MCA vide its notification dated 12th September 2018 notified the Sections 66 to 70 of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017, through which Section 197 has been amended and reproduced as follows:
Public Companies shall not pay managerial remuneration in excess of 11% of its net profits to its directors, including managing director and whole-time director, and its manager in respect of any financial year.
Further, Company can pay managerial remuneration in excess of following limits, if it is approved by special resolution:
|Category of Director||Limit of percentage* upto which remuneration can be paid|
|the remuneration payable to any one managing director; or whole-time director or manager||five per cent. of the net profits of the company|
|If there is more than one such director(MD/Manager/WTD)||ten per cent. of the net profits to all such directors and manager taken together|
|the remuneration payable to directors who are neither managing directors nor whole-time directors shall not exceed,—|
|if there is a managing or whole-time director or manager;||one per cent. of the net profits of the company|
|in any other case||three per cent. of the net profits|
* percentages aforesaid shall be exclusive of any sitting fees payable to directors.
Prior approval of the bank or public financial institution concerned or the non-convertible debenture holders or other secured creditor, as the case may be, shall be obtained by the company before the approval in the general Meeting, if the company has defaulted in payment of dues of such person.
The remuneration payable to such directors of a company shall be determined either by the articles of the company, or by a resolution or, if the articles so require, by a special resolution, passed by the company in general meeting.
The remuneration payable to a director determined aforesaid shall be inclusive of the remuneration payable to him for the services rendered by him in any other capacity provided that any remuneration for services rendered by any such director in other capacity shall not be so included if—
(a) the services rendered are of a professional nature; and
(b) in the opinion of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee, if the company is covered under sub-section (1) of section 178, or the Board of Directors in other cases, the director possesses the requisite qualification for the practice of the profession.
A company may pay a sitting fee to a director for attending meetings of the Board or committees thereof, such sum as may be decided by the Board of directors thereof which shall not exceed one lakh rupees per meeting of the Board or committee thereof:
Further, for Independent Directors and Women Directors, the sitting fee shall not be less than the sitting fee payable to other directors.
A director or manager may be paid remuneration either by way of a monthly payment or at a specified percentage of the net profits of the company or partly by one way and partly by the other.
An Independent Director shall not be entitled to any stock option and may receive remuneration by way of sitting fees provided under sub-section (5), reimbursement of expenses for participation in the Board and other meetings and profit related commission as may be approved by the members.
If any director draws or receives, directly or indirectly, by way of remuneration any such sums in excess of the limit prescribed by this section or without approval required under this section, he shall refund such sums to the company, within two years or such lesser period as may be allowed by the company, and until such sum is refunded, hold it in trust for the company.
Further, company may waive the recovery of any above sum refundable to it by way of Special resolution within two years from the date the sum becomes refundable.
Moreover, the prior approval of the bank or public financial institution concerned or the non-convertible debenture holders or other secured creditor, as the case may be, shall be obtained by the company before obtaining approval of such waiver, if the company has defaulted in payment of dues.
Where in any financial year during the currency of tenure of a managerial person, a company has no profits or its profits are inadequate, it may pay remuneration to the managerial person not exceeding, the limits under (A) and (B) given below:-
|Where the effective capital is||Limit of yearly remuneration payable shall not exceed (Rupees)|
|Negative or less than 5 crores||60 Lakhs|
|5 crores and above but less than 100 crores||84 Lakhs|
|100 crores and above but less than 250 crores||120 Lakhs|
|250 crores and above||120 lakhs plus 0.01% of the effective capital in excess of Rs. 250 crores:|
“Provided that the remuneration in excess of above Iimits may be paid if the resolution passed by the shareholders is a special resolution.”
Explanation.- It is hereby clarified that for a period less than one year, the limits shall be pro-rated.
(B) In case of a managerial person who is functioning in a professional capacity, remuneration as per item (A) may be paid, if such managerial person is not having any interest in the capital of the company or its holding company or any of its subsidiaries directly or indirectly or through any other statutory structures and not having any, direct or indirect interest or related to the directors or promoters of the company or its holding company or any of its subsidiaries at any time during the last two years before or on or after the date of appointment and possesses graduate level qualification with expertise and specialised knowledge in the field in which the company operates:
Provided that any employee of a company holding shares of the company not exceeding 0.5% of its paid up share capital under any scheme formulated for allotment of shares to such employees including Employees Stock Option Plan or by way of qualification shall be deemed to be a person not having any interest in the capital of the company;
Provided further that the limits specified under items (A) and (B) of this section shall apply, if-
(i) payment of remuneration is approved by a resolution passed by the Board and, in the case of a company covered under sub-section (1) of suction 178 also by the Nomination and Remuneration Committee;
(ii) the company has not committed any default in payment of dues to any bank or public financial institution or non-convertible debenture holders or any other secured creditor, and in case of default, the prior approval of the bank or public financial institution concerned or the non-convertible debenture holders or other secured creditor, as the case may be, shall be obtained by the company before obtaining the approval in the general meeting.
an ordinary resolution or a special resolution, as the case may be, has been passed for payment of remuneration as per 13[Omitted] item (A) or a special resolution has been passed for payment of remuneration as per item (B), at the general meeting of the company for a period not exceeding three years.
a statement along with a notice calling the general meeting referred to in clause (iii) is given to the shareholders containing the following information, namely:-
I. General information:
(1) Nature of industry
(2) Date or expected date of commencement of commercial production
(3) In case of new companies, expected date of commencement of activities as per project approved by financial institutions appearing in the prospectus
(4) Financial performance based on given indicators
(5) Foreign investments or collaborations, if any.
II. Information about the appointee:
(1) Background details
(2) Past remuneration
(3) Recognition or awards
(4) Job profile and his suitability
(5) Remuneration proposed
(6) Comparative remuneration profile with respect to industry, size of the company, profile of the position and person (in case of expatriates the relevant details would be with respect to the country of his origin)
(7) Pecuniary relationship directly or indirectly with the company, or relationship with the managerial personnel, if any.
III. Other information:
(1) Reasons of loss or inadequate profits
(2) Steps taken or proposed to be taken for improvement
(3) Expected increase in productivity and profits in measurable terms
IV. Disclosures in Director’s report
The following disclosures shall be mentioned in the Board of Director’s report under the heading “Corporate Governance”, if any, attached to the Financial statement:
(i) all elements of remuneration package such as salary, benefits, bonuses, stock options, pension, etc., of all the directors;
(ii) details of fixed component. and performance linked incentives along with the performance criteria;
(iii) service contracts, notice period, severance fees; and
(iv) stock option details, if any, and whether the same has been issued at a discount as well as the period over which accrued and over which exercisable.
Explanation: For the purposes of Section II of this part, “Statutory Structure” means any entity which is entitled to hold shares in any company formed wider any statute.
In the following circumstances a company may, without the Central Government approval, pay remuneration to a managerial person in excess of the amounts provided in Section II above:—
(a) where the remuneration in excess of the limits specified in Section I or II is paid by any other company and that other company is either a foreign company or has got the approval of its shareholders in general meeting to make such payment, and treats this amount as managerial remuneration for the purpose of section 197 and the total managerial remuneration payable by such other company to its managerial persons including such amount or amounts is within permissible limits under section 197.
(b) where the company—
(i) is a newly incorporated company, for a period of seven years from the date of its incorporation, or
(ii) is a sick company, for whom a scheme of revival or rehabilitation has been ordered by the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction for a period of five years from the date of sanction of scheme of revival, or
(iii) is a company in relation to which a resolution plan has been approved by the National Company Law Tribunal under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 for a period of five years from the date of such approval, it may pay 11[ “any remuneration to its managerial persons”.]
(c) where remuneration of a managerial person exceeds the limits in Section II but the remuneration has been fixed by the BIFR (Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction) or the NCLT (National Company Law Tribunal):
Provided that the limits under this Section shall be applicable subject to meeting all the conditions specified under Section II and the following additional conditions:—
(i) except as provided in para (a) of this Section, the managerial person is not receiving remuneration from any other company;
(ii) the auditor or Company Secretary of the company or where the company has not appointed a Secretary, a Secretary in whole-time practice, certifies that all secured creditors and term lenders have stated in writing that they have no objection for the appointment of the managerial person as well as the quantum of remuneration and such certificate is filed along with the return as prescribed under sub-section (4) of section 196.
(iii) the auditor or Company Secretary or where the company has not appointed a secretary, a secretary in whole-time practice certifies that there is no default on payments to any creditors, and all dues to deposit holders are being settled on time.
1. A managerial person shall be eligible for the following perquisites which shall not be included in the computation of the ceiling on remuneration specified in Section II and Section III:—
(a) contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund or annuity fund to the extent these either singly or put together are not taxable under the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961);
(b) gratuity payable at a rate not exceeding half a month’s salary for each completed year of service; and
(c) encashment of leave at the end of the tenure.
2. In addition to the perquisites specified in paragraph 1 of this section, an expatriate managerial person (including a non-resident Indian) shall be eligible to the following perquisites which shall not be included in the computation of the ceiling on remuneration specified in Section II or Section III—
(a) Children’s education allowance: In case of children studying in or outside India, an allowance limited to a maximum of Rs. 12,000 per month per child or actual expenses incurred, whichever is less. Such allowance is admissible up to a maximum of two children.
(b) Holiday passage for children studying outside India or family staying abroad: Return holiday passage once in a year by economy class or once in two years by first class to children and to the members of the family from the place of their study or stay abroad to India if they are not residing in India, with the managerial person.
(c) Leave travel concession: Return passage for self and family in accordance with the rules specified by the company where it is proposed that the leave be spent in home country instead of anywhere in India.
Explanation I.—For the purposes of Section II of this Part, “effective capital” means the aggregate of the paid-up share capital (excluding share application money or advances against shares); amount, if any, for the time being standing to the credit of share premium account; reserves and surplus (excluding revaluation reserve); long-term loans and deposits repayable after one year (excluding working capital loans, over drafts, interest due on loans unless funded, bank guarantee, etc., and other short-term arrangements) as reduced by the aggregate of any investments (except in case of investment by an investment company whose principal business is acquisition of shares, stock, debentures or other securities), accumulated losses and preliminary expenses not written off.
Explanation II.— (a) Where the appointment of the managerial person is made in the year in which company has been incorporated, the effective capital shall be calculated as on the date of such appointment;
(b) In any other case the effective capital shall be calculated as on the last date of the financial year preceding the financial year in which the appointment of the managerial person is made.
Explanation III.— For the purposes of this Schedule, ‘‘family’’ means the spouse, dependent children and dependent parents of the managerial person.
Explanation IV.— The Nomination and Remuneration Committee while approving the remuneration under Section II or Section III, shall—
(a) take into account, financial position of the company, trend in the industry, appointee’s qualification, experience, past performance, past remuneration, etc.;
(b) be in a position to bring about objectivity in determining the remuneration package while striking a balance between the interest of the company and the shareholders.
Explanation V.— For the purposes of this Schedule, “negative effective capital” means the effective capital which is calculated in accordance with the provisions contained in Explanation I of this Part is less than zero.
Explanation VI.— For the purposes of this Schedule:—
“Remuneration” means remuneration as defined in clause (78) of section 2 and includes reimbursement of any direct taxes to the managerial person.
Subject to the provisions of sections I to IV, a managerial person shall draw remuneration from one or both companies, provided that the total remuneration drawn from the companies does not exceed the higher maximum limit admissible from any one of the companies of which he is a managerial person.
Provisions applicable to Parts I and II of this Schedule
1. The appointment and remuneration referred to in Part I and Part II of this Schedule shall be subject to approval by a resolution of the shareholders in general meeting.
2. The auditor or the Secretary of the company or where the company is not required to appointed a Secretary, a Secretary in whole-time practice shall certify that the requirement of this Schedule have been complied with and such certificate shall be incorporated in the return filed with the Registrar under sub-section (4) of section 196.
The Central Government may, by notification, exempt any class or classes of companies from any of the requirements contained in this Schedule.
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