The Mediation Act, 2023, is enacted by the Parliament of India and notified recently to promote and facilitate mediation as a means of resolving disputes, including commercial disputes. The act also aims to enforce mediated settlement agreements and establish a body for the registration of mediators. Additionally, it encourages community mediation and seeks to make online mediation more acceptable and cost-effective. The act applies throughout India and came into force on a date specified by the Central Government, with different provisions possibly coming into effect at different times.

Certainly! Exploring the potential for Chartered Accountants (CAs) to practice as mediators presents an interesting opportunity. While CAs traditionally focuses on accounting, auditing, and financial matters, they can also leverage their expertise in dispute resolution and financial expertise to become successful mediators. Here’s how opportunity may be knocking for CAs considering a career as mediators:

Financial Acumen: Chartered Accountants possess a deep understanding of financial matters, including taxation, valuation, and financial planning. This expertise is highly valuable in mediating disputes involving financial aspects, such as business valuations, asset division in divorce cases, or financial settlements in business disputes.

Complex Financial Disputes: Many disputes, especially in commercial and family law contexts, involve intricate financial issues. CAs can bring clarity and precision to these matters, helping parties reach mutually beneficial agreements.

Cross-Industry Applicability: The skills of a CA are applicable across various industries and sectors. This versatility allows them to mediate disputes in a wide range of contexts, from corporate disputes to family wealth management.

Compliance and Regulation: CAs is well-versed in compliance and regulatory matters. Mediating parties often require assistance in navigating complex regulatory landscapes, making CAs valuable guides in achieving compliance-related resolutions.

Neutrality and Impartiality: The ethical principles that CAs adhere to, such as integrity and objectivity, align well with the requirements of mediation. CAs can leverage their reputation for neutrality and impartiality when mediating conflicts.

Communication Skills: Effective communication is a key mediator skill. CAs, through their experience in explaining financial information to clients and stakeholders, possess strong communication skills that can be invaluable in mediation.

Mediation Training: CAs interested in pursuing mediation can undergo specific mediation training programs to develop the necessary skills and knowledge required for the role. These programs often cover conflict resolution techniques, negotiation strategies, and ethical considerations.

Networking Opportunities: CAs have established networks within the business and financial sectors. Leveraging these networks can help them secure mediation clients and referrals from law firms, businesses, and individuals.

Online Mediation: The rise of virtual mediation, accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, offers CAs the opportunity to mediate disputes nationally and internationally without geographic limitations, expanding their client base.

Additional Services: CAs can offer a holistic package of services to their clients, including financial advice and mediation services, creating a unique value proposition that can attract clients seeking comprehensive solutions to their disputes.

Business Succession Planning: CAs can specialize in mediating disputes related to business succession planning, helping family-owned businesses navigate complex issues surrounding generational transitions.

So,  Chartered Accountants can find valuable opportunities in the field of mediation by leveraging their financial expertise, ethical principles, and strong communication skills. While transitioning to mediation may require additional training and building a reputation in the field, the demand for skilled and knowledgeable mediators, especially in financially complex disputes, can make this a rewarding career path for CAs.


Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) is a comprehensive approach to resolving disputes that diverges from the conventional court system. In the context of India, ADR encompasses various methods such as arbitration, negotiation, mediation, and Lok Adalats. Mediation, in particular, stands out as a voluntary and constructive process that facilitates the amicable settlement of conflicts with the assistance of an impartial third party, known as the mediator. Unlike a judge in a courtroom, a mediator does not impose a resolution on the disputing parties; rather, their role is to foster an environment conducive to resolving the dispute.

What distinguishes mediation as a mode of ADR in India is its reliance on the mutual consent and preferences of the parties involved. There are no rigid or binding rules governing the mediation procedure, which allows for flexibility and customization to suit the unique needs of each dispute.

There are several compelling benefits associated with mediation in the Indian legal landscape. Firstly, it is characterized by its voluntary nature, meaning that the parties willingly participate in the process, promoting a cooperative rather than adversarial atmosphere. This cooperative environment often leads to more satisfactory and lasting solutions.

Secondly, mediation is highly flexible and confidential. Parties have the liberty to design the process according to their specific requirements, and the proceedings remain confidential, enhancing privacy and preserving sensitive information.

Thirdly, the expeditious nature of mediation is a significant advantage. Compared to the often lengthy and protracted court proceedings, mediation tends to be a swifter means of dispute resolution, saving valuable time and resources.

Moreover, mediation is cost-effective, reducing the financial burden associated with litigation. Parties can avoid expensive legal fees and court expenses, making mediation an attractive option for those seeking a budget-friendly resolution.

Finally, perhaps one of the most notable advantages of mediation is the finality of consensual settlements. When parties reach an agreement through mediation, it typically results in a binding and enforceable contract, providing closure and preventing future litigation over the same matter.

In addition to these benefits, mediation can also play a crucial role in alleviating the backlog of cases in the court system. By diverting disputes away from traditional litigation, mediation can contribute to reducing the caseload on already burdened courts, promoting a more efficient and effective justice system.

In summary, mediation as an ADR method in India offers parties a voluntary, non-adversarial, flexible, and confidential avenue for resolving disputes quickly and cost-effectively, with the added advantage of producing binding and final settlements. Its potential to alleviate the strain on the court system makes it a valuable tool in the Indian legal landscape.


Pre-litigation mediation represents a significant shift in the way civil or commercial disputes are handled within the legal framework of a jurisdiction. In this approach, parties embroiled in a conflict are required, by or regulation, to engage in a mediation process before initiating formal legal proceedings in a court or specific tribunals. This mandatory step reflects a growing recognition of the advantages of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods like mediation and aims to promote a more efficient and less adversarial approach to resolving disputes.

Under pre-litigation mediation rules, parties involved in a dispute are obligated to make a sincere effort to resolve their issues through mediation before taking the matter to court. This requirement encourages parties to explore consensual solutions, fostering an environment where cooperation and compromise are prioritized over the potentially combative nature of litigation.

One of the key benefits of pre-litigation mediation is that it offers parties an opportunity to address their grievances swiftly and in a less formal setting. Mediation allows them to engage in open and constructive dialogue, guided by a neutral mediator, who facilitates communication and helps identify common ground. This process often leads to more creative and mutually acceptable solutions, ultimately saving time and resources for both the parties involved and the judicial system.

Furthermore, even if the initial attempt at pre-litigation mediation does not result in a settlement, the legal system remains receptive to the mediation process. Courts or tribunals may still step in and refer the parties to mediation at any stage of the legal proceedings if the parties request it. This demonstrates a commitment to ADR methods and recognizes their potential to resolve disputes more effectively than prolonged and costly court battles.

The requirement for pre-litigation mediation also underscores the principle of access to justice by encouraging parties to seek alternatives to litigation, which can be a time-consuming and expensive process. It empowers individuals and organizations to take an active role in resolving their disputes, reducing the burden on the already congested court dockets. This represents a progressive approach to dispute resolution, obligating parties to attempt mediation before resorting to formal litigation. This approach promotes cooperation, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness while offering flexibility by allowing parties to access mediation even after litigation has commenced, reinforcing the importance of mediation as a valuable tool within the legal system.

Section 12A of the act pertains to pre-litigation mediation and settlement. Here’s a summary of its key provisions:

1. Before filing a suit that does not involve urgent interim relief, the plaintiff must go through a pre-litigation mediation process as prescribed by rules established by the Central Government.

2. The Central Government can authorize either the Authority under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987, or a mediation service provider defined in the Mediation Act, 2023, to conduct pre-litigation mediation.

3. The authorized Authority or mediation service provider must complete the mediation process within 120 days from the date of the plaintiff’s application. This period can be extended by an additional 60 days with the parties’ consent. Importantly, the time spent on pre-litigation mediation does not count towards the statute of limitations under the Limitation Act, 1963.

4. If the parties in a commercial dispute reach a settlement during the mediation, it must be documented in writing and signed by all parties involved, including the mediator.

5. The mediated settlement agreement is subject to the provisions of sections 27 and 28 of the Mediation Act, 2023.

Additionally, section 21A of the outlines the manner and procedure for pre-litigation mediation under section 12A (1).

Whether mandating pre-litigation mediation is appropriate

The question of whether mandating pre-litigation mediation is appropriate is a complex issue with valid arguments on both sides. Let’s explore the key considerations and arguments for and against mandatory pre-litigation mediation:

Arguments in Favor of Mandatory Pre-Litigation Mediation:

Cost-Effectiveness and Court Burden: Pre-litigation mediation is generally a cost-effective process compared to traditional litigation. It can help parties save time and money by facilitating early resolution of disputes. Additionally, it can reduce the burden on the courts by diverting cases away from the formal legal system.

Efficiency and Speed: One of the primary advantages of mandatory pre-litigation mediation is that it can expedite the resolution of disputes. By engaging in mediation before initiating a suit, parties have the opportunity to reach a settlement more quickly, potentially reducing the backlog of cases in the court system.

Partial Mandate: The Bill is not mandating that parties must settle through mediation; rather, it mandates participation in the mediation process. Parties still retain the autonomy to decide whether or not to settle. This approach respects the voluntary nature of mediation while encouraging parties to explore the possibility of a consensual resolution.

International Examples: Several countries, such as Italy, Brazil, Turkey, Australia, and England, have successfully implemented mandatory mediation or allowed courts to order mediation in certain cases. These international examples demonstrate that mandatory mediation can be effective in reducing litigation and fostering settlements.

Arguments Against Mandatory Pre-Litigation Mediation:

Contrary to Voluntary Nature: Mediation is traditionally a voluntary process that relies on the willing participation of parties. Mandating mediation can be seen as contrary to this voluntary nature, potentially leading to reluctant or uncooperative participants. This could undermine the effectiveness of the process.

Potential Delay and Additional Costs: Mandatory mediation might result in some parties attending initial sessions as a mere formality before withdrawing. This can lead to delays in the dispute resolution process and additional costs for all involved, including the parties, mediators, and the court system.

Capacity and Availability of Mediators: Implementing mandatory pre-litigation mediation on a broad scale requires an adequate supply of trained mediators. Without a sufficient pool of qualified mediators, the system may struggle to accommodate the increased demand for mediation services. The availability of trained mediators should be carefully considered and planned.

Phased Approach: Recognizing the challenges associated with mandatory mediation, the NITI Aayog’s recommendation for a phased approach is worth considering. Starting with certain categories of disputes and gradually expanding to cover a wider range of cases allows for a more manageable implementation process.

In conclusion, the decision to mandate pre-litigation mediation is a balancing act between the potential benefits of cost-effectiveness, efficiency, and reduced court backlog, and the concerns regarding the voluntary nature of mediation, possible delays, additional costs, and mediator availability. It is essential to weigh these factors carefully and consider a phased approach, as recommended by experts, to ensure the successful implementation of mandatory pre-litigation mediation in India while preserving the integrity of the mediation process.

Mediation Opportunities for Chartered Accountants


Community mediation is primarily focused on preserving and promoting peace, harmony, and good relations among the residents of a locality. It recognizes that conflicts within a community can have far-reaching implications, affecting the overall quality of life, neighborhood bonds, and social cohesion. Therefore, the primary aim is to address and resolve disputes at the grassroots level to maintain a sense of unity and shared responsibility within the community. Here’s a simplified breakdown of the key points:

Dispute Resolution: When there’s a conflict that might disturb the peace and harmony of a community or families, it can be resolved through community mediation, but only if all parties agree to it.

Application: To start the process, one of the involved parties must apply to the relevant authority (like the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987, or a District Magistrate) to refer the dispute to mediation. Registration: The process for registering a mediated settlement agreement is similar to that outlined in section 20.

Mediation Panel: The authority will form a group of three community mediators to help resolve the dispute. They may periodically update this group. Community mediation is typically conducted by a panel of three mediators.

Selection Criteria: The mediator panel includes respected community members, individuals recognized for their contributions, representatives from local associations, experienced mediators, and other suitable individuals. The panel may also consider including women and other diverse perspectives. This panel is often diverse and may include the following types of individuals.

a. Persons of Standing in the Community: These individuals are respected and trusted members of the community who have demonstrated their commitment to community welfare and problem-solving. Their presence on the mediation panel adds credibility and encourages community members to engage in the process.

b. Representatives of Resident Welfare Associations (RWAs): RWAs play a vital role in representing the interests of the residents within a locality. Including RWA representatives on the mediation panel ensures that the broader community’s concerns and perspectives are considered during the mediation process.

c. Qualified Mediators: While community mediation emphasizes community involvement, it is essential to have at least one qualified mediator with training and experience in mediation techniques. This mediator can facilitate the mediation process effectively, ensuring that it adheres to established mediation principles and procedures.

Mediation Process: The panel of mediators will design a suitable process to resolve the dispute. They will work to encourage the parties involved to reach an amicable resolution. Community mediation often takes place in an informal setting, such as a community center or neighborhood gathering place. This setting promotes open and candid discussions among community members and mediators. Moreover, community mediation is typically more accessible and less adversarial than formal legal processes, encouraging active participation from community members.

Settlement Agreement: If an agreement is reached through community mediation, it will be put in writing, signed by the parties, and authenticated by the community mediators. Copies will be provided to all parties. If no agreement is reached, a non-settlement report will be submitted. The settlement agreement aims to maintain peace and harmony within the community but is not legally enforceable like a court judgment.

Enforcement: Community mediation places a strong emphasis on empowering community members to actively participate in resolving their disputes. It promotes self-determination, allowing individuals to craft their own solutions with the guidance and support of the mediation panel.

In essence, community mediation is a way to peacefully address disputes within a community or among families, with the goal of preserving peace and harmony. Community mediation often draws inspiration from restorative justice principles, seeking not only to resolve conflicts but also to repair harm and restore relationships within the community. The focus is on healing and reconciliation rather than punitive measures.

Community mediation is a community-driven approach to dispute resolution that prioritizes peace and harmony among residents of a locality. It involves a diverse mediation panel, emphasizes inclusivity and empowerment, and strives to address conflicts within the context of community dynamics. By fostering dialogue, understanding, and resolution at the grassroots level, community mediation contributes to stronger, more cohesive neighborhoods and communities.


In the context of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and mediation, it’s essential to establish guidelines and criteria to determine which disputes are suitable for mediation and which are not. These guidelines help ensure that the mediation process is effective, safe, and aligned with the interests of justice. The Bill in question outlines a list of disputes that are not considered fit for mediation, and these exclusions serve specific purposes within the legal framework.

The following disputes or matters are not fit for mediation:

1. Disputes prohibited by current s from being submitted to mediation.

2. Disputes involving claims against minors, deities, individuals with intellectual disabilities, persons with mental illness, persons of unsound mind, and suits for declaration of title against the government.

3. Disputes related to criminal offenses and prosecutions.

4. Complaints or proceedings initiated before regulatory bodies concerning the conduct of registered professionals, such as legal practitioners, medical practitioners, dentists, architects, chartered accountants, or other regulated professions.

5. Disputes that affect the rights of third parties not involved in the mediation, except in matrimonial disputes with child custody issues.

6. Any matters falling under the jurisdiction of the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010.

7. Disputes related to the levy, collection, penalties, or offenses concerning direct or indirect taxes enacted by state legislatures or the Parliament.

8. Investigations, inquiries, or proceedings under the Competition Act, 2002, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, or the Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal.

9. Proceedings under the Electricity Act, 2003, before appropriate Commissions and the Appellate Tribunal for Electricity.

10. Proceedings before the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board and appeals to the Appellate Tribunal under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006.

11. Proceedings before the Securities and Exchange Board of India and the Securities Appellate Tribunal under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.

12. Matters related to land acquisition and the determination of compensation under land acquisition s or related provisions.

13. Any other dispute subject matter that may be notified by the Central Government.


The provisions outlined in the statement regarding mediation proceedings in the law emphasize the importance of confidentiality, timeliness, party autonomy, and adherence to established rules when conducting mediations. Let’s delve into each of these aspects in detail:

Confidentiality of Mediation Proceedings: Mediation is known for its confidentiality, which is a fundamental aspect of the process. It ensures that discussions and information exchanged during mediation remain private and cannot be disclosed in subsequent legal proceedings. This confidentiality encourages parties to be more open and candid during the mediation, as they can freely explore potential solutions without fear that their statements will be used against them in court.

Time Limit for Mediation: The stipulation that mediation must be completed within 180 days sets a clear timeframe for the resolution process. This time limit is designed to promote efficiency and prevent mediations from becoming drawn-out affairs. However, it also recognizes that some disputes may require more time for a thorough resolution. Therefore, parties have the flexibility to extend the mediation period by an additional 180 days by mutual agreement. This balance allows for both expeditious dispute resolution and the accommodation of complex or protracted cases.

Withdrawal from Mediation: Allowing a party to withdraw from mediation after two sessions is a safeguard to protect party autonomy. If a party feels that mediation is not the right approach for their case or that the process is not yielding the desired results, they have the option to discontinue it without being unduly bound to the mediation process. This provision ensures that parties do not feel compelled to continue with a process that does not meet their needs.

Court-Annexed Mediation: Court-annexed mediation refers to the integration of mediation services within the court system. When parties are involved in litigation, the court may refer them to mediation to explore the possibility of a settlement before proceeding with a full trial. To ensure consistency and adherence to established standards, court-annexed mediation must be conducted in accordance with rules framed by the Supreme Court or High Courts. These rules provide guidance on how court-annexed mediations should be conducted, ensuring that they are fair, impartial, and effective in resolving disputes.

Overall, these provisions in the Bill aim to create a conducive environment for mediation in India. They prioritize confidentiality to foster open and honest discussions, establish clear timeframes to promote efficiency, respect party autonomy by allowing withdrawal, and ensure that court-annexed mediation adheres to established rules to maintain its integrity and effectiveness within the legal system. This comprehensive approach seeks to make mediation a reliable and attractive method for resolving disputes across various contexts.


The provisions related to the appointment and responsibilities of mediators in the Bill are essential for maintaining the integrity, impartiality, and effectiveness of the mediation process. Let’s explore these provisions in detail:

Appointment of Mediators:

A. By Agreement of the Parties: One of the core principles of mediation is party autonomy. This means that parties have the freedom to choose their mediator by mutual agreement. This provision acknowledges and upholds this principle, allowing the disputing parties to select a mediator they believe is best suited to help them resolve their specific dispute. This choice is significant because it allows parties to have confidence in the mediator’s expertise and impartiality.

B. By a Mediation Service Provider: In some cases, parties may prefer to have a neutral and reputable institution or mediation service provider administer their mediation process. These institutions typically maintain a panel of qualified and experienced mediators. When parties opt for this route, the mediation service provider appoints a mediator from their panel. This approach can be particularly useful when parties are unsure about mediator selection or want to ensure a mediator with a proven track record in the specific area of their dispute.

Disclosure of Conflict of Interest: Mediators play a crucial role in facilitating the mediation process. To maintain the integrity of the process, mediators are required to disclose any conflicts of interest that could potentially compromise their independence or impartiality. These conflicts might arise from personal, financial, or professional relationships with one or more of the parties involved in the dispute.

The disclosure of conflicts of interest is a crucial ethical obligation for mediators. It ensures transparency and allows the parties to make informed decisions regarding the mediator’s suitability for the case. Parties have a right to know if any potential biases or conflicts exist that could affect the mediator’s ability to facilitate a fair and balanced mediation process.

Option to Replace the Mediator: Once a mediator discloses a conflict of interest, the parties are given the opportunity to evaluate the situation and decide whether they are comfortable proceeding with that mediator. If a conflict of interest raises doubts about the mediator’s impartiality or independence, the parties have the right to choose to replace the mediator with another qualified individual who does not have such conflicts. This choice empowers parties to maintain trust in the mediation process and ensures that they can proceed with confidence in the mediator’s neutrality.

These provisions collectively serve to uphold the principles of fairness, transparency, and party autonomy within the mediation process. They allow parties to have a significant say in the selection of their mediator and ensure that the mediator is free from conflicts of interest that could compromise the integrity of the mediation proceedings. This framework helps maintain the credibility and effectiveness of mediation as a trusted method for resolving disputes in a manner that respects the parties’ interests and needs.


The establishment of the Mediation Council of India is a significant step in promoting and regulating mediation and alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms within the country. This council serves as a central authority responsible for overseeing and standardizing mediation practices. Let’s examine the composition of the council and its key functions in more detail:

Composition of the Mediation Council of India:

1. Chairperson: The chairperson of the council is likely to be a distinguished individual with expertise in mediation, ADR, or related fields. Their role is pivotal in providing leadership, direction, and guidance to the council’s activities.

2. Two Full-Time Members with Mediation or ADR Experience: These members are expected to have a deep understanding of mediation and ADR processes. They bring valuable knowledge and experience to the council, enabling it to make informed decisions regarding the regulation and development of mediation in India.

3. Three Ex-Officio Members:

a. Secretary: The inclusion of the Secretary in the council ensures a connection between the council’s activities and the legal framework of the country. This facilitates the alignment of mediation practices with existing s and regulations.

b. Expenditure Secretary: The Expenditure Secretary’s role is likely related to budgetary considerations and the allocation of resources for the council’s functions. This ensures that the council has the necessary financial support to carry out its responsibilities effectively.

4. Part-Time Member from an Industry Body: The inclusion of a part-time member from an industry body reflects the importance of involving stakeholders from different sectors in the mediation process. This member can represent the interests and perspectives of businesses and industries, contributing to a holistic approach to mediation.


The Council has various responsibilities and functions related to promoting and regulating mediation in India. Here’s a simplified breakdown of its duties:

1. Promoting Mediation: The Council is tasked with promoting both domestic and international mediation in India by providing appropriate guidelines.

2. Developing Mediation Center: It aims to develop India as a strong center for both domestic and international mediation.

3. Mediator Education: The Council sets guidelines for the ongoing education, certification, and assessment of mediators by recognized mediation institutes.

4. Mediation Procedure: It establishes the rules and procedures for conducting mediation proceedings as outlined in section 15(1).

5. Mediator Registration: One of the primary functions of the council is to establish a system for the registration of mediators. This process involves evaluating the qualifications, experience, and credentials of individuals who wish to practice as mediators. Registered mediators are expected to meet specific standards set by the council, ensuring the competence and professionalism of mediators operating in India. The Council outlines the process for registering mediators and has the authority to renew, withdraw, suspend, or cancel registrations based on specified conditions.

6. Ethical Standards: It defines and enforces professional and ethical standards for mediators as described in section 15(3).

7. Training and Collaboration: The Council conducts training, workshops, and courses in mediation in collaboration with various stakeholders, including mediation service providers, firms, universities, and both Indian and international partners.

8. International Agreements: It can enter into agreements or memoranda of understanding with domestic and international bodies, organizations, or institutions.

9. Recognizing Institutes and Service Providers: The council also plays a crucial role in recognizing and regulating mediation service providers and mediation institutes. Mediation service providers are organizations that administer and facilitate mediation processes, while mediation institutes are involved in training, educating, and certifying mediators. The council’s recognition ensures that these entities meet certain quality standards and adhere to best practices in mediation training and service provision. The Council recognizes mediation institutes and mediation service providers and has the authority to renew, withdraw, suspend, or cancel such recognition. It specifies the criteria for recognition.

10. Information Gathering: It can request information or records from mediation institutes and service providers.

11. Standards for Institutes and Service Providers: The Council sets standards for the professional and ethical conduct of mediation institutes and mediation service providers.

12. Publication: It publishes information, data, research studies, and other relevant information as needed.

13. Mediation Records: The Council maintains an electronic depository of mediated settlement agreements made in India and related records.

14. Other Functions: The Council may perform any other functions assigned to it by the Central Government.

In essence, the Council plays a crucial role in advancing the field of mediation in India, ensuring the quality and ethical conduct of mediators and mediation service providers, and facilitating collaboration with both domestic and international partners. By performing these functions, the Mediation Council of India serves as a central authority that not only maintains high standards for mediators and mediation service providers but also contributes to the growth and development of mediation as an effective and widely accepted means of dispute resolution in the country. It helps ensure that mediation processes in India are fair, transparent, and consistent, ultimately benefiting individuals, businesses, and the legal system as a whole.


The provision regarding the finality, binding nature, and enforceability of agreements resulting from mediation is a critical aspect of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and emphasizes the importance of honoring mediated settlements. Let’s explore this provision in detail:

Finality, Binding Nature, and Enforceability of Mediation Agreements:

1. Finality: Mediation is a voluntary process where parties come together to negotiate and reach a mutually agreeable resolution to their dispute. When parties successfully reach an agreement through mediation, it is considered final. Finality means that both parties have willingly accepted the terms of the settlement and have chosen to resolve their dispute through this agreement rather than pursuing litigation. Finality is a fundamental principle of mediation and provides closure to the dispute.

2. Binding Nature: A key aspect of mediation is that the agreements reached are legally binding on the parties involved. This means that the terms and conditions outlined in the mediation agreement are enforceable by . Parties are obligated to adhere to the terms they have agreed upon, just as they would be bound by a court judgment. This binding nature of mediation agreements ensures that the parties’ voluntary commitments are legally enforceable, enhancing the effectiveness of mediation as a dispute resolution mechanism.

3. Enforceability Like Court Judgments: The provision specifies that agreements resulting from mediation are enforceable in the same manner as court judgments. This means that, if necessary, a party can seek enforcement of the mediation agreement through the legal system. Enforcing a mediation agreement typically involves initiating legal proceedings in a court of to compel compliance with the terms of the agreement. This recognition of mediation agreements as legally enforceable instruments underscores their significance and reinforces their status as a viable alternative to litigation.


Mediation agreements are designed to be final, binding, and enforceable in a manner similar to court judgments. However, specific grounds related to fraud, corruption, impersonation, or disputes that were not fit for mediation can be used to challenge the validity of these agreements. These safeguards ensure that while mediation is an effective and efficient means of resolving disputes, there are mechanisms in place to address exceptional circumstances where agreements may need to be reconsidered or invalidated.

While mediation agreements are generally considered final, binding, and enforceable, there are specific grounds on which they may be challenged:

1. Fraud: If a party can provide evidence that fraud played a significant role in the creation of the mediation agreement, such as misrepresentation of facts or deliberate deception, they may have grounds to challenge the agreement.

2. Corruption: Similarly, if corruption is demonstrated to have influenced the mediation process or the agreement itself, it can serve as a basis for challenging the agreement. Corruption might involve bribery, extortion, or other unethical practices.

3. Impersonation: If it can be proven that one of the parties involved in the mediation process was impersonated or misrepresented, rendering their consent to the agreement invalid, this can be a valid ground for challenging the agreement.

4. Disputes Not Fit for Mediation: As mentioned in a previous statement, certain disputes are considered unsuitable for mediation. If a mediation agreement pertains to a dispute that falls into this category and it can be demonstrated that the dispute was not fit for mediation in the first place, this may provide grounds for challenging the agreement.

Author Bio

Qualification: CA in Practice
Company: N/A
Location: Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
Member Since: 17 Jun 2018 | Total Posts: 134
Author was Member of ICAI- Capacity Building Committee 2010-11 and ICAI- Committee for Direct Taxes 2011-12 and can be reached at email or on phone Phone: 0 1 2 1-2 6 6 1 9 4 6. Cell: 9 8 3 7 5 1 5 4 3 2 having office at 1 1 5, Chappel Street, Meerut Cantt, UP, INDIA) View Full Profile

My Published Posts

Join Taxguru’s Network for Latest updates on Income Tax, GST, Company Law, Corporate Laws and other related subjects.

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Whatsapp

taxguru on whatsapp GROUP LINK

Join us on Telegram

taxguru on telegram GROUP LINK

Download our App


More Under CA, CS, CMA

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Search Posts by Date

October 2023