be stated; If an order  has been passed by Company Law  Board   or National Company Law Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any court or any other tribunal, whether the same has been complied with or not? (v) in respect of deposits accepted by the Company  or amounts which are deemed to be deposits, whether the directives issued by the Reserve Bank of India and the provisions of sections 73 to 76 or any other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and the rules framed there under, where applicable, have been complied with? If not, the nature of such contraventions be stated; If an order has been passed by Company Law Board or National Company Law Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any court or any other tribunal, whether the same has been complied with or not?
(vi)  whether   maintenance   of cost records has been specified by the Central Government under sub-section (1) of section 148 of the Companies Act, 2013 and whether such accounts and records have been so made and maintained. (vi) whether maintenance of cost records has been specified by the Central Government under sub- section (1) of section 148 of the Companies Act and whether such accounts and records have been so made and maintained.
(vii)(a) whether the company is regular in depositing undisputed statutory dues including provident fund, employees’ state insurance, income-tax, sales-tax, service tax, duty of customs, duty of excise, value added tax, cess and any other statutory dues to the appropriate authorities and if not, the extent of the arrears of outstanding statutory dues as on the last day of the financial year concerned for a period of more than six months from the date they became payable, shall be indicated; (vii) (a) whether the company is regular in depositing undisputed statutory dues including Goods and Service Tax, provident fund, employees’ state insurance, income-tax, sales-tax, service tax, duty of customs, duty of excise, value added tax, cess and any other statutory dues to the appropriate authorities and if not, the extent of the arrears of outstanding statutory dues as on the last day of the financial year concerned for a period of more than six months from the date they became payable, shall be indicated;
(b) where  dues of income  tax or sales tax or service tax or duty  of customs or duty of excise or value added tax have not been deposited on account of any dispute, then the amounts involved and the forum where dispute is pending shall be mentioned.(A mere representation to the concerned Department shall not be treated as a dispute). (b) where statutory dues referred to in sub- clause (a) have not been deposited on account of any dispute, then the amounts involved and the forum where dispute is pending shall be mentioned. (A mere representation to the concerned Department shall not be treated as a dispute).
(viii) whether  the  company has defaulted in repayment of loans or borrowing to a financial institution, bank, government or dues to debenture holders? If yes, the period and the amount of default to be reported (in case of defaults to banks, financial institutions, and government, lender wise details to be provided). (viii) whether any transactions not recorded in the books of account have been surrendered or disclosed as income during the year in the tax assessments under the Income Tax Act, 1961; if so, whether the previously unrecorded income has been properly recorded in the books of account during the year?
(ix)  whether moneys  raised by way of initial public offer or further public offer (including debt instruments) and term loans were applied for the purposes for which those are raised. If not, the details together with delays or default and subsequent rectification, if any, as may be applicable, be reported; (ix) (a) whether the company has defaulted in repayment of loans or other borrowings or in the payment of interest thereon to any lender? If yes, the period and the amount of default to be reported as per the format below:

Nature of borro-wing inclu-ding debt secu-rities Name                of lender* Amo-unt not paid on due date Whether principal         or interest No.of days delay or unpaid Rem-arks, if any
* lender wise details to be provided in case of defaults to banks, financial institutions and Government.
(b) Whether the company is a declared wilful defaulter by any bank or financial institution or other lender?
(c) Whether term loans were applied for the purpose for which the loans were obtained; if not, the amount of loan so diverted and the purpose for which it is used may be reported.
(d) whether funds raised on short term basis have been utilised for long term purposes? If yes, the nature and amount to be indicated.
(e) whether the Company has taken any funds from any entity or person on account of or to meet the obligations of its subsidiaries, associates or joint ventures? If so, details thereof with nature of such transactions and the amount in each case
(f) whether the Company has raised loans during the year on the pledge of securities held in its subsidiaries, joint ventures or associate companies?

If so, give details thereof  and  also report if  the company has defaulted in repayment of such loans raised.

(x) whether any fraud by the company or any fraud on the Company by its officers or employees has been noticed or reported during the year; If yes, the nature and the amount involved is to be indicated; (x) (a) whether moneys raised by way  of  initial  public offer or further public offer (including debt instruments) during the year were applied for the purposes for which those are raised. If not, the details together with delays or default and subsequent rectification, if any, as may be applicable, be reported;
(b) whether the Company has made any preferential allotment or private placement of shares or convertible debentures (fully, partially or optionally convertible) during the year and if so, whether the requirements of Section 42 and Section 62 of the Companies Act, 2013 have been complied with and the funds raised have been used for the purposes for which the funds were raised. If not, provide details in respect of amount involved and nature of non- compliance;
(xi) whether managerial remuneration has been paid or provided in accordance with the requisite   approvals   mandated by the  provisions of section 197  read with Schedule V to the Companies Act? If not, state the amount involved and steps taken by the company for securing refund of the same; (xi) (a) whether any fraud by the company or any fraud on the Company has been noticed or reported during the year; If yes, the nature and the amount involved is to be indicated;
(b) whether any report under sub-Section (12) of Section 143 of the Companies Act has been filed by the auditors in Form ADT-4 as prescribed under Rule 13 of Companies (Audit and Auditors) Rules 2014 with the Central Government?
(c) whether the auditor has considered whistle- blower complaints, if any, received during the year by the Company?
(xii)   whether   the   Nidhi Company has complied with the Net Owned Funds to Deposits in the ratio of 1: 20 to meet out the liability and whether the Nidhi Company is maintaining ten per cent unencumbered term deposits as specified in the Nidhi Rules, 2014 to meet out the liability; (xii) (a) whether the Nidhi Company has complied with the Net Owned Funds to Deposits in the ratio of 1:20 to meet out the liability
(b) whether the Nidhi Company is maintaining ten per cent unencumbered term deposits as specified in the Nidhi Rules, 2014 to meet out the liability;
(c) whether there has been any default in payment  of  interest  on  deposits  or repayment thereof for any period and if so, the details thereof
(xiii) whether all transactions  with the related parties are in compliance with section 177 and 188 of Companies Act, 2013 where applicable and the details have been disclosed in the Financial Statements etc., as required by the applicable accounting standards; (xiii) whether all transactions with the related parties are in compliance with sections 177 and 188 of Companies Act where applicable and the details have been disclosed in the Financial Statements etc., as required by the applicable accounting standards;
(xiv) whether the company has made any preferential allotment or private placement of shares or fully or partly convertible debentures during the year under review and if so, as to whether the requirement of section 42 of the Companies Act, 2013 have been complied with and the amount raised have been used for the purposes for which the funds were raised. If not, provide the details in respect of the amount involved and nature of non-compliance; (xiv) (a) whether the company has an internal audit system commensurate with the size and nature of its business?

(b) Whether the reports of the Internal Auditors for the period under audit were considered by the statutory auditor?

(xv) whether the company has entered into any non-cash transactions with directors or persons connected with him and if so, whether the provisions  of section 192 of  Companies  Act, 2013 have been complied with; (xv) whether the company has entered into any non- cash transactions with directors or persons connected with him and if so, whether the provisions of section 192 of Companies Act have been complied with;
(xvi) whether the company is required to be registered under section 45-IA of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and if so, whether the registration has been obtained. (xvi) (a) whether the company is required to be registered under section 45-1A of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and if so, whether the registration has been obtained.
(b) whether the Company has conducted any Non- Banking Financial or Housing Finance activities without a valid Certificate of Registration (CoR) from the Reserve Bank of India as per the Reserve Bank of India Act 1934
(c) whether the Company is a Core Investment Company (CIC) as defined under the Regulations by the Reserve Bank of India? If so, whether it continues to fulfil the criteria of a CIC and In case the company is an exempted or unregistered CIC, whether it continues to fulfil such criteria.
(d) Whether the Group has more than one CIC as part of the Group, If yes, indicate the number of CICs which are part of the Group.
(xvii) whether the  Company  has  incurred  cash losses in the Financial Year and in the immediately preceding Financial year? If so, state the amount of cash losses
(xviii) whether there has been any resignation of the statutory auditors during the year? If so, whether the auditor has taken  into consideration the issues, objections or concerns raised by the outgoing auditors?
(xix) on the basis of the financial ratios, ageing and expected dates of realisation of financial assets and payment of financial liabilities, other information accompanying the financial statements, the auditor’s knowledge of the Board of Directors and management plans, whether the auditor is of the opinion that no material uncertainty exists as on the date of the audit report that company is capable of meeting its liabilities existing at the date of balance sheet as and when they fall due within a period of one year from the balance sheet date.
xx) (a) whether, in respect of other than ongoing projects, the company has transferred unspent amount to a Fund specified in Schedule VII to the Companies Act within a period of six months of the expiry of the financial year in compliance with second proviso to sub-section (5) of section 135 of the said Act.
(b) whether any amount remaining unspent under sub-section (5) of section 135 of the Companies Act pursuant to any ongoing project, has been transferred to special account in compliance with the provision of sub-section (6) of section 135 of the said Act.
(xxi) whether there have been any qualifications or adverse remarks by the respective auditors in the Companies (Auditor’s Report) Order (CARO) reports of the companies included in the consolidated financial statements? If yes, indicate the details of the companies and the paragraph numbers of the CARO report containing the qualifications or adverse remarks

Reasons to be stated for unfavourable or qualified answers.-

  • Where, in the auditor’s report, the answer to any of the questions referred to in paragraph 3 is unfavourable or qualified, the auditor’s report shall also state the basis for such unfavourable or qualified answer, as the case may be.
  • Where the auditor is unable to express any opinion on any specified matter, his report shall indicate such fact together with the reasons as to why it is not possible for him to give his opinion on the same.

Disclaimer: The article is based on the relevant provisions and as per the information existing at the time of the preparation. It does not constitute professional advice or a formal recommendation. In no event I shall be liable for any direct and indirect result from this article. The contents of the document are solely for information purpose.

Author – CA Jyoti Goyal, a practicing Chartered Accountant from Delhi and can be reached at Email : jyotigoyal228@gmail.com and Phone : 9811320472

Author Bio

Qualification: CA in Practice
Company: GOYAL JYOTI & ASSOCIATES
Location: DELHI, New Delhi, IN
Member Since: 23 Apr 2018 | Total Posts: 3
CA Jyoti Goyal, Goyal Jyoti & Associates Chartered Accountant in practice and can be reached at jyotigoyal228@gmail.com or 9811320472 View Full Profile

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