Accounting standards have been developed in India over time. It is also called Ind As. Such standards need to be adopted by various corporate form and NBFCs in India under the supervision of the Accounting Standards Board (ASB). The Accounting Standards Board was established in 1977 as a regulator and body.
ASB is a professional and autonomous body managed by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). Apart from this, there are other bodies such as Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) which regulate ASB.
Individuals, professors and academics from the above-mentioned bodies acquire different standards with regard to accounting. Indian accounting standards were developed to harmonize standards related to international accounting and reporting. International Accounting Standards comply with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The Indian government body that recommends this standard to the Department of Corporate Affairs is the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards (NACAS).
Following are the objectives of applying Indian accounting standards:
The Government of India and the Department of Corporate Affairs have announced the recognition and adoption of Indian accounting standards by all companies in India. This notice was filed under the Company Accounting Standards Act (US IND) of 2015.
In accordance with the notification above, all companies that receive this notification will be required to receive Ind As in stages during the 2016-17 fiscal year. Since its adoption, there have been three notification changes in 2016, 2017 and 2018.
Adopting Indian accounting standards comes with several advantages:
By adopting these standards, companies can harmonize accounting rules. Global accounting principles can be built through harmonization.
These are Internationally recognized accounting standards. So when a company wants to expand internationally, such principles are adopted.
The existence of these standards guarantees international recognition of all government institutions and agencies.
By adopting these standards, companies can ensure effective compliance.
In the notification, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs has highlighted the requirement of Indian companies to gradually adopt Indian accounting standards in the 2016-17 reporting year. This standard is adopted in stages, depending on the net worth and listing status of the exchange. MCA has divided the applicability and adoption of these accounting standards according to different principles. India’s system of voluntary adoption of accounting standards was applied to companies in the 2014-15 and 2015-16 fiscal years. These standards can be adopted voluntarily or mandatorily. However, MCA states that the standard must be adopted by the company for a certain period of time.
Following are the stages of implementation:
This phase is classified as mandatory according to the Indian accounting standards required by the companies. This phase is implemented starting April 1, 2016. Phase I applies to the following companies:
Note – For the application of net assets, the company’s financial statements for the last three years are audited. Since this accounting standard was introduced in 2016-17, the previous fiscal years are taken into account, namely 2013-14, 2014-15, and 2015-16.
At this point, all companies have to adopt Ind AS (Indian Accounting Standards) from 1 April 2017. Therefore, the next fiscal year is considered for the adoption of Indian Accounting Standards.
Phase II applies to the following companies:
Note – Since this accounting standard was introduced in 2016-17, previous fiscal years are taken into account; 2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16.
This stage is considered mandatory for the implementation of Ind As by all types of banks, NBFIs, SEBI regulated companies and insurance companies. This phase is effective from April 1, 2018.
Phase III applies to the following companies:
This phase will only apply to all NBFCs whose net worth is more than Rs. 250 crores but less than Rs 500 crores. This implementation will be taken into account starting April 1, 2019.
Indian accounting standards apply to subsidiaries or associate companies?
If accounting standards are adopted by Indian companies, it will apply to all forms of subsidiary i.e sister, parent and associate companies. Either form of individual qualification is not possible for this type of company. This means that the IND can be applied automatically. If a company is controlled by a foreign company, the accounting principles should be viewed as a separate basis. IND As application is not required for these companies.
What services are provided according to Indian accounting standards?
Indian Accounting Standards – Key Factors for Transformation:
There are various significant and key factors that we need to consider when Indian companies adopt the above standards:
The following table provides a list of the major applicable Ind As:
Ind AS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements
Ind AS 2 Inventories Accounting
Ind AS 7 Statement of Cash Flows
Ind AS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors
Ind AS 10 Events after Reporting Period
Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts
Ind AS 12 Income Taxes
Ind AS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment
Ind AS 17 Leases
Ind AS 18 Revenue
Ind AS 19 Employee Benefits
Ind AS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance
Ind AS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates
Ind AS 23 Borrowing Costs
Ind AS 24 Related Party Disclosures
Ind AS 27 Separate Financial Statements
Ind AS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures
Ind AS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies
Ind AS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation
Ind AS 33 Earnings per Share
Ind AS 34 Interim Financial Reporting
Ind AS 36 Impairment of Assets
Ind AS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
Ind AS 38 Intangible Assets
Ind AS 40 Investment Property
Ind AS 41 Agriculture
Ind AS 101 First-time adoption of Ind AS
Ind AS 102 Share Based payments
Ind AS 103 Business Combination
Ind AS 104 Insurance Contracts
Ind AS 105 Non-Current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations
Ind AS 106 Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources
Ind AS 107 Financial Instruments: Disclosures
Ind AS 108 Operating Segments
Ind AS 109 Financial Instruments
Ind AS 110 Consolidated Financial Statements
Ind AS 111 Joint Arrangements
Ind AS 112 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities
Ind AS 113 Fair Value Measurement
Ind AS 114 Regulatory Deferral Accounts
Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
The adoption of Indian Accounting Standards (Ind SA) has improved the comparability of financial information of Indian companies worldwide. However, Ind AS involves the application of several new and complex concepts. This requires a high level of assessment and evaluation, accompanied by detailed qualitative and quantitative information according to Ind AS.
It is crucial to understand that these Indian Accounting Standards (Ind SA) upscale the methodology of Indian Accounting. We at Book My Lectures have an expert and experienced team of professors who teach online lectures for CS, CA and CMA. We also offer recorded lectures for the same along with hard copies and soft copies. This helps aspirants to achieve their goals in the best planned way.
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