Tax Incentives to Startups under Income Tax Act, 1961 and Startups India Benefits summary

♦ What is a startup?

An entity shall be considered as a Startup:

  • If it is incorporated as a private limited company (as defined in the Companies Act, 2013) or registered as a partnership firm (under section 59 of the Partnership Act, 1932) or a limited liability partnership (under the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008) in India.
  • Up to ten years from the date of its incorporation/registration.
  • If its turnover for any of the financial years since incorporation/registration has not exceeded INR 100 Crore.
  • If it is working towards innovation, development or improvement of products or processes or services, or if it is a scalable business model with a high potential of employment generation or wealth creation.

Provided that any such entity formed by splitting up or reconstruction of a business already in existence shall not be considered a ‘Startup’.

Startups India Benefits

♦ What is Startup India? 

Startup India is a flagship initiative of the Government of India, intended to build a strong eco-system for nurturing innovation and Startups in the country that will drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities. The Government through this initiative aims to empower Startups to grow through innovation and design.

In order to meet the objectives of the initiative, Government of India is announcing this Action Plan that addresses all aspects of the Startup ecosystem. With this Action Plan the Government hopes to accelerate spreading of the Startup movement:

  • From digital/ technology sector to a wide array of sectors including agriculture, manufacturing, social sector, healthcare, education, etc.; and
  • From existing tier 1 cities to tier 2 and tier 3 cities including semi-urban and rural areas. The Action Plan is divided across the following areas:
    • Simplification and Handholding
    • Funding Support and Incentives
    • Industry-Academia Partnership and Incubation

♦ Registration of a startup with DPIIT:

  • Visit www. startupindia.gov.in
    • New User: Click on ‘Register’ and provide details OR Simply register using any of your social media accounts
    • Existing User: Login using your credentials (Go to step 4)
  • Provide OTP and other details like, startup as type of user, name and stage of the startup etc.
  • Congratulations! Your startup profile is created
  • Go to ‘Get Recognised’ directly (new users) OR
    • Dashboard > DPIIT Recognition (existing users)
  • On the ‘Recognition Application Detail’ page, click on ‘View Details’ under the Registration Details section
  • Fill up the ‘Startup Recognition Form’ and click on ‘Submit’
  • What documents do you need?
    • Incorporation/Registration Certificate
    • Director details
    • Proof of concept like pitch deck/website link/video (in case of a validation/ early traction/scaling stage startup) respectively
    • Patent and trademark details (Optional)
    • PAN Number
  • No requirement of:
    • Letter of Recommendations
    • Sanction Letters
    • Udyog Aadhar (Udyam Registration from 1st July, 2020)
    • MSME Certificate
    • GST Certificate
  • At idea stage?
    • Simply apply without any proof of concept and get recognised. Update later when you reach validation/early traction/scaling stage.
  • Got funded or recognised?
    • Tell us by updating your proof of funding, awards and recognitions received.
  • Applied for Patent/Trademark?
    • Strengthen your application by providing us your patent, trademark, copyright, plant variety details.

Note: Submit and give 2 days to process the application.

♦ Eligibility Criteria for Startup Recognition: 

Under the Startup India Action Plan, startups that meet the definition as prescribed under G.S.R. notification 127 (E) are eligible to apply for recognition under the program. The Startups have to provide support documents, at the time of application.

  • The Startup should be incorporated as a private limited company or registered as a partnership firm or a limited liability partnership
  • Turnover should be less than INR 100 Crores in any of the previous financial years
  • An entity shall be considered as a startup up to 10 years from the date of its incorporation
  • The Startup should be working towards innovation/ improvement of existing products, services and processes and should have the potential to generate employment/ create wealth. An entity formed by splitting up or reconstruction of an existing business shall not be considered a “Startup”. 

NOTE: Till date now, 23978 start-ups got recognition. 

♦ Benefits of DPIIT Recognition for startup:

> DPIIT-Recognised Startups are eligible for the following benefits:

  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) benefits

Objective

To promote awareness and adoption of IPRs by Startups and facilitate them in protecting and commercializing the IPRs by providing access to high quality Intellectual Property services and resources, including fast-track examination of patent applications and rebate in fees.

Details

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are emerging as a strategic business tool for any business organization to enhance industrial competitiveness. Startups with limited resources and manpower, can sustain in this highly competitive world only through continuous growth and development oriented innovations; for this, it is equally crucial that they protect their IPRs. The scheme for Startup Intellectual Property Protection (SIPP) shall facilitate filing of Patents, Trademarks and Designs by innovative Startups. Various measures being taken in this regard include:

  • Fast-tracking of Startup patent applications:

The valuation of any innovation goes up immensely, once it gets the protective cover of a patent. To this end, the patent application of Startups shall be fast-tracked for examination and disposal, so that they can realize the value of their IPRs at the earliest possible.

  • Panel of facilitators to assist in IP applications:

For effective implementation of the scheme, a panel of “facilitators” shall be empanelled by the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks (CGPDTM), who shall also regulate their conduct and functions. Facilitators will be responsible for providing general advisory on different IPRs as also information on protecting and promoting IPRs in other countries. They shall also provide assistance in filing and disposal of the IP applications related to patents, trademarks and designs under relevant Acts, including appearing on behalf of Startups at hearings and contesting opposition, if any, by other parties, till final disposal of the IPR application.

  • Rebate on filing of application:

Startups are provided an 80% rebate in filing of patents vis-a-vis other companies bringing down the cost from INR 8,000 to INR 1,600. This helps them cut down on costs in their early years. 50% rebate is also provided in filing of Trademarks vis-a-vis other companies decreasing the cost from INR 10,000 to INR 5,000.

  • Relaxation in public procurements norms:

Government of India has authorised its Ministries, Departments and Public Sector Undertakings   to relax norms in all public procurements. Startups are entitled to avail exemption on:

  • Prior Turnover
  • Prior Experience
  • Earnest Money Deposit

DPIIT recognised Startups can now get listed as Sellers on the Government of India’s largest e-procurement portal–Government e-Marketplace. Get recognised and visit gem.gov.in/startup_runway to avail the benefits!

Recognised Startups can also become preferred bidders on CPPP portals, which sees over 2,00,000 tenders every year.

Visit eprocure.gov.in to know more about Government Department Procurement.

  • Self-certification under Labour & Environment laws:

Objective

To reduce the regulatory burden on Startups thereby allowing them to focus on their core business and keep compliance cost low.

Details 

Regulatory formalities requiring compliance with various labour and environment laws are time consuming and difficult in nature. Often, new and small firms are unaware of nuances of the issues and can be subjected to intrusive action by regulatory agencies. In order to make compliance for Startups friendly and flexible, simplifications are required in the regulatory regime.

Accordingly, the process of conducting inspections shall be made more meaningful and simple. Startups shall be allowed to self-certify compliance (through the Startup mobile app) with 9 labour and environment laws (refer below). In case of the labour laws, no inspections will be conducted for a period of 3 years. Startups may be inspected on receipt of credible and verifiable complaint of violation, filed in writing and approved by at least one level senior to the inspecting officer.

In case of environment laws, Startups which fall under the ‘white category’ (as defined by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)) would be able to self-certify compliance and only random checks would be carried out in such cases.

Labour Laws:

  • The Building and Other Constructions Workers’ (Regulation of Employment & Conditions of Service) Act, 1996
  • The Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment & Conditions of Service) Act, 1979
  • The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972
  • The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970
  • The Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952
  • The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948

Environment Laws:

  • The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
  • The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Cess (Amendment) Act, 2003
  • The Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981

Note: 27 States offer Self Certification to Start-ups under 6 Labour Laws.

  • Fund of Funds for Startups (FFS)

To provide equity funding support for development and growth of innovation driven enterprises, the Government has set aside a corpus fund of INR 10,000 crores managed by SIDBI. The Fund is in the nature of Fund of Funds, which means that the Government participates in the capital of SEBI registered Venture Funds, who invest twice the amount in Startups. The flow of funds is Government > SIDBI > Venture Capitals > Startups.

Key features of the Fund of Funds are highlighted below:

  • The Fund of Funds shall be managed by a Board with private professionals drawn from industry bodies, academia, and successful Startups
  • Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) shall be a co-investor in the Fund of Funds
  • The Fund of Funds shall contribute to a maximum of 50% of the stated daughter fund size. In order to be able to receive the contribution, the daughter fund should have already raised the balance 50% or more of the stated fund size as the case maybe. The Fund of Funds shall have representation on the governance structure/ board of the venture fund based on the contribution made.
  • The Fund shall ensure support to a broad mix of sectors such as manufacturing, agriculture, health, education, etc.
  • Faster exit for Startups

Ministry of Corporate Affairs has notified Startups as ‘fast track firms’ enabling them to wind up operations within 90 days vis-a-vis 180 days for other companies. An insolvency professional shall be appointed for the Startup, who shall be in charge of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs has notified Startups as ‘fast track firms’ enabling them to wind up company for liquidating its assets and paying its creditors within 6 months of filing an application in this regard.

> DPIIT-Recognised Startups may apply to IMB for the following benefits:

Startups incorporated on or after 1st April 2016 can apply for income tax exemption. The Inter-Ministerial Board validates the innovative nature of the business for granting Income Tax Benefits and is constituted by representatives from DPIIT, DBT, and DST.

  • Tax Exemption for 3 years:
  • The recognised Startups that are granted an Inter-Ministerial Board Certificate are exempted from income-tax for a period of 3 consecutive years out of 7 *(10years from 1st April, 2020) years since incorporation.
  • Startups incorporated on or after 1st April 2016 can apply for income tax exemption.
  • Exemption for the purpose of clause (viib) of sub-section (2) of section 56 of the Act:
  • A DPIIT recognized Startup is eligible for exemption from the provisions of section 56(2)(viib) of the Income Tax Act.
  • The Startup has to file a duly signed declaration in Form 2 to DPIIT {as per notification G.S.R. 127 (E)} to claim the exemption from the provisions of Section 56(2)(viib) of the Income Tax Act.

♦ Startup India Hub:

Objective 

To create a single point of contact for the entire Startup ecosystem and enable knowledge exchange and access to funding 

Details

Young Indians today have the conviction to venture out on their own and a conducive ecosystem lets them watch their ideas come to life. In today’s environment we have more Startups and entrepreneurs than ever before and the movement is at the cusp of a revolution. However, many Startups do not reach their full potential due to limited guidance and access.

The Government of India has taken various measures to improve the ease of doing business and is also building an exciting and enabling environment for these Startups, with the launch of the “Startup India” movement.

The “Startup India Hub” will be a key stakeholder in this vibrant ecosystem and will: 

  • Work in a hub and spoke model and collaborate with Central & State governments, Indian and foreign VCs, angel networks, banks, incubators, legal partners, consultants, universities and R&D institutions
  • Assist Startups through their lifecycle with specific focus on important aspects like obtaining financing, feasibility testing, business structuring advisory, enhancement of marketing skills, technology commercialization and management evaluation
  • Organize mentorship programs in collaboration with government organizations, incubation centers, educational institutions and private organizations who aspire to foster innovation.

To all young Indians who have the courage to enter an environment of risk, the Startup India Hub will be their friend, mentor and guide to hold their hand and walk with them through this journey.

2 Startup India Hu

Tax Incentives to START-UPS as per Income Tax Act, 1961:

  • MAT: Tax credit in respect of tax paid on deemed income relating to certain companies:
    • Section 115JAA: (8) The provisions of this section shall not apply to a person who has exercised the option under section 115BAA.
  • MAT: Special provision for payment of tax by certain companies:
    • Section 115JB: (5A) The provisions of this section shall not apply to:

(ii)  a person who has exercised the option referred to under section 115BAA or section   115BAB.

Tax on income of certain domestic companies:

  • Section 115BAA: (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act but subject to the provisions of this Chapter, other than those mentioned under section 115BA and section 115BAB, the income-tax payable in respect of the total income of a person, being a domestic company, for any previous year relevant to the assessment year beginning on or after the 1st day of April, 2020, shall, at the option of such person, be computed at the rate of twenty-two per cent, if the conditions contained in sub-section (2) are satisfied:
  • Provided that where the person fails to satisfy the conditions contained in sub-section (2) in any previous year, the option shall become invalid in respect of the assessment year relevant to that previous year and subsequent assessment years and other provisions of the Act shall apply, as if the option had not been exercised for the assessment year relevant to that previous year and subsequent assessment years.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), the total income of the company shall be computed,—

(i) without any deduction under the provisions of section 10AA or clause (iia) of sub-section (1) of section 32 or section 32AD or section 33AB or section 33ABA or sub-clause (ii) or sub-clause (iia) or sub-clause (iii) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2AA) or sub-section (2AB) of section 35 or section 35AD or section 35CCC or section 35CCD or under any provisions of Chapter VI-A under the heading “C.—Deductions in respect of certain incomes” other than the provisions of section 80JJAA;

(ii)  without set off of any loss carried forward or depreciation from any earlier assessment year, if such loss or depreciation is attributable to any of the deductions referred to in clause (i);

(iii) without set off of any loss or allowance for unabsorbed depreciation deemed so under section 72A, if such loss or depreciation is attributable to any of the deductions referred to in clause (i); and

(iv) by claiming the depreciation, if any, under any provision of section 32, except clause (iia) of sub-section (1) of the said section, determined in such manner as may be prescribed.

(3) The loss and depreciation referred to in clause (ii) and clause (iii) of sub-section (2) shall be deemed to have been given full effect to and no further deduction for such loss or depreciation shall be allowed for any subsequent year:

  • Provided that where there is a depreciation allowance in respect of a block of asset which has not been given full effect to prior to the assessment year beginning on the 1st day of April, 2020, corresponding adjustment shall be made to the written down value of such block of assets as on the 1st day of April, 2019 in the prescribed manner, if the option under sub-section (5) is exercised for a previous year relevant to the assessment year beginning on the 1st day of April, 2020.

(4) In case of a person, having a Unit in the International Financial Services Centre, as referred to in sub-section (1A) of section 80LA, which has exercised option under sub-section (5), the conditions contained in sub-section (2) shall be modified to the extent that the deduction under section 80LA shall be available to such Unit subject to fulfilment of the conditions contained in the said section.

> Explanation: For the purposes of this sub-section, the term “Unit” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (zc) of section 2 of the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005 (28 of 2005).

(5) Nothing contained in this section shall apply unless the option is exercised by the person in the prescribed manner on or before the due date specified under sub-section (1) of section 139 for furnishing the returns of income for any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 2020 and such option once exercised shall apply to subsequent assessment years:

  • Provided that in case of a person, where the option exercised by it under section 115BAB has been rendered invalid due to violation of conditions contained in sub-clause (ii) or sub-clause (iii) of clause (a), or clause (b) of sub-section (2) of said section, such person may exercise option under this section:
  • Provided further that once the option has been exercised for any previous year, it cannot be subsequently withdrawn for the same or any other previous year. 

♦ Tax on income of new manufacturing domestic companies:

  • Section 115BAB:(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act but subject to the provisions of this Chapter, other than those mentioned under section 115BA and section 115BAA, the income-tax payable in respect of the total income of a person, being a domestic company, for any previous year relevant to the assessment year beginning on or after the 1st day of April, 2020, shall, at the option of such person, be computed at the rate of fifteen per cent, if the conditions contained in sub-section (2) are satisfied:
  • Provided that where the total income of the person, includes any income, which has neither been derived from nor is incidental to manufacturing or production of an article or thing and in respect of which no specific rate of tax has been provided separately under this Chapter, such income shall be taxed at the rate of twenty-two per cent and no deduction or allowance in respect of any expenditure or allowance shall be allowed in computing such income:
  • Provided further that the income-tax payable in respect of the income of the person deemed so under second proviso to sub-section (6) shall be computed at the rate of thirty per cent:
  • Provided also that the income-tax payable in respect of income being short term capital gains derived from transfer of a capital asset on which no depreciation is allowable under the Act shall be computed at the rate of twenty-two per cent:
  • Provided also that where the person fails to satisfy the conditions contained in sub-section (2) in any previous year, the option shall become invalid in respect of the assessment year relevant to that previous year and subsequent assessment years and other provisions of the Act shall apply to the person as if the option had not been exercised for the assessment year relevant to that previous year and subsequent assessment years.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), the following conditions shall apply, namely:—

(a) the company has been set-up and registered on or after the 1st day of October, 2019, and has commenced manufacturing or production of an article or thing on or before the 31st day of March, 2023 and:

  (i) the business is not formed by splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence:

  • Provided that this condition shall not apply in respect of a company, business of which is formed as a result of the re-establishment, reconstruction or revival by the person of the business of any such undertaking as is referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in the said section;

(ii) does not use any machinery or plant previously used for any purpose.

> Explanation 1: For the purposes of sub-clause (ii), any machinery or plant which was used outside India by any other person shall not be regarded as machinery or plant previously used for any purpose, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:

  • such machinery or plant was not, at any time previous to the date of the installation used in India;
  • such machinery or plant is imported into India from any country outside India; and
  • no deduction on account of depreciation in respect of such machinery or plant has been allowed or is allowable under the provisions of this Act in computing the total income of any person for any period prior to the date of the installation of machinery or plant by the person.

>  Explanation 2: Where in the case of a person, any machinery or plant or any part thereof previously used for any purpose is put to use by the company and the total value of such machinery or plant or part thereof does not exceed twenty per cent of the total value of the machinery or plant used by the company, then, for the purposes of sub-clause (ii) of this clause, the condition specified therein shall be deemed to have been complied with;

(iii) does not use any building previously used as a hotel or a convention centre, as the case may be, in respect of which deduction under section 80-ID has been claimed and allowed.

> Explanation: For the purposes of this sub-clause, the expressions “hotel” and “convention centre” shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in clause (a) and clause (b) of sub-section (6) of section 80-ID;

(b) the company is not engaged in any business other than the business of manufacture or production of any article or thing and research in relation to, or distribution of, such article or thing manufactured or produced by it.

>  Explanation: It is hereby clarified that the business of manufacture or production of any article or thing referred to in clause (b) shall not include business of:

  • development of computer software in any form or in any media;
  • mining;
  • conversion of marble blocks or similar items into slabs;
  • bottling of gas into cylinder;
  • printing of books or production of cinematograph film; or
  • any other business as may be notified by the Central Government in this behalf; and

(c)  the total income of the company has been computed,—

 (i)  without any deduction under the provisions of section 10AA or clause (iia) of sub-section (1) of section 32 or section 32AD or section 33AB or section 33ABA or sub-clause (ii) or sub-clause (iia) or sub-clause (iii) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2AA) or sub-section (2AB) of section 35 or section 35AD or section 35CCC or section 35CCD or under any provisions of 79[Chapter VI-A under the heading “C.—Deductions in respect of certain incomes” other than the provisions of section 80JJAA];

(ii) without set-off of any loss or allowance for unabsorbed depreciation deemed so under section 72A where such loss or depreciation is attributable to any of the deductions referred to in sub-clause (i).

> Explanation: It is hereby clarified that in case of an amalgamation, the option under sub-section (7) shall remain valid in case of the amalgamated company only and if the conditions contained in sub-section (2) are continued to be satisfied by such company; and

(iii) by claiming the depreciation under the provision of section 32, except clause (iia) of sub-section (1) of the said section, determined in such manner as may be prescribed.

> Explanation: For the purposes of clause (b), the “business of manufacture or production of any article or thing” shall include the business of generation of electricity.

(3) The loss referred to in sub-clause (ii) of clause (c) of sub-section (2) shall be deemed to have been given full effect to and no further deduction for such loss shall be allowed for any subsequent year.

(4) If any difficulty arises regarding fulfillment of the conditions contained in sub-clause (ii) or sub-clause (iii) of clause (a) of sub-section (2) or clause (b) of said sub-section, as the case may be, the Board may, with the approval of the Central Government, issue guidelines for the purpose of removing the difficulty and to promote manufacturing or production of article or thing using new plant and machinery.

(5) Every guideline issued by the Board under sub-section (4) shall be laid before each House of Parliament, and shall be binding on the person, and the income-tax authorities subordinate to it.

(6) Where it appears to the Assessing Officer that, owing to the close connection between the person to which this section applies and any other person, or for any other reason, the course of business between them is so arranged that the business transacted between them produces to the person more than the ordinary profits which might be expected to arise in such business, the Assessing Officer shall, in computing the profits and gains of such business for the purposes of this section, take the amount of profits as may be reasonably deemed to have been derived therefrom:

  • Provided that in case the aforesaid arrangement involves a specified domestic transaction referred to in section 92BA, the amount of profits from such transaction shall be determined having regard to arm’s length price as defined in clause (ii) of section 92F:
  • Provided further that the amount, being profits in excess of the amount of the profits determined by the Assessing Officer, shall be deemed to be the income of the person.

(7) Nothing contained in this section shall apply unless the option is exercised by the person in the prescribed manner on or before the due date specified under sub-section (1) of section 139 for furnishing the first of the returns of income for any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on or after 1st day of April, 2020 and such option once exercised shall apply to subsequent assessment years:

  • Provided that once the option has been exercised for any previous year, it cannot be subsequently withdrawn for the same or any other previous year.
  • Explanation: For the purposes of section 115BAA and this section, the expression “unabsorbed depreciation” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (b) of sub-section (7) of section 72A

♦ Special provision in respect of specified business. 

  • Section 80-IAC:(1) Where the gross total income of an assessee, being an eligible start- up, includes any profits and gains derived from eligible business, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed, in computing the total income of the assessee, a deduction of an amount equal to one hundred per cent of the profits and gains derived from such business for three consecutive assessment years.

(2) The deduction specified in sub-section (1) may, at the option of the assessee, be claimed by him for any three consecutive assessment years out of seven ** (10 years w.e.f. 1-4-2021) years beginning from the year in which the eligible start-up is incorporated.

(3) This section applies to a start-up which fulfills the following conditions, namely:

  (i) it is not formed by splitting up, or the reconstruction, of a business already in existence:

  • Provided that this condition shall not apply in respect of a start-up which is formed as a result of the re-establishment, reconstruction or revival by the assessee of the business of any such undertaking as referred to in section 33B, in the circumstances and within the period specified in that section;

 (ii) it is not formed by the transfer to a new business of machinery or plant previously used for any purpose.

> Explanation 1: For the purposes of this clause, any machinery or plant which was used outside India by any person other than the assessee shall not be regarded as machinery or plant previously used for any purpose, if all the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:

 (a) such machinery or plant was not, at any time previous to the date of the installation by the assessee, used in India;

 (b) such machinery or plant is imported into India;

 (c) no deduction on account of depreciation in respect of such machinery or plant has been allowed or is allowable under the provisions of this Act in computing the total income of any person for any period prior to the date of the installation of the machinery or plant by the assessee.

> Explanation 2: Where in the case of a start-up, any machinery or plant or any part thereof previously used for any purpose is transferred to a new business and the total value of the machinery or plant or part so transferred does not exceed twenty per cent of the total value of the machinery or plant used in the business, then, for the purposes of clause (ii) of this sub-section, the condition specified therein shall be deemed to have been complied with.

(4) The provisions of sub-section (5) and sub-sections (7) to (11) of section 80-IA shall apply to the start-ups for the purpose of allowing deductions under sub-section (1).

> Explanation: For the purposes of this section:

  • eligible business” means a business carried out by an eligible start-up engaged in innovation, development or improvement of products or processes or services or a scalable business model with a high potential of employment generation or wealth creation;
  • “eligible start-up” means a company or a limited liability partnership engaged in eligible business which fulfils the following conditions, namely:
  • it is incorporated on or after the 1st day of April, 2016 but before the 1st day of April, 2021;
  • the total turnover of its business does not exceed twenty-five**(one hundred w.e.f. 1-4-2021) crore rupees in the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which deduction under sub-section (1) is claimed; and
  • it holds a certificate of eligible business from the Inter-Ministerial Board of Certification as notified in the Official Gazette by the Central Government;

(iii) “limited liability partnership” means a partnership referred to in clause (n) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 (6 of 2009).

♦ Capital gain on transfer of residential property not to be charged in certain cases.

  • Section 54GB: (1) Where:

(i)  the capital gain arises from the transfer of a long-term capital asset, being a residential property (a house or a plot of land), owned by the eligible assessee (herein reqferred to as the assessee); and

(ii) the assessee, before the due date of furnishing of return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139, utilises the net consideration for subscription in the equity shares of an eligible company (herein-referred to as the company); and

(iii) the company has, within one year from the date of subscription in equity shares by the assessee, utilised this amount for purchase of new asset,

then, instead of the capital gain being charged to income-tax as the income of the previous year in which the transfer takes place, it shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say:

(a) if the amount of the net consideration is greater than the cost of the new asset, then, so much of the capital gain as it bears to the whole of the capital gain the same proportion as the cost of the new asset bears to the net consideration, shall not be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year; or

(b) if the amount of the net consideration is equal to or less than the cost of the new asset, the capital gain shall not be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year.

(2) The amount of the net consideration, which has been received by the company for issue of shares to the assessee, to the extent it is not utilised by the company for the purchase of the new asset before the due date of furnishing of the return of income by the assessee under section 139, shall be deposited by the company, before the said due date in an account in any such bank or institution as may be specified and shall be utilised in accordance with any scheme which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, frame in this behalf and the return furnished by the assessee shall be accompanied by proof of such deposit having been made.

(3) For the purposes of sub-section (1), the amount, if any, already utilised by the company for the purchase of the new asset together with the amount deposited under sub-section (2) shall be deemed to be the cost of the new asset:

  • Provided that if the amount so deposited is not utilised, wholly or partly, for the purchase of the new asset within the period specified in sub-section (1), then:

(i) the amount by which:

(a) the amount of capital gain arising from the transfer of the residential property not charged under section 45 on the basis of the cost of the new asset as provided in sub-section (1), Exceeds:

(b)  the amount that would not have been so charged had the amount actually utilised for the purchase of the new asset within the period specified in sub-section (1) been the cost of the new asset,

shall be charged under section 45 as income of the assessee for the previous year in which the period of one year from the date of the subscription in equity shares by the assessee expires; and

(ii) the company shall be entitled to withdraw such amount in accordance with the scheme.

(4) If the equity shares of the company or the new asset acquired by the company are sold or otherwise transferred within a period of five years from the date of their acquisition, the amount of capital gain arising from the transfer of the residential property not charged under section 45 as provided in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be the income of the assessee chargeable under the head “Capital gains” of the previous year in which such equity shares or such new asset are sold or otherwise transferred, in addition to taxability of gains, arising on account of transfer of shares or of the new asset, in the hands of the assessee or the company, as the case may be:

  • Provided that in case of a new asset, being computer or computer software, acquired by an eligible start-up referred to in the proviso to clause (d) of sub-section (6), the provisions of this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words “five years”, the words “three years” had been substituted.

(5) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any transfer of residential property made after the 31st day of March, 2017:

  • Providedthat in case of an investment in eligible start-up, the provisions of this sub-section shall have the effect as if for the figures, letters and words “31st day of March, 2017“, the figures, letters and words “31st day of March, 2021 had been substituted.

(6) For the purposes of this section:

  • “eligible assessee” means an individual or a Hindu undivided family;
  • eligible company” means a company which fulfils the following conditions, namely:
  • it is a company incorporated in India during the period from the 1st day of April of the previous year relevant to the assessment year in which the capital gain arises to the due date of furnishing of return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139by the assessee;
  • it is engaged in the business of manufacture of an article or a thing or in an eligible business;
  • it is a company in which the assessee has more than twenty-five per cent share capital or more than twenty-five per cent voting rights after the subscription in shares by the assessee; and
  • it is a company which qualifies to be a small or medium enterprise under the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Act, 2006 (27 of 2006) or is an eligible start-up;
  • “eligible start-up” and “eligible business” shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in Explanation below sub-section (4) of section 80-IAC;
  • “net consideration” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Explanation to section 54F;
  • “new asset” means new plant and machinery but does not include:
  • any machinery or plant which, before its installation by the assessee, was used either within or outside India by any other person;
  • any machinery or plant installed in any office premises or any residential accommodation, including accommodation in the nature of a guest-house;
  • any office appliances including computers or computer software;
  • any vehicle; or
  • any machinery or plant, the whole of the actual cost of which is allowed as a deduction (whether by way of depreciation or otherwise) in computing the income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” of any previous year:
  • Provided that in the case of an eligible start-up, being a technology driven start-up so certified by the Inter-Ministerial Board of Certification notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette, the new asset shall include computers or computer software.

♦ Carry forward and set off of losses in case of certain companies:

  •  Section 79: (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, where a change in shareholding has taken place during the previous year in the case of a company, not being a company in which the public are substantially interested, no loss incurred in any year prior to the previous year shall be carried forward and set off against the income of the previous year, unless on the last day of the previous year, the shares of the company carrying not less than fifty-one(51) per cent of the voting power were beneficially held by persons who beneficially held shares of the company carrying not less than fifty-one per cent of the voting power on the last day of the year or years in which the loss was incurred:
    • Provided that even if the said condition is not satisfied in case of an eligible start-up as referred to in section 80-IAC, the loss incurred in any year prior to the previous year shall be allowed to be carried forward and set off against the income of the previous year if all the shareholders of such company who held shares carrying voting power on the last day of the year or years in which the loss was incurred, continue to hold those shares on the last day of such previous year and such loss has been incurred during the period of seven years beginning from the year in which such company is incorporated.

(2) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall apply:

(a) to a case where a change in the said voting power and shareholding takes place in a previous year consequent upon the death of a shareholder or on account of transfer of shares by way of gift to any relative of the shareholder making such gift;

(b)to any change in the shareholding of an Indian company which is a subsidiary of a foreign company as a result of amalgamation or demerger of a foreign company subject to the condition that fifty-one(51) per cent shareholders of amalgamating or demerged foreign company continue to be the shareholders of the amalgamated or the resulting foreign company;

(c) to a company where a change in the shareholding takes place in a previous year pursuant to a resolution plan approved under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016, after affording a reasonable opportunity of being heard to the jurisdictional Principal Commissioner or Commissioner;

(d)  to a company, and its subsidiary and the subsidiary of such subsidiary, where:

(i)the Tribunal, on an application moved by the Central Government under section 241 of the Companies Act, 2013, has suspended the Board of Directors of such company and has appointed new directors nominated by the Central Government, under section 242 of the said Act; and

(ii) a change in shareholding of such company, and its subsidiary and the subsidiary of such subsidiary, has taken place in a previous year pursuant to a resolution plan approved by the Tribunal under section 242 of the Companies Act, 2013 after affording a reasonable opportunity of being heard to the jurisdictional Principal Commissioner or Commissioner.

> Explanation : For the purposes of this section:

  • a company shall be a subsidiary of another company, if such other company holds more than half in nominal value of the equity share capital of the company;
  • “Tribunal” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (90) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013

♦ Direct payment: 

Section 191: (1) In the case of income in respect of which provision is not made under this Chapter for deducting income-tax at the time of payment, and in any case where income-tax has not been deducted in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, income-tax shall be payable by the assessee direct.

(2) For the purposes of paying income-tax directly by the assessee under sub-section (1), if the income of the assessee in any assessment year, beginning on or after the 1st day of April, 2021, includes income of the nature specified in clause (vi) of sub-section (2) of section 17 and such specified security or sweat equity shares referred to in the said clause are allotted or transferred directly or indirectly by the current employer, being an eligible start-up referred to in section 80-IAC, the income-tax on such income shall be payable by the assessee within fourteen days:

(i) after the expiry of forty-eight months from the end of the relevant assessment year; or

 (ii) from the date of the sale of such specified security or sweat equity share by the assessee; or

(iii) from the date of the assessee ceasing to be the employee of the employer who allotted or transferred him such specified security or sweat equity share,

whichever is the earliest.

> Explanation: For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that if any person including the principal officer of a company:

  • who is required to deduct any sum in accordance with the provisions of this Act; or
  • referred to in sub-section (1A) of section 192, being an employer,

does not deduct, or after so deducting fails to pay, or does not pay, the whole or any part of the tax, as required by or under this Act, and where the assessee has also failed to pay such tax directly, then, such person shall, without prejudice to any other consequences which he may incur, be deemed to be an assessee in default within the meaning of sub-section (1) of section 201, in respect of such tax.

> TDS under Salary: 

  • Section 192: (1) Any person responsible for paying any income chargeable under the head “Salaries” shall, at the time of payment, deduct income-tax on the amount payable at the average rate of income-tax computed on the basis of the rates in force for the financial year in which the payment is made, on the estimated income of the assessee under this head for that financial year.

(1A) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in sub-section (1), the person responsible for paying any income in the nature of a perquisite which is not provided for by way of monetary payment, referred to in clause (2) of section 17, may pay, at his option, tax on the whole or part of such income without making any deduction therefrom at the time when such tax was otherwise deductible under the provisions of sub-section (1).

(1B) For the purpose of paying tax under sub-section (1A), tax shall be determined at the average of income-tax computed on the basis of the rates in force for the financial year, on the income chargeable under the head “Salaries” including the income referred to in sub-section (1A), and the tax so payable shall be construed as if it were, a tax deductible at source, from the income under the head “Salaries” as per the provisions of sub-section (1), and shall be subject to the provisions of this Chapter.

(1C) For the purposes of deducting or paying tax under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A), as the case may be, a person, being an eligible start-up referred to in section 80-IAC, responsible for paying any income to the assessee being perquisite of the nature specified in clause (vi) of sub-section (2) of section 17 in any previous year relevant to the assessment year, beginning on or after the 1st day of April, 2021, shall deduct or pay, as the case may be, tax on such income within fourteen(14) days:

(i) after the expiry of forty-eight(48) months from the end of the relevant assessment year; or

(ii) from the date of the sale of such specified security or sweat equity share by the assessee; or

(iii) from the date of the assessee ceasing to be the employee of the person, whichever is the earliest, on the basis of rates in force for the financial year in which the said specified security or sweat equity share is allotted or transferred.

(2)  Where, during the financial year, an assessee is employed simultaneously under more than one employer, or where he has held successively employment under more than one employer, he may furnish to the person responsible for making the payment referred to in sub-section (1) (being one of the said employers as the assessee may, having regard to the circumstances of his case, choose), such details of the income under the head “Salaries” due or received by him from the other employer or employers, the tax deducted at source therefrom and such other particulars, in such form and verified in such manner as may be prescribed, and thereupon the person responsible for making the payment referred to above shall take into account the details so furnished for the purposes of making the deduction under sub-section (1).

(2A) Where the assessee, being a Government servant or an employee in a company, co-operative society, local authority, university, institution, association or body is entitled to the relief under sub-section (1) of section 89, he may furnish to the person responsible for making the payment referred to in sub-section (1), such particulars, in such form and verified in such manner as may be prescribed, and thereupon the person responsible as aforesaid shall compute the relief on the basis of such particulars and take it into account in making the deduction under sub-section (1).

> Explanation: For the purposes of this sub-section, “University” means a University established or incorporated by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act, and includes an institution declared under section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 (3 of 1956), to be a University for the purposes of that Act.

(2B) Where an assessee who receives any income chargeable under the head “Salaries” has, in addition, any income chargeable under any other head of income (not being a loss under any such head other than the loss under the head “Income from house property”) for the same financial year, he may send to the person responsible for making the payment referred to in sub-section (1) the particulars of:

(a) such other income and of any tax deducted thereon under any other provision of this Chapter;

(b) the loss, if any, under the head “Income from house property”,

in such form and verified in such manner as may be prescribed, and thereupon the person responsible as aforesaid shall take:

(i) such other income and tax, if any, deducted thereon; and

(ii) the loss, if any, under the head “Income from house property”,

also into account for the purposes of making the deduction under sub- section (1) :

  • Provided that this sub-section shall not in any case have the effect of reducing the tax deductible except where the loss under the head “Income from house property” has been taken into account, from income under the head “Salaries” below the amount that would be so deductible if the other income and the tax deducted thereon had not been taken into account.

(2C) A person responsible for paying any income chargeable under the head “Salaries” shall furnish to the person to whom such payment is made a statement giving correct and complete particulars of perquisites or profits in lieu of salary provided to him and the value thereof in such form and manner as may be prescribed.

(2D) The person responsible for making the payment referred to in sub-section (1) shall, for the purposes of estimating income of the assessee or computing tax deductible under sub-section (1), obtain from the assessee the evidence or proof or particulars of prescribed claims (including claim for set-off of loss) under the provisions of the Act in such form and manner as may be prescribed.

(3)  The person responsible for making the payment referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A) or sub-section (2) or sub-section (2A) or sub-section (2B) may, at the time of making any deduction, increase or reduce the amount to be deducted under this section for the purpose of adjusting any excess or deficiency arising out of any previous deduction or failure to deduct during the financial year.

(4)  The trustees of a recognised provident fund, or any person authorised by the regulations of the fund to make payment of accumulated balances due to employees, shall, in cases where sub-rule (1) of rule 9 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule applies, at the time an accumulated balance due to an employee is paid, make therefrom the deduction provided in rule 10 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule.

(5)  Where any contribution made by an employer, including interest on such contributions, if any, in an approved superannuation fund is paid to the employee, tax on the amount so paid shall be deducted by the trustees of the fund to the extent provided in rule 6 of Part B of the Fourth Schedule.

(6)  For the purposes of deduction of tax on salary payable in foreign currency, the value in rupees of such salary shall be calculated at the prescribed rate of exchange.

♦ Notice of demand: 

  • Section 156: (1) When any tax, interest, penalty, fine or any other sum is payable in consequence of any order passed under this Act, the Assessing Officer shall serve upon the assessee a notice of demand in the prescribed form specifying the sum so payable:
    • Provided that where any sum is determined to be payable by the assessee or the deductor or the collector under sub-section (1) of section 143 or sub-section (1) of section 200A or sub-section (1) of section 206CB, the intimation under those sub-sections shall be deemed to be a notice of demand for the purposes of this section.

(2) Where the income of the assessee of any assessment year, beginning on or after the 1st day of April, 2021, includes income of the nature specified in clause (vi) of sub-section (2) of section 17 and such specified security or sweat equity shares referred to in the said clause are allotted or transferred directly or indirectly by the current employer, being an eligible start-up referred to in section 80-IAC, the tax or interest on such income included in the notice of demand referred to in sub-section (1) shall be payable by the assessee within fourteen days:

(i) after the expiry of forty-eight months from the end of the relevant assessment year; or

(ii) from the date of the sale of such specified security or sweat equity share by the assessee; or

(iii) from the date of the assessee ceasing to be the employee of the employer who allotted or transferred him such specified security or sweat equity share,

whichever is the earliest.

Conclusion: Govt. of India has provided tax incentives under Income Tax, Act, 1961 and relaxations under RBI, SEBI, etc. to raise funds to promote start-ups in India. To encourage innovations and incubators Govt. has introduced various programs and trainings.

Disclaimer: The entire content of this document have been prepared on the basis of relevant provisions and as per the information existing at the time of the preparation. Although care has been taken to ensure the accuracy, completeness and reliability of the information provided, Author assumes no responsibility thereof. The user of the information agrees that the information is not a professional advice and is subject to change without notice. In no event, we shall be liable for any direct, indirect, special or incidental damage resulting from, arising out of or in connection with the use of information.

Author Bio

More Under Income Tax

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *