Some Important Aspects of HUF Under Income Tax, 1961

  1. Partition of HUF under Income Tax Act, 1961 and its assessment after Partition.
  2. Residential Status of HUF
  3. Taxability of Income from house property in the name of HUF
  4. Proprietorship and Partnership by HUF
  5. Capital Gain Exemption available to HUF
  6. Deductions under Chapter VIA
  7. Taxability of gift received in cash or in kind by HUF without consideration
  8. Return of Income
  9. Clubbing Provisions of Section 64(2) in case of HUF
  10. Miscellaneous Issues

A. Partition of HUF under Income Tax Act, 1961 and its assessment after Partition.

The Partition of HUF should be recognized as per the Income Tax Act and not as per the Hindu Law. Section 6 of the Hindu Succession Act would govern the rights of the parties but insofar as income-tax law is concerned, the matter has to be governed by section 171(1) of the Income Tax Act, 1961 [Add. CIT v. Maharani Raj Laxmi Devi [1997] 091 Taxman 020 (SC)]. The Hindu Law does not require that the property in every case be partitioned by metes and bound or physically into different portions to complete a partition. But the Income Tax Law introduced certain additional conditions of its own to give effect to the partition u/s 171.

Section 171 of the Income Tax Act, 1961 defines the partition of HUF and deals with the provisions of assessment after its partition. Thus a transaction may be treated as severance of status under Hindu Law but not a partition under 1961 Act as physical division of property is necessary under 1961 Act [CIT v. Smt. Meera Prem Sundar (HUF) [2005] 147 TAXMAN 535 (ALL.)].

The various practical aspects related to partition of HUF are discussed as under:

Q1. What is the Partition of HUF?

• The Partition of HUF can be categorized as under:-

  1. Partial Partition – Partial partition means a partition which is partial as regards the persons constituting the HUF, or the properties belonging to the HUF, or both.
  2. Total or Complete Partition – Assets of HUF are physically divided. As per explanation to section 171 of the Income Tax Act,

‘Partition’ means

(i)  where the property admits of a physical division, a physical division of the property, but a physical division of the income without a physical division of the property producing the income shall not be deemed to be a partition; or

(ii)   where the property does not admit of a physical division, then such division as the property admits of, but a mere severance of status shall not be deemed to be a partition.

Therefore a transaction can be recorded as a partition u/s 171 only if, where the property admits of a physical division, such division has actually taken place. [Kalloomal Tapeshwari Prasad (HUF ) v. CIT [1 982] 133 ITR 690 (SC)]

Q2. What is the tax implication of Partial Partition of HUF?

A Partial partition taken place after 31-12-1 978 is not recognized the Income Tax Act, 1961 (Sub-section 9 of section 179. Therefore even after the Partial partition, the income of the HUF shall be liable to be assessed under the Income-Tax Act as if no partition had taken place.

Q3. What is the tax Implication of Full Partition of HUF?

After the Partition, the assessment of HUF shall be made as per the provisions of Section 171 of the Income Tax Act and order to be passed by the Assessing Officer.

Q4. What is the procedure of partition and assessment after partition of HUF under Income Tax Act

The following procedure u/s 171 is prescribed under the Income Tax Act regarding partition and assessment after partition of HUF:

  1. The HUF hitherto assessed as undivided shall be deemed for the purposes of this Act to continue to be a Hindu undivided family, except where and in so far as a finding of partition has been given under this section in respect of the HUF.
  2. Where, at the time of making an assessment u/s 143 or u/s 144, it is claimed by or on behalf of any member of a Hindu family assessed as undivided that a partition, whether total or partial, has taken place among the members of such family, the AO shall make an inquiry thereinto after giving notice of the inquiry to all the members of the family.
  3. On the completion of the inquiry, the AO shall record a finding as to whether there has been a total or partial partition of the joint family property, and, if there has been such a partition, the date on which it has taken place.
  4. Where a finding of total or partial partition has been recorded by the AO and the partition took place during the previous year,—

(i)    the total income of the joint family in respect of the period up to the date of partition shall be assessed as if no partition had taken place; and

(ii)   each member or group of members shall, in addition to any tax for which he or it may be separately liable and notwithstanding anything contained in clause (2) of section 10, be jointly and severally liable for the tax on the income so assessed.

  1. Where a finding of total or partial partition has been recorded by the AO and the partition took place after the expiry of the previous year, the total income of the previous year of the joint family shall be assessed as if no partition had taken place; and each member of group of members shall be jointly and severally liable for the tax on the income so assessed.
  2. Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, if the AO finds after completion of the assessment of a Hindu undivided family that the family has already effected a partition, whether total or partial, the AO shall proceed to recover the tax from every person who was a member of the family before the partition, and every such person shall be jointly and severally liable for the tax on the income so assessed.
  3. For the purposes of this section, the several liability of any member or group of members thereunder shall be computed according to the portion of the joint family property allotted to him or it at the partition, whether total or partial.
  4. The above provisions shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the levy and collection of any penalty, interest, fine or other sum in respect of any period up to date of the partition, whether total or partial, of a HUF as they apply in relation to the levy and collection of tax in respect of any such period.

Q5. Whether the sum received by a member as and towards his share as coparcener of HUF, on its partition is taxable as income?

The sum received by a member as and towards his share as coparcener of HUF, on its partition cannot be brought to tax as income [Smt. Sudha V. Iyer v. ITO 15 taxmann.com 234 (ITAT-Mum.) [2011]

Q6. Whether setting apart of certain assets of HUF in favour of certain coparceners on a condition that no further claim in properties will be made by them, is a partition under Income Tax Act?

Setting apart of certain assets of HUF in favour of certain coparceners on the condition that no further claim in properties will be made by them, is nothing but a partial partition and not a family arrangement and not recognised in view of section 171(9) of the Act. [ITO v. P. Shankaraiah Yadav 91 ITD 228 (2004) (ITAT-Hyd.)].

Q7. Whether there is an ipso facto partition of joint family properties immediately after the death of a male coparcener having coparcenary interest in coparcenary property?

The gist of the various pronouncements of the Hon’ble Supreme Court is that there is no ipso facto partition of joint Hindu family properties immediately after the death of a male coparcener of the Mitakshara school having coparcenary interest in the coparcenary property. The fiction given by Explanation 1 to section 6 of 1956 Act has nothing to do with the actual disruption of the status of a HUF. It freezes or quantifies the share of a female heir in the coparcenary property on account of the death of a coparcener at the relevant point of time.

Therefore, there was no partition and disruption of the HUF as per Explanation 1 to section 6 of the 1956 Act, in the instant case. [CIT vs. Charan Dass (HUF) [2006]153Taxman 307(All.)]

B. Residential Status of HUF

Q1 What is the residential status of the HUF under Income Tax Act?

Section 6(2) of the Income-tax Act, 1961, clearly contemplates a situation where a HUF can be non-resident also. In fact, HUF can also be Not Ordinarily Resident.

HUF will be considered to be resident in India unless, during the previous year, the control and management of its affairs is situated wholly outside India. In such a case, it will be treated as non-resident HUF.

Section 6(6)(b) of the Income-tax Act, 1961 further provides that, in case of a HUF whose manager has not been resident in India in nine out of ten previous years preceding the previous year or has, during the seven previous years preceding that year, been in India for a total 729 days or less, such HUF is to be regarded as not-ordinarily resident within the meaning of the Income-tax Act, 1961. As such, it is not necessary for a HUF to be resident in India.

Q2. How the residential status of the HUF can be determined in case of change of Karta of HUF during the relevant year?

In case of change of Karta of HUF during the year, the residential status of HUF can be determined by considering the period of stay in India of both Karta of HUF i.e. previous Karta and successive Karta.

Q3. Whether different residential status for HUF is possible for different years?

Under the Income Tax Act the residential status is determined with reference to the previous year relevant to a particular assessment year. Therefore the residential status of HUF may also be different for different assessment years considering the facts of relevant previous year.

Q4. Whether the non-residential status of Karta would alter the residential status of HUF?

As discussed in the earlier answer, the test is not where the Karta resides; the test is where the control and management of the affairs of HUF is situated. Even if a part of control and management is situated in India, such HUF will be treated as resident in India.

Though, generally, Karta is supposed to manage the affairs of HUF, it is not an absolute rule and, by consent, the power of control and management may be delegated to other members of the family, either fully or partially.

The relevant factor for determining the status is where the control and management of HUF is situated (even in part). Therefore the HUF may be resident even where the Karta was residing outside India for whole of the year.

Q5. Whether the income received by members from HUF is taxable?

As per Section 10(2) of the Income-tax Act, 1961, any sum received by an individual from Hindu Undivided Family of which he is member is exempt from tax.

But the amount received not as a member of Joint Family but in pursuance of some statutory provision, etc. would not be exempted in this section. Also the position of member of joint family in law to claim the right u/s 10(2) does not get affected only with the reason that they are living apart from the other members of the family.

C. Taxability of Income from house property in the name of HUF

1. Self occupied one Residential House & the tax gain specially by way of Interest on Loan & Repayment of Loan

2. Special 30% deduction on Rental Income also to HUF.

3. Exemption from Wealth-tax the real estate of HUF – One House Wealth Tax Free (Commercial / Rented Residential)

Q1. Whether the Property purchased with the joint fund is assessed in the hands of HUF only?

Property purchased with the aid of joint family funds, howsoever small that may be, still the property would be HUF income and cannot be income of the individual with major portion of purchase price.

The Hon’ble Madras High Court has held in the case of S. Periannan v. CIT (1991) 191 ITR 278, that

“When once the estate had become the property of the assessee-Hindu undivided family on its coming into existence, there could be no change in its character by reason of the fact that, subsequently, in the books of the assessee-Hindu undivided family, the account of Sathappa Chettiar was debited with the amount which have been drawn for the purchase of the estate. In these circumstances. The Tribunal rightly held that the Grove Estate should be considered as belonging to the assessee-Hindu undivided family.”

Q2. Whether the Income from House property to be charged in the hands of HUF only where property is purchased in the name of HUF?

In the case of ACIT vs. Rakesh S. Agrawal [2010] 36 SOT 148 (AHD.) it was held that:

AO found that the assessee had purchased a house property from ‘A’. The assessee’s case was that since the investment was made in the name of HUF, it was not declared in his individual return. The AO, however, took a view that the funds for acquiring the property in question were met from the personal sources of the assessee. He thus determined annual letting value of the property resulting in certain addition to the assessee’s income. On appeal, the Commissioner (Appeals) directed the AO to consider the annual letting value of the property in the hands of HUF and deleted the impugned addition.

D. Proprietorship and Partnership by HUF

Q1. Whether HUF can do a business in its own name?

  1. HUF can be a Proprietor of one or more than one Business concerns.
  2. Separate name can be kept of HUF business entity.
  3. No tax Audit of HUF business if Turnover within Rs. 1 crore (F.Y. 201 2-1 3).
  4. Business Income Computation @ 8% without books of account in case turnover is upto Rs. 1 crore – The Presumptive Basis

Q2. Can a Karta of HUF become partner in a firm?

The Hon’ble Supreme Court in Ram Laxman Sugar Mills vs. CIT [1967] 66 ITR 613 observed that a HUF is undoubtedly a “Person” with in the meaning of section 2(31), it is however not a juristic person for all purposes and cannot enter in to an agreement of partnership either with another HUF or Individual. It is open to the manager of a Joint Hindu family, as representing the family, to agree to become a partner with another person. And therefore any remuneration received by Karta would be the personal income of Karta and not the income of the HUF as there is no real connection between the investment of the assets of HUF and remuneration received by Karta.

Q3. Whether the amount received by Karta from partnership firm as remuneration is assessed in the hands of HUF?

The remuneration received by Karta as representative of HUF cannot be treated as income of the HUF. Remuneration will be income of HUF only when there is direct nexus between family funds and remuneration paid.

In Brij Mohan vs. CIT 201 ITR 831 (1993), the Supreme Court held that where the receipt is a compensation made for the services rendered and not for the return of investment, it is to be treated as individual income of the partner.

However, where members of HUF become the partners in a firm by investment of family funds & not because of any Special Services rendered by them, then the income will belong to HUF. {Lachman Das Bhatia & Sons vs. Commissioner of Income-tax [2007] 162 Taxman 118 (Delhi)} {D.N. Bhandarkar v. CIT 158 ITR 724 Kar (1986)}

Once the character of an individual has been treated differently than H UF for the purposes of interest, there is no reason as to why that would not extend to the salary and bonus paid to such partners on account of their personal services rendered to the firm in contra-distinction to their capacity as representatives of HUF .

Therefore, the same reasoning would apply to the cases where payment in the form of salary and bonus has been made to a partner in his individual capacity in contra-distinction to his representative character of the HUF. [CIT v. Unimax Laboratories [2007] 164 Taxman 373 (P & H)].

Q4. Whether deduction is available to partnership firm u/s 40(b) in respect of salary or commission paid to a partner who was a partner in representative capacity of HUF.

As per Section 40(b)(i)

“in the case of any firm assessable as such,—

any payment of salary, bonus, commission or remuneration, by whatever name called (hereinafter referred to as “remuneration”) to any partner who is not a working partner”

Partner of a firm is an individual even if he is partner as a representative of HUF

  • Where assessee-firm paid salary to a partner who was actively engaged in conducting affairs of business of firm, it was to be held that requirement of Explanation 4 to Section 40(b) stood complied with, and, thus, assessee-firm would be entitled to deduction in respect of salary paid to said partner even though he was a partner in representative capacity of HUF. [P. Gautam & Co. vs. JCIT [2011] 14 taxmann.com 79 (Ahd.)]
  • Salary paid to working partner even though as Karta of HUF, is received as individual and as working partner, hence allowable as deduction while computing income of firm. [CIT vs. Jugal Kishor & Sons [2011] 10 taxmann.com 82 (All.)]
  • It is individuals of HUF who indirectly become partner in firm in which HUF is said to be partner and therefore provisions of Section 40(b) that prohibits deduction of payments of commission to any partner who is not a working partner, in computing income under the head PGBP, will not be applicable. Therefore deduction of any commission payable to any individual of HUF shall be allowable. [CIT v. Central Scientific Instrument Corporation [2010] 1 DTLONLINE 149 (All.)]

Q5. Whether the Salary income of wife of Karta is club in the Income of HUF?

Where a person is a partner in a partnership firm not in his individual capacity but as the karta of the Hindu undivided family, the income accruing to his wife on account of her being a partner in the same partnership firm cannot be included in the total income of such person in an individual assessment or in the assessment of the Hindu undivided family. [CIT v. Om Prakash [1996] 217 ITR 785 (SC) See also CIT v. Ram Krishna Tekriwal [2005] 274 ITR 266 , Satish Chand Gupta v. CIT [2007] 160 Taxman 224 (All.)].

In the case of Pratap H. Desai (HUF ) v. ACIT [2009] 118 ITD 29 (Pat.) it was held that:

Assessee was a partner in a firm which was dissolved with effect from 1-1-1999 and its business was taken over by the assessee in the capacity of a HUF – the assessee sought to set-off loss of the said firm against the profit of his business as HUF

Section 78(2) prohibits carry forward and set-off of losses of one person by another person except when the other person receives the losses by inheritance. Section 78 shows that where succession to business is by inheritance, then loss will be allowed to be set-off and not otherwise.

Therefore, assessee was not entitled to set-off of losses of firm against his individual income

E. Capital Gain Exemption available to HUF

General provisions applicable to HUF:

  • Cost Inflation Index benefit available to Calculate Cost of the Asset.
  • Tax benefit of 20% Tax on Long-term Capital Gains.
  • Long-term Capital Gains Saving by investing in Residential Property u/s 54/ 54F.
  • Exemption on sale of Agricultural land u/s 54B.
  • Saving Tax on Long-term Capital Gain possible by investing in Capital Gains Bonds of NHAI / RECL u/s 54EC.
  • Exemption from tax on LTCG on transfer of residential property if invested in a manufacturing small or medium enterprise u/s 54GB (introduced vide Finance Act, 2012)

Various practical aspects of taxability of Capital gain the hands of HUF are discussed as under:

Q1 To avail the benefit of adopting market value as on 1-4-1981, upto which date the capital asset should have become property of the previous owner?

Capital asset should have become property of previous owner before 1-4-1981 to make assessee entitled to benefit of adopting market value as on 1-4-1981

but where construction of building was completed in 1988 and possession of flat was handed over to previous owner, i.e., HUF, it could not be said that flat itself became property of HUF prior to that date and, hence, assessees were not entitled to adopt market value of flat as on 1-4-1981.In view of specific provisions of Explanation (iii) to section 48, indexing had to be allowed of the financial year in which flat was held by assessee on partition of HUF. [DCIT v. Kishore Kanungo 102 ITD 437 (Mum.) [2006]].

Q2. Whether the benefit u/s 54 can be available on purchase of more than one residential house Properties?

A plain reading of section 54(1) discloses that when an individual assessee or an HUF assessee sells a residential building or land appurtenant thereto, he can invest capital gain for purchase of a residential building to seek exemption of the capital gain tax. The expression ‘a residential house’ should be understood in a sense that building should be residential in nature and ‘a’ should not be understood to indicate a singular number.

That when an HUF’s residential house is sold, the capital gain should be invested for the purchase of only one residential house, is an incorrect proposition. After all, the property of the HUF is held by the members as joint tenants. If the members, keeping in view the future needs in event of separation, purchase more than one residential building, it cannot be said that the benefit of exemption is to be denied u/s 54(1).

[CIT v. D. Ananda Basappa 180 Taxman 4 (Kar.) [2009] ]

Q3. Whether to claim benefit of section 54F, residential house which is purchased or constructed has to be of same assessee whose agricultural land is sold?

To claim benefit u/s 54F, residential house which is purchased or constructed has to be of same assessee whose agricultural land is sold.

The, it is written it same view is expressed by Delhi High Court in the case of Vipin Malik (HUF) Vs CIT 183 Taxman 296 (2009), It was held that:

“The agricultural land, which was sold was of the HUF of the assessee but the flat purchased in the co-operative society was not in the name of the HUF. The flat was in the individual name of the assessee along with his mother. To claim the benefit of section 54F, the residential house which is purchased or constructed has to be of the same assessee whose agricultural land is sold and it was not the case in the instant case. [Para 9]

Clearly, therefore, there was no question of applicability of section 54F in the aforesaid facts and circumstances.”

Q4. Whether in terms of section 48, payment made by assessee for education, maintenance and marriage of his unmarried daughter, though under consent decree, could be said to be an expenditure wholly and exclusively incurred in connection with transfer of property?

Under section 48, any payment made by assessee for education, maintenance and marriage of his unmarried daughter, though under consent decree, could not be said to be an expenditure wholly and exclusively incurred in connection with transfer of property or could also not be considered as a cost of acquisition or cost of improvement.

[Krishnadas G. Parikh v. DCIT [2008] 114 ITD 362 (AHD)].

Q5. Whether the exemption u/s 54B of the IT Act is available to HUF?

Exemption under Section 54B is also available to HUF subject to the following condition:

If HUF transfer a land which is used for agricultural purposes by a HUF, the rollover relief u/s 54B is available to the HUF. The amendment is applicable on transfers made after 01-04-2013.

*Even before the amendment, exemption was being allowed to HUF.

Same view is expressed in K.S. Jain & Sons (HUF ) v. ITO 173 Taxman 114 (Delhi) (Mag.) [2008], it was Held, AO was wrong in denying deduction u/s 54B to assessee on ground that assessee being an HUF was not entitled to deduction u/s 54B.

Q6. Whether exemption from Capital Gain u/s 54GB newly introduced vide Finance Act, 2012 is available to HUF?

Exemption from tax on LTCG on transfer of residential property if invested in a manufacturing small or medium enterprise.

  • Available to an Individual or HUF.
  • Transfer made on or before 31st March, 2017.
  • Amount is reinvested before due date of furnishing return of income u/s 139 (1)
  • In Equity of a new start up SME company in the manufacturing sector in which in hold more than 50% share capital or voting rights
  • Amount is utilized by the company for purchase of new plant & machinery
  • The share cannot be transferred within a period of 5 years

F. Taxability of gift received in cash or in kind by HUF without consideration

1. If any sum of money exceeding Rs. 50,000 is received by the HUF without consideration then provisions of section 56(2)(vii) are applicable and the same is taxable in the hands of HUF.

2. Gift received in kind by HUF without consideration is also taxable subject to the provisions of s. 56(2)(vii).

The definition of relative provided under Explanation to Section 56(2) (vii) shall be amended by Finance Act, 2012. The amendment is as under:

The provisions of section 56 are amended so as to provide that any sum or property received without consideration or inadequate consideration by an HUF from its members would also be excluded from taxation [w.r.e.f. 1-10-2009].

For this purpose, clause (e) of the Explanation below section 56(2)(vii) is to be substituted to provide that in case of HUF, relative means members of the HUF.

After the amendment,

“(e) “relative” means,—

(i)  in case of an individual—

(A) ******; and

(ii)  in case of a Hindu undivided family, any member thereof.”

The amendment as above is inspired by the decision of ITAT in Vineetkumar Raghavjibhai Bhalodia v. ITO 46 SOT 97 (Rajkot-ITAT) (2011) where it was held that Gift received from HUF is gift from relative.

G. Deductions under Chapter VIA available to HUF

S.No. Section Deduction
1 Section 80C Deduction available to HUF[Insurance Premium can be paid on the life of any member which does not exceed 10% of total sum assured for policies issued on or after 1st Apr, 2012]
2 Section 80CCF Investment in Infrastructure Bonds up to Rs. 20,000/- (Discontinued wef A.Y. 2013-14)
3 Section 80D Mediclaim Policy on the health of any member of the family.Deduction    for payment on     account of preventive
health check ups not available.
4 Section 80DD For maintenance    including medical treatment of a
dependant member of the family.
5 Section 80DDB Medical treatment for any dependant member of the HUF
6 Section 80G Donation to certain funds, charitable institutions ,etc.
7 Sections 80IA / 80IAB / 80IB / 80IC / 80ID / 80IE / 80JJA New Industrial undertakings

 H. Return of Income

HUF is required to furnish return in Form ITR-2 or ITR-3 or ITR-4S or ITR-4, as the case may be.

However, ITR-4S (Sugam) not applicable to residents HUFs

(i)  having assets (including financial interest in any entity) located outside India; or

(ii)signing authority in any account located outside India. [Inserted vide Finance Act, 2012] In case of above HUFs, the return to be furnished

(i)    electronically under digital signature, or

(ii)   transmitting the data in the return electronically and thereafter submitting the verification of the return in Form ITR-V.

Note: E- filing is mandatory if total income exceeds Rs. 10 lakhs, (Inserted vide Finance Act, 2012).

HUFs to whom Section 44AB is applicable, shall furnish the return elec­tronically in ITR-4 under digital signature.

I. Clubbing Provisions of Section 64(2) in case of HUF

Where any member of HUF converts any property belonging to it, in to the common property of HUF, then :

  • Individual shall be deemed to have transferred the property to the HUF i.e. to the members of the family for being held by them Jointly.
  • The Income from the property so transferred shall be taxable in the hands of Individual and not in the hands of HUF.
  • On partition amongst the members – the income derived from such property as is received by the spouse shall be taxable in the hands of spouse itself.

J. Miscellaneous Issues

q1. Whether tax liability of an individual member of the HUF can be recovered in full extent from the HUF?

Demand against member of HUF can be recovered from HUF to the extent of its share in property of HUF. [Naresh B. Chheda v. JCIT [2011] 9 taxmann.com 86 (Bom.)]

“‘N’, a constituent of the HUF, would, therefore, have an undivided share in the amount lying in the bank account of the HUF. The Assessing Officer, therefore, would not be entitled to attach and appropriate entire amount which was in the account of the HUF for the liabilities of ‘N’ as an individual. It could attach and appropriate the amount lying in the bank account of the HUF only to the extent falling to the share of the said ‘N’.”

Q2. What is the scope and effect of a reopening of assessment of HUF where the notice was issued to the individual member of HUF?

The Act recognizes status of HUF different from individual status of Karta of HUF and two are treated as different legal entities, it is necessary that notice u/s 148 should be sent in correct status because jurisdiction to make assessment is assumed by issuing valid notice and it cannot be conferred by consent of parties. After having issued notice u/s 148 to individual, AO had no jurisdiction to assess HUF of assessee and that defect of jurisdiction could not be cured by obtaining consent of assessee to assess him in status of HUF. [Suraj Mal, HUF v. ITO 109 ITD 327 (Delhi) (TM) [2007], also see CIT v. Rohtas 167 Taxman 233 (P & H) [2008]].

Q3. Whether the HUF property loses the character of HUF merely because one male member or coparcener at one point of time?

  • Bombay High Court held in the case of Dr. Prakash B. Sultane v. CIT [2005] 148 Taxman 353 that,
  • Joint family property does not lose its character merely because at one point of time there was only one male member or one coparcener.
  • An assessee who has received share on partition of HUF property but subsequently gets married is entitled to be assessed in respect of the said share in said property in status of HUF.

Q4. What are the relevant provisions for unreasonable payments made by HUF under the Income Tax Act?

According to the provisions of Section 40A(2)

“Where the assessee incurs any expenditure in respect of which payment has been or is to be made to any person referred to in clause (b) of this sub-sec., and the AO is of opinion that such expenditure is excessive or unreasonable having regard to the fair market value of the goods, services or facilities for which the payment is made or the legitimate needs of the business or profession of the assessee or the benefit derived by or accruing to him therefrom, so much of the expenditure as is so considered by him to be excessive or unreasonable shall not be allowed as a deduction.”

Note that the Expenditure must be unreasonable or excessive

  • Provision of Sec. 40A(2) has no application unless it is first held that the expenditure was excessive or unreasonable. [Upper India Publishing House (P) Ltd. v. CIT (1979) 117 ITR 569 (SC)].

For the purpose of Sec. 40A(2)(a) following persons are specified:

  1. where the assessee is a HUF- any member of the family, or any relative of such member;
  2. HUF having a substantial interest in the business or profession of the assessee or any member of such family, or any relative of such member;
  3. a HUF of which a member, has a substantial interest in the business or profession of the assessee; or any member of such family or any relative of such member;
  4. any person who carries on a business or profession, where the assessee being HUF or member of the family, or any relative of such member, has a substantial interest in the business or profession of that person.

Provisions related to stock market, mutual funds & HUF’s

  1. HUF can have a separate Demat Account.
  2. Make money by investing in shares of companies:-

(a)   Primary Market

(b)   Secondary Market

  1. Enjoy Tax Free Income for Long-term Capital Gains by holding shares for more than one year.
  2. Enjoy lower tax rate of 15% on Short-term Capital Gains u/s 111A.
  3. HUF can also invest in Mutual Fund.

Gift Vis-à-Vis HUF

– The gift made by the family of a sole coparcener to the wife of the Karta of the family is considered to be VALID. {M.S.P. Rajah Vs CGT (1982) 134 ITR 1 (Mad)}

Gift by HUF to bride of male member in the form of jewellery at the time of marriage is valid. Obligation of Karta is towards marriage of both sons & daughters. {CIT Vs A.K. Daga & Sons (2008) 296 ITR 623 (Mad) also see CGT Vs Basant Kumar Aditya Vikram Birla (1982) 137 ITR 72 (Cal)}

Gift of HUF Property By Father

  • Within reasonable limits
  • as a “gift of affection”.

[Gift of affection can be made to a wife, daughter & son]

–    Gift to stranger

  • Gift to Strangers void – Guramma v. Mallappa AIR 1964 SC 510
  • Karta is NOT entitled to give any gifts to strangers, EXCEPT for pious purposes. {Gangadhar Narsingda sAgarwal (HUF) Vs CIT (1986) 162 ITR 320 (Bom)}
  • A coparcener can dispose of his undivided interest in the coparcenary property by a will, BUT he CANNOT make a gift of such interest . It is said to be void. {Thamma Venkata Subbamma VsThamma Ratanamma & Ors. (1987) 168 ITR 760 (SC)}
  • Gift to a stranger of a joint family property by the manager of the family is void. Manager has NO absolute power of disposal over HUF property {Guramma Bharatar Chanbasappa Deshmukh Vs MallappaChanbasappa AIR 1964 SC 510}

Who is regarded as stranger?

The other persons may be related to the Karta or the coparceners in the contest of family. Other persons means excluding relatives not being members of HUF.

Gift to coparcener & members

The gift of family property by Karta of an HUF to coparceners or non­coparceners is void ab initio & not merely voidable.{CGTVs TejNath (1972) 86 ITR 96 (P&H) (FB)}

–  Gift to daughter

Hindu father can make a gift of ancestral property within reasonable limits at the time of marriage or even long after marriage. {R. Kuppayee Vs Raja Gounder (2004) 265 ITR 551 (SC)

–  Gift to wife by Karta

The Karta is empowered to make gifts to his wife within reasonable limit of the movable assets. But the Karta CANNOT make gifts to his second wife. It is invalid.{Commissioner of Gift Tax VsBanshilalNarsidas (2004) 270 ITR 231 (MP)}

– Gift by Karta to nephew

Gift made by Karta to nephew & interest on the amount gifted was deposited in the firm. It was held that gift was void. Pranjivandas S. Patel Vs CIT (1994) 210 ITR 1047 (Mad)}

– Gift by Karta to minor children of family

Gift made by Karta from

–      Natural love & Affection

–      within reasonable limits

The gift was said to be Valid {CWT/CGT Vs Shanmugasundaram (1998) 232 ITR 354 (SC)]

– Some other relevant issues in respect of gift

  • Elementary proposition that Karta of HUF cannot gift or alienate property except to the extent recognized under the Hindu Law,namely necessity etc- CGT v. P. Hanumanthappa 68 ITR 363, K.P.Gupta v. CIT 233 ITR 456
  • Reasonable limits depends upon facts – CGT v. B.V. Narasimharaju 101 ITR 74.
  • Karta can make reasonable gifts to daughters – Sushil Kumar & Sons v. ITO 234 ITR 98
  • Gift on Marriage Occasion is valid – S. Lakshmamma v. Kotayya AIR 1936 Mad. 825.
  • Gift of immovable property should be for pious purpose – CIT v. Ram Gopal Rajgharia 123 ITR 693

Expenses incurred on Marriage of a Daughter by HUF.

Marriage of daughter still remains an obligation of the Family under Hindu law. Thus, reasonable amount of gift given on her marriage should not objected by the male coparcener.

(Source – Book on Practical Aspects of Tax Audit, TDS, HUF & Capital Gains  written by CA Agarwal Sanjay ‘Voice of CA’ & Team)

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0 responses to “Some Important Aspects of HUF Under Income Tax, 1961”

  1. Nikhil says:

    Dear Sir,

    I am Nikhil, my salary income pluse share income crossing the I.T limited and comes to heavy taxes on me. I want know that can I open a huf account and save the tax.

    please suggest me on the same.

    regards,
    Nikhil

  2. pratibha saini says:

    Pratibha Says 08/12/2015 aT 8.00PM Dear Sir, I want to know that ,if we bought the plot her mother in low in 2010[take persnal lone in her sallery] And then take home lone for construction .In lone we are Co-borrow .HOW can I am take rebbat .I am repaying the whole amount of EMI in my sallery.mother in low totaly dependent on we .How we can take rebbat in HUF. 9 9719195019

  3. K.S. CHANDRA SHEKHAR says:

    I am the Kartha of my HUF consisting of my wife and two sons since 1986 since completing proper documentation of agricultural property which I received through unregistered Partitian Deed by my father who expired in the year 1961. I was a minor at the time of father’s death and complete documentation in Taluk offices was done after attaining majority and after marriage.

    In the year 1987-88, I have given funds out of HUF in the form of cash to my wife, who was a house-wife with no other sources of independent earnings or employment, to buy a residential site. The HUF funds so generated were from the sale of agricultural produce obtained from HUF agriculture property and that was sold for cash during the period as per the practice prevailing in villages.

    Now we want to dispose this residential site for the benefit of HUFcoparceners. For availing various benefits available to HUF, what proof or documents I have to produce before Assessing Officer? How to prove that the property is funded from HUF and not through any source by my wife who is a member of my HUF?

  4. Nirmal says:

    I have recently created a HUF with myself as Karta, wife and 2 children as members.

    I have the following questions:

    1) Can i give a gift of Rs 6,00,000/- (Rs 6L ) to the HUF without any tax liability on either side.

    2) This 6L will be put into FDs and also used for short term equity trading and hopefully generate income. What will be the tax treatment of this income.

    Please provide a reply with proper references.

    Later i may want to withdraw the full/partial amount or use if for family (same as HUF members) expenses. Will that be taxable?

  5. Karan says:

    I have purchased a life insurance policy under HUF, what will be the treatment to my policy, if I dissolve the HUF in future.

  6. Kunal says:

    Dear Sir,
    I would like to request the tax liability on my HUF. I am the Karta of my HUF of which my father and mother both are members along with my wife. Out of affection my father and mother both have transferred their FDs after maturing to the HUF a/c. Now the HUF is drawing interest from the sum after opening FDs, they have done the transfer along with a gift deed on a Rs. 100/- stamp paper each after my son turned 1 year old. Will the Gift be considered for taxation in HUF a/c. Also the interest received on the FDs of HUF will be clubbed to my parents income or to the income of HUF.
    Regards,

  7. ganesh says:

    I want to know that whether we can transfer a property that is in the personal name of the Karta to its own HUF, if that property has been inherited by the karta from its ancestors after the division of the property of the forefathers ??

  8. Darshil Shah says:

    Respected sir,
    i want to know that if one partnership is dissolved and new huf is formed then the property brought by the partner in huf will charged to stamp dut or there is any other way out of it.

    yours sincerely,
    Darshil shah

  9. Ashish says:

    Dear Sir,

    I want to know that whether we can transfer a property that is in the name of HUF to personal name of the Karta.

    Regards
    Ashish

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