Bharat Paudel

Bharat PaudelIntroduction- The object of audit under section 44AB is only to assist the Assessing Officer in computing the total income of an assessee in accordance with different provisions of the Act. Therefore,

  • Even though the income of a person is below the taxable limit, he will have to get his accounts audited and if his turnover in business exceeds the prescribed limit.
  • If Assessing Officer wants the assessee to get his accounts audited in cases where the figures of turnover as appearing in the books of account of the assessee do not exceed the prescribed limits, he has no option but to pass an order under section 142(2A) directing the assessee to get his accounts audited from a chartered accountant as may be nominated by the Commissioner of Income-tax or the Chief Commissioner of Income-tax

Hence It must also be understood that the issue whether the turnover/gross receipt exceeds the prescribed limit is to be determined in each year independent of the results obtained in the preceding year or years. This section applies only if turnover/gross receipt exceeds the prescribed limit according to the accounts maintained by the assessee. It would be advisable to maintain basic records to support the turnover/gross receipt for declare audit required or not.


♠ Tax audit is applicable With Following Conditions:

  • Must be a person under Income tax Act
  • Must carry on business or profession
  • Must maintain books of account
  • Object to earn profit or gain
  • Profit or gain computable under Chapter IV
  • Income is Taxable or Loss allowable under Act

♣ In the Following Conditions Tax Audit is not apply:

  • Entire income exempt under chapter III i.e. section 10
  • Agricultural income [sec 10(1)]

Provision of Section 44AB

Audit of accounts of certain persons carrying on business or profession”.

44AB. Every person, —

(a) carrying on Business shall, if his total sales, turnover or gross receipts, as the case may be, in business exceed or exceeds one crore rupees in any previous year; or

(b) carrying on Profession shall, if his gross receipts in profession exceed twenty-five lakh rupees in any previous year; or

(c) carrying on the Business shall, if the profits and gains from the business are deemed to be the profits and gains of such person under section 44AE or section 44BB or section 44BBB, as the case may be, and he has claimed his income to be lower than the profits or gains so deemed to be the profits and gains of his business, as the case may be, in any previous year; or

(d) carrying on the Business shall, if the profits and gains from the business are deemed to be the profits and gains of such person under section 44AD and he has claimed such income to be lower than the profits and gains so deemed to be the profits and gains of his business and his income exceeds the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income-tax in any previous year

get his accounts of such previous year audited by an accountant before the specified date and furnish by that date the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant and setting forth such particulars as may be prescribed.

Analysis of Provision

♣ Who are required to get their accounts audited?

Every Person

  • Individual/Proprietorship
  • HUF
  • Company
  • Partnership Firm
  • Local Authority
  • Co-operative / Trust
  • AJP

As per Guidance Note on Tax Audit Issued By ICAI the following activities have been held to be Business :

(i) Advertising agent

(ii) Clearing, forwarding and shipping agents – CIT v. Jeevanlal Lalloobhai & Co.

(iii) Couriers

(iv) Insurance agent

(v) Nursing home

(vi) Stock and share broking and dealing in shares and securities – CIT v. Lallubhai Nagardas & Sons

(vii) Travel agent.

♣ Turnover

It includes

  • Profit on sale of Export License/ Duty Drawback/Cash Assistance
  • Gross interest income received by Moner lender
  • Exchange rate difference on export sales.
  • Advance received & forfeited from customers
  • Where excise duty is included in turnover, the corresponding amount should be distinctly shown as a debit item in the profit and loss account

It excludes

  • Sale/ Purchase of Fixed Assets
  • Sale Proceeds of Assets held as Investments
  • Rental Income
  • Income by way of Interest unless assessable as business income
  • Any expense which is reimbursable to the agent by the client
Nature of Business Gross Receipts/ Turnover
Selling Agent entitled only for commission Commission Earned/ Receivable
Selling agent who is vested with the Rights of Property, risk & reward in relation to goods Sales Price Received/Receivable
Consignment Agent Commission Earned
Commission Agent

      a)            Pacca Arahtia

      b)            Kaccha Arahtia


Total Sales

Commission Earned

Building Contractor Gross Receipts including value of material supplied
Speculation Business Net Gain from speculation is considered as Turnover, Since “Actual delivery” of scrips or items is not made
Money Lending Business Interest Earned
Chit Fund Business Commission Income, Brokerage Income, Service Charges
Leasing Business Gross Receipts including Lease Rent
Share Brokers Dealing on behalf of customers: Only Brokerage

Dealing on Personal Account: Sale Value

 ♣ Circumstances Audit Applicable

⇒ In case the person is required by or any other law to get his accounts audited

It shall be sufficient compliance with the provisions of this section i.e. such assessee is not required to get his accounts separately audited under this section subject to the following conditions

– The audit under that law must be completed before the specified date i.e. before 30th day of September of the Relevant assessment year &

– The audit report under that law & an additional tax audit report in the form (3CA/CD) prescribed under this section must be furnished by that date.

Basis Activity Limit Nature of Assessee
Resident Individual/HUF/Firm Other
Total Income up to Basic Exemption Limit Total Income exceeding to Basic Exemption Limit
Turnover Business 1crore Yes Yes Yes
Gross Reciept Profesion 25Lakhs Yes Yes Yes
Income/Gain Business 44AE/BB/BBB Lower than specified Yes Yes No
Income/Gain Business 44AD Lower than 8% No Yes No

(i) Turnover Basis

a. Any Business Turnover > 1 Crore

–  What if Purchase cross limit but not Sales?

It appears from the Chief CIT v. Vijay Maheshwari HUF ruling of the supreme court that it would safe for assessee to get their accounts audited under section 44AB if purchase exceeds prescribed limit although sales might not have exceeded the limit. However A mere dismissal of SLP of The Loardship Mrs. Sujata v. Manohar & D. P. Wadhwa J. J. Without assigning any reason does not mean that the High Court decision is approved on merits so as to be a judicial precedent.

b. Any Profession Gross Receipt > 25 Lakhs

ii. Profit Basis

c. If showing income below the prescribed in section 44AE/BB/BBB (Specified Business for Specified Assessee)

If 44AE/BB/BBB applicable to Assessee then the provisions of section 44AB (c) requires such an assessee to get his accounts audited irrespective of the fact that his turnover has not exceeded the prescribed limit.

d. If showing income below the prescribed in section 44AD (Any Business for Specified Assessee) and Total Income Exceeds Basic exemption limit

There is twist in the provision. Clause states “and whose Total Income exceeds the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income tax”. Important thing to be kept in mind is whether “Total Income” is exceeding the exemption limit or not. So we have to consider all the sources of income to arrive Total income

Eligible Assessee

Resident Individual, HUF & Partnership Firm

Non Eligible Business/ Profession

(A) Profession as per 44AA(1)

The following have been listed out as professions in section 44AA read with Rule 6F and other professions notified

(i) Accountancy

(ii) Architectural

(iii) Authorised Representative

(iv) Company Secretary

(v) Engineering

(vi) Film Artists/Actors, Cameraman, Director including an assistant director; a music director, including an assistant music director, an art director, including an assistant art director; a dance director, including an assistant dance director; Singer, Story-writer, a screen-play writer, a dialogue writer; editor, , lyricist and dress designer .

(vii) Interior Decoration

(viii) Legal

(ix) Medical

(x) Technical Consultancy

(xi) Information Technology

(A)  Commission Brokerage Income

(B)  Agency Business

(C)  Business of 44AE

  • When income is taxable at the rate of 8%, Assessee is not under any obligation to explain individual entry of cash deposit in his bank, unless such entry has noxus with the gross receipt (CIT v. Surinder Pal Anand)
  • No addition can be made on the ground that assessee was not able to explain discrepancies in account books (CIT v. Nitin Soni)
  • AO has no power to assess anything in excess of return income if returned income is more than 8% of Total Sales Consideration(Abhi Developers v. ITO)
  • Disallowance Provision u/s 40, 40A& 43B are not applicable (ITO v. Mark Construction)
  • Section 44AD would not apply where gross receipt of an assessee are more than 100lakhs even if the said figure includes undisclosed income ( CIT v. Sobti Construction (India))
  • As per Guidance Note on Tax Audit Issued By ICAI    
When a person is carrying on Turnover
More than one Business/Profession The total turnover shall be clubbed together & tax audit shall be conducted if the Total Turnover exceeds 1 crores or 25 lakhs as the case may be
Business as well as profession Total Gross receipts (Business & Profession) shall be checked

Multiple Business

The Aggregate ( Clubbing) sales, turnover and/or gross receipts of all Businesses ( ACIT v Dr K Satish Shetty) carried on by an assessee would be taken into consideration in determining whether the prescribed limit as laid down in section 44AB has been exceeded or not.

– Turnover is Assessee wise rather than Business wise

– Turnover of All Business Activities carried on by assessee is aggregated other than presumptive(44AD/AE/BB/BBB)

– Circumstances in which the tax audit report can be revised

  • Change in law with retrospective effect;
  • Change in interpretation of law, i.e. CBDT Circulars, Notifications, Judgements;
  • Revision in accounts of the company after the adoption in the AGM
  • Tax auditors Duty
    • To specify the reason for such revision
    • To mention the fact in the audit report that it is the Revised Audit Report

♣ Income from PGBP & other

The Language of Section 44AB is Clear. The requirement of compulsory audit is only in respect of Business carried on by the person and not in respect of his income from other sources.The audit report is required only in respect of books of account pertaining to the business.(Gai construction v. State of Maharashtra)

♣ Tax Audit applicable income v. Not applicable income

There may be another circumstance where an assessee has mixed of different source & Head of Income amenable to taxation and also get audit meanwhile one PAN accept only one ITR/Audit Report so separate form/Report cannot be file. Hence, The tax auditor auditing the books of account etc. relating to business covered by the provisions relating to Tax Audit should sufficiently indicate in his report ( For 3CA/CB/CD) that his audit report only relate to the business covered by the provisions relating to Tax Audit and his audit report does not relate to business/ other income head/source assessable under the normal provisions of the Act.

♣ Some Example

(i) Professional Receipts rupees 27Lakhs & Turnover in Business are Rupees 72Lakhs.

  • Audit of Profession as well as Business since professional Receipt exceeds limit

(ii) Professional receipts rupees 21 lakhs and total turnover from business are rupees 86lakhs

  • No Audit since neither professional receipt nor business turnover exceeds limits

(iii) Dealings on F & O : 70lakhs

Loss: 2Lakhs

Salary Income : 6Lakhs

  • Only Audit of dealing on F & O since

Section 44AB deals with Business income

Section 44AD covers speculative Business

Business Income (loss of 2lakhs) is below the 8% of turnover and

assessee’s Total Income (salary income cannot be set off with business income so that 6lakhs) exceeding the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income tax.

(iv) Proprietorship Business Sales: 38 Lakhs & Purchase : 36laks

Professional Receipt : 23Lakhs & Expenses 19Lakhs

  • Tax audit of Business since

Business income is below 8%

Total income exceeds Basic exemption limit

(v) Agricultural Income : 1.5crore

Other Income : 5Lakhs

  • No Tax Audit Since Agricultural Income is exempt u/s 10(1) & other source income below the limit

(vi) Society Receipt : 100lakhs

  • No tax Audit if Register u/s 10(23C)

Faridabad, Harayana


Tax Audit Limit for Business Rs. 2 Crore & for Profession Rs. 1 Crore

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Category : Income Tax (27028)
Type : Articles (16533)
Tags : section 44AB (135)

27 responses to “Understanding of 44AB Tax Audit”

  1. Aravindakshan says:

    S.44AB(d),states.”………and his income exceeds maximum which is not liable to tax”. Since it is stated in the section “his income” and not ” his total income” I am of the opinion that only his business income and not incomes under other heads should be considerd for the purpose.

  2. ASHOK KUMAR. B says:

    iN answer to Q#7, please correct me if wrong but Mr Manish Mittal has said Tax audit is must if the turnover exceeds Rs ONE Crore. But I am under the opinion it is upto TWO crores now if the transactions are all online and electronically done. Please confirm and reiterate that all delivery based transactions can be shown as Capital Gain since only Short Term is taxable.Long term is anyway exempt. Regards ASHOK

  3. sudesh kumar says:

    If the person is Commission Insurance agent under (LIC/OIC/GIC) or other insurance companies agent, his gross receipts app. 35.00 lacs, whether Tax Audit applicable u/s 44AB or income declare 8% net profit, or any other option

  4. harish says:

    Sales Turnover 89 Lakhs Gross Receipts 8 Lakhs
    It is Tax Audit Or Not. Total 98 Lakhs including Tax or Excluding Tax Amount

    Plz……………………………..Answer Any one

    • balakoteswara rao nannemala says:

      Yes, it is not tax audit, because total turnover +gross receipts were not exceeded Rs.100 lakks.
      (first we must have to know what is the meaning of gross receipts 8 lakhs, it is business sales or any loan receipts or sale of fixed assets or any other source) it is not in the nature of business receipts then 8 lakhs should be excluded from total turnover.
      however your turnover/gross receipts does no exceeds Rs.100 lakhs it is not a tax audit

  5. sri says:

    Dear Team,
    we have group of 20 college mates who decided to save money collecting 1K from everymonth. It’s only for our needs and personal commitment. we are collecting money and depositing in Bank for safer side. but now we got IT notice for our cash transaction which deposited in bank. we have opened a joint A/c of two people.since Joint A/c holders also has to file his own individual IT returns, it will impact him. in this case what should we do. Thisare not a profit organisation. while we are in colleges we decided to meet our requirement for emergency.
    I requrest you all, Kindly sugget us what should we do and what are the remedies.

    • Manish Mittal says:

      You motive was good but not within the permissible procedure. You can not open a joint account in name of two persons for AOP having more members.. Since u have deposited cash of multiple persons now it is income in the hands of those two persons..

      You should have entered into an MOU and opened account in the name of that body/AOP. See mere objective being fair is not sufficient, u should have consulted some expert if amount was material

  6. sai says:

    whether AOP having loss is liable u/s 44AB?

    • Balakoteswara rao nannemala says:

      Yes, and also we have to remember the audit limits u/s44AB and 44AD of incom tax Act , if the turnover is less than prescribed limit and you have declared lesser profit than the prescribed by the law, your accounts should be audited.

  7. rachna says:

    Sir, in case of partnership firm show profit less than 8% of turnover and also maintain books of accounts.

    Whether audit is compulsory or not?? Pls reply

    • balakoteswara rao nannemala says:

      it depends upon the turnover, not on the profit, if the turnover is less than Rs.2 crores, if u declared 8% then you need not required to get you books audited.if you are in business other than transport.

  8. C.R.Das says:

    Whether an NGO having charitable purpose earns income more than 1 crore, tax audit u/s44AB required ?

    • Manish Mittal says:

      Depends…if it is business receipt, yes otherwise no. Further now charitable organisations are not allowed to carry on business if they want to claim exemption

      However if a charitable trust has to get its books audited and furnish audit report in form 10B to get exemption

  9. Vinod K says:

    I am IT professional, My Current CTC is 12 LKS per year, (take home is 81k), I do Equity Trading (BTST/Intraday), I do online trading I dont have any business or office for trading. My Question is as follows:
    1. If my Transaction Turn over is more than 1CR and my profit is 1Lak then CA Audit Required for 44AB?
    2. If my Transaction is Less than 1 Cr and my Profit is 70000 then CA Audit Required for 44AB?

    • Manish Mittal says:

      See as per CBDT circular you may account delivery based transactions under capital gains… However if u have intra day transactions they are sepculative transactions and yes if their turnover exceeds 1.00 Crores u need to get books audited. Further if u have profits less than 8% of turnover then also u need to get books audited. Turnover in speculative transactions is sum of profits and loss in absolute terms.. that is in case of loss transactions also turnover is counted

  10. RAJESH says:

    what if two business of assessee
    one with turnover 5lacs
    another with turnover 1.25cr

    How to report under 44ab as only one business need to classify and how to show in return as both need to show.

    • balakoteswara rao nannemala says:

      Turnover should be calculated Assessee wise not business wise, hence both the accounts of business should audited.

  11. challaram says:

    can anyone please explain the meaning of Pacca Arahtia and kaccha arahtia

  12. CS Muralidharan says:

    I am paying Rs 2000 to my auditor for preparing & filing IT Returns. Under which section can I clalim IT Exemption for this amount?


    If an individual assessee is partner in more than 1 partnership firm carrying on business and section 44AB is not applicable on any of the firms individually but aggregate of the turnover of the firms and his share in the turnover of the firm is more than 1 crore then whether section 44 AB will be applicable on the personal accounts of the individual ?

  14. Shravan says:

    if commission income is 6 lakh and expenditure is 8 lakhs (loss ) whether 44AB applicable plz guide me

  15. shrikant kadam says:

    Sir i want to know about sec44ab of act 1961 according to this sec the form no 3 cb applicable to whom? Plz give me idea about rules 6 G (1)(b) plz guide me

  16. Rajesh Gattani says:

    1.if a individual/ huf whose gross turnover is below 1Cr./25 lakhs.(as the case may be),
    denied to opt Sec. 44AD and get audited his books of a/c Accordingly under sec 44AB then they will be liable to deduct TDS in next assessment year?
    2.if a person whose turnover is not exceeding the limit of Rs.1cr./25 lakh.(as the case may be) get a notice us 142(2A) required to get audit U/s 144AB then Such individual/Huf is liable to deduct TDS in next assessment year?

  17. Sagar Ingulkar says:

    Dear Sir,

    Thanks for the such wonderful article its very useful to me for understanding of Tax audit.

    I have one query about TDS provisions, that is I am individual and my books of account are audited under section 44AB sub clause (c) and (d, so TDS provisions are applicable to me for next year onwards ?

    • SATYAM AGRAWAL says:

      Any person whose books of account are liable to be audited shall be liable to deduct TDS,it does not matter that the person is Individual or HUF.

  18. Azad Kumar says:

    Great work Bhaai..

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