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IND AS 109, also known as Financial Instruments, is a set of accounting standards issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) for financial instruments. The purpose of IND AS 109 is to provide a framework for the recognition, measurement, and disclosure of financial instruments in the financial statements of an entity.

The standard applies to all entities, including banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions, and it covers a wide range of financial instruments such as loans, bonds, equity, derivatives, and financial guarantees. The standard requires entities to use the fair value measurement for financial instruments, which is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

IND AS 109 provides guidance on how to recognize and measure financial instruments, including the recognition of the financial asset or liability, the measurement of its fair value, and the recognition of gains and losses from financial instruments. The standard also provides guidance on how to present financial instruments in the balance sheet and how to disclose relevant information in the financial statements.

One of the key requirements of IND AS 109 is the recognition of impairment losses for financial instruments. This requires entities to regularly assess the value of their financial instruments and determine if any losses are necessarily based on the current market conditions. If a loss is recognized, it must be recorded in the financial statements and disclosed to the users of the financial statements.

Another important aspect of IND AS 109 is the requirement to present financial instruments in the balance sheet according to their contractual terms, risk characteristics, and other relevant information. This information is crucial for the users of financial statements to understand the nature and risk of the financial instruments held by the entity.

In conclusion, IND AS 109 is a comprehensive and comprehensive set of accounting standards for financial instruments. It provides a consistent framework for entities to recognize, measure, and disclose financial instruments in their financial statements. The standard is intended to provide relevant and reliable information to the users of financial statements and enhance the comparability and transparency of financial reporting.

Disclosures required by IND AS 109 are meant to provide relevant and useful information to the users of financial statements about the nature, risk, and performance of the financial instruments held by an entity. Some of the common disclosure requirements of IND AS 109 include:

1. Nature and risk of financial instruments: This includes a description of the types of financial instruments held by the entity, their risk characteristics, and the methods used to manage those risks.

2. Fair value measurement: This includes a description of the methods used to measure the fair value of financial instruments and a reconciliation of changes in fair value.

3. Impairment losses: This includes information about any impairment losses recognized for financial instruments, the method used to determine the impairment, and any significant changes in the impairment calculations.

4. Credit risk: This includes a description of the credit risk associated with financial instruments, how credit risk is managed, and any significant changes in credit risk.

5. Interest rate risk: This includes information about the interest rate risk associated with financial instruments and the methods used to manage that risk.

6. Liquidity risk: This includes information about the liquidity risk associated with financial instruments, how liquidity risk is managed, and any significant changes in liquidity risk.

7. Market risk: This includes information about the market risk associated with financial instruments, how market risk is managed, and any significant changes in market risk.

8. Maturity analysis: This includes a maturity analysis of financial instruments that shows the expected cash flows and expected maturities based on the contractual terms of the instruments.

These are just some of the common disclosure requirements of IND AS 109. The standard also requires additional disclosures for specific types of financial instruments, such as derivatives, and for specific circumstances, such as significant concentrations of risk. The goal of these disclosures is to provide relevant and reliable information to the users of financial statements about the financial instruments held by an entity.

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