Income from transfer of Carbon credits
Carbon credits is an incentive given to an industrial undertaking for reduction of the emission of GHGs (Green House gases), including carbon dioxide which is done through several ways such as by switching over to wind and solar energy, forest regeneration, installation of energy-efficient machinery, landfill methane capture, etc. The Kyoto Protocol commits certain developed countries to reduce their GHG emissions and for this, they will be given carbon credits. A reduction in emissions entitles the entity to a credit in the form of a Certified Emission Reduction (CER) certificate. The CER is tradable and its holder can transfer it to an entity which needs Carbon Credits to overcome an unfavourable position on carbon credits.
Income-tax Department has been treating the income on transfer of carbon credits as business income which is subject to tax at the rate of 30%. However, divergent decisions have been given by the courts on the issue as to whether the income received or receivable on transfer of carbon credit is a revenue receipt or capital receipt.
In order to bring clarity on the issue of taxation of income from transfer of carbon credits and to encourage measures to protect the environment, it is proposed to insert a new section 115BBG to provide that where the total income of the assessee includes any income from transfer of carbon credit, such income shall be taxable at the concessional rate of ten per cent ( plus applicable surcharge and cess) on the gross amount of such income. No expenditure or allowance in respect of such income shall be allowed under the Act.
This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2018 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2018-19 and subsequent years.
Extract of relevant clause from Finance Bill, 2017
Insertion of new section 115BBG.
45. After section 115BBF of the Income-tax Act [as inserted by section 54 of the Finance Act, 2016], the following section shall be inserted with effect from the 1st day of April, 2018, namely:—
Tax on income from transfer of carbon credits.
‘115 BBG. (1) Where the total income of an assessee includes any income by way of transfer of carbon credits, the income-tax payable shall be the aggregate of––
(a) the amount of income-tax calculated on the income by way of transfer of carbon credits, at the rate of ten per cent.; and
(b) the amount of income-tax with which the assessee would have been chargeable had his total income been reduced by the amount of income referred to in clause (a).
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, no deduction in respect of any expenditure or allowance shall be allowed to the assessee under any provision of this Act in computing his income referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1).
Explanation.––For the purposes of this section “carbon credit” in respect of one unit shall mean reduction of one tonne of carbon dioxide emissions or emissions of its equivalent gases which is validated by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change and which can be traded in market at its prevailing market price.’.