Summary of Indian Accounting Standard (IND AS) 110, IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements

Each Accounting Standard offers wide variety of practical applications to the stakeholders in respect of full disclosure and transparency. Therefore, I here try to summarize various dimensions with regard to the following Accounting Standard.

1. The Accounting Standards related with Consolidated Financial Statements 

A. Ind As -110

B. IFRS 10

2. Differences between Ind AS 110 and IFRS 10

INDAS-110 IFRS 10 
1. Relevant terms are Statement of profit and loss and balance sheet  1. Relevant terms are Statement of Comprehensive Income and Statement of Financial Position
2.Appendix C OF IFRS 10 dealing with effective date, transition and withdrawal of other IFRSs has not been included in Ind AS 10 —————————-

3. No Major differences between INDAS 110and IFRS 10 except the above.

 4.Objective 

The objective of this standard is to establish principles for the presentation and preparation of consolidated financial statements when an entity controls one or more other entities.

Meeting the objective 

To meet the objective in paragraph 1, this Standard

(a) requires an entity (the parent) that controls one or more other entities (subsidiaries) to present consolidated financial statements;

(b) defines the principle of control, and establishes control as the basis for consolidation;

(c) sets out how to apply the principle of control to identify whether an investor controls an investee and therefore must consolidate the investee;

 (d) sets out the accounting requirements for the preparation of consolidated financial statements; and

(e) defines an investment entity and sets out an exception to consolidating particular subsidiaries of an investment entity. This Standard does not deal with the accounting requirements for business combinations and their effect on consolidation, including goodwill arising on a business combination.

5. Scope 

An entity that is a parent shall present consolidated financial statements. This Standard applies to all entities, except as follows:

(a) a parent need not present consolidated financial statements if it meets all the following conditions:

(i) it is a wholly‑owned subsidiary or is a partially‑owned subsidiary of another entity and all its other owners, including those not otherwise entitled to vote, have been informed about, and do not object to, the parent not presenting consolidated financial statements;

(ii) its debt or equity instruments are not traded in a public market (a domestic or foreign stock exchange or an over‑the‑counter market, including local and regional markets);

(iii) it did not file, nor is it in the process of filing, its financial statements with a securities commission or other regulatory organisation for the purpose of issuing any class of instruments in a public market; and

(iv) its ultimate or any intermediate parent produces financial statements that are available for public use and comply with IndASs, in which subsidiaries are consolidated or are measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with this IndAS

This IND AS does not apply to post-employment benefit plans or other long-term employee benefit plans to which IND AS 19 Employee Benefits applies.

A parent that is an investment entity shall not present consolidated financial statements if it is required, in accordance with paragraph 31 of this INDAS , to measure all of its subsidiaries at fair value through profit or loss.

5. Definitions

A. Control

An investor, regardless of the nature of its involvement with an entity (the investee), shall determine whether it is a parent by assessing whether it controls the investee.

An investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee.

 Thus, an investor controls an investee if and only if the investor has all the following: (a) power over the investee; (b) exposure, or rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee; and (c) the ability to use its power over the investee to affect the amount of the investor’s returns.

B. consolidated financial statements

The financial statements of a group in which the assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows of the parent and its subsidiaries are presented as those of a single economic entity.

C. parent

An entity that controls one or more entities.

D. subsidiary

 An entity that is controlled by another entity.

E. Non-controlling interest

Equity in a subsidiary not attributable, directly or indirectly, to a parent.

Here, Equity means Equity share Capital, Preference Share capital, Preference dividend, pre-acquisition profit,post- acquisition profit and share in the increase in value of fixed assets

6. Accountimg Requirements

I. A parent shall prepare consolidated financial statements using uniform accounting policies for like transactions and other events in similar circumstances

Consolidation of an investee shall begin from the date the investor obtains control of the investee and cease when the investor loses control of the investee.

Non-controlling interests

A parent shall present non-controlling interests in the consolidated Balance sheet within equity, separately from the equity of the owners of the parent.

 Changes in a parent’s ownership interest in a subsidiary that do not result in the parent losing control of the subsidiary are equity transactions (ie transactions with owners in their capacity as owners).

II. Summary of Consolidation of procedures

Following financial statement is  to be prepared

A. Consolidated Financial statements of Group

The financial statements of a parent and its subsidiaries are combined on a line-by-line basis by adding together like items of assets, liabilities, equity, income and expenses. Then the following steps are taken:

a. Offset (eliminate) the carrying amount of the parent’s investment in each subsidiary (asset)

b. Recognising and measuring goodwill or a gain from a bargain purchase (As per INDAS 103) 

The acquirer shall recognise goodwill as of the acquisition date measured as the excess of

(a) over (b) below:

(a) the aggregate of:

(i) the consideration transferred measured in accordance with this INDAS, which generally requires acquisition‑date fair value;

(ii) the amount of any non‑controlling interest in the acquiree measured in accordance with this INDAS; and

(iii) in a business combination achieved in stages, the acquisition‑date fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree.

(b) the net of the acquisition‑date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed measured in accordance with this INDAS

c. Gain from Bargain Purchase. (As per INDAS 103)

In extremely rare circumstances an acquirer will make a gain from bargain purchase in a business combination. This happens when the net assets acquired is greater than the total consideration.

d. Good will or Gain from bargain Purchase should be shown in the balance sheet.

e. Non -Controlling Interest with respect to subsidiaries should be included in the balance sheet.

f. Eliminate in full intragroup assets and liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows relating to transactions between entities of the group (profits or losses resulting from intragroup transactions that are recognised in assets, such as inventory and fixed assets, are eliminated in full). While preparing the consolidated balance sheet the mutual owings are not required to be shown.The examples of Mutual owings are-

1.Trade Debtors and Trade Creditors

2.Bills Receivable and Bills payable

3. Loans and advances.

g. Unrealised losses resulting from intra-group transactions should also be eliminated unless cost can be recovered.

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