Embarking on a mission of awareness, this comprehensive guide, “115 FAQs on Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) for India,” is released with the noble intention of enlightening the innocent public. As part of our commitment to transparency and inspired by the visionary thought process of the Honourable Prime Minister, this publication aims to demystify the workings of intelligence agencies, including R&AW, and foster an informed understanding among the public.

Acknowledging the importance of compliance with legal frameworks, we advocate for a transparent enforcement mechanism to safeguard the interests of the public. This initiative is driven by our commitment to protect the innocent from the potential repercussions associated with agencies like ED, DRI, CBI, NIA, SFIO, FIU-IND, CVC, NCB, EOW, SEBI, and others.

It is emphasized that any form of non-compliance will be met with stringent measures, including financial penalties and imprisonment. In the spirit of responsible citizenship, it is humbly suggested that individuals refrain from non-compliance by ensuring the timely furnishing of legal documents and providing accurate information.

This publication seeks to empower individuals with knowledge, enabling them to navigate the complex landscape of intelligence agencies and enforcement mechanisms, fostering a society built on transparency, accountability, and understanding.

Page Contents

(A) R&AW’s functioning as Foreign Intelligence Agency (FIA) for India

1. Meaning for Introduction of R&AW

 (i) R&AW commonly known Foreign Intelligence Agency (FIA) for India.

 (ii) R&AW’s primary gathering information’s for certain purposes like:

 (a) Information’s for foreign intelligence

 (b) Information’s for counter-terrorism

 (c) Information’s for counter-proliferation

 (d) Advising to Indian policymakers

 (e) Advancing India’s foreign strategic interests

 (f) Involved in security for India’s nuclear programmes

(iii) R&AW in India came in prominence in Global Intelligence Community (GIC) during initial 9 year tenure (from 1968 to 1977) of Mr. Rameshwar Nath (RN) Kao

(iv) RN Kao who played major role for accession (merger) of state of Sikkim to India in 1975.

(v) R&AW presently have head office at Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003.

(vi) R&AW’s chief being designated as Secretary (Research(R)) included in Cabinet Secretariat under direct authority of Prime Minister of India without any parliamentary involvement (intervention).

(vii) R&AW’s Secretary (R) required to report National Security Adviser (NSA) on daily basis.

(viii) (a) Cabinet Secretary permitted to handle administrative + financial both matters

+ (plus)

(b) Also Cabinet Secretary required to report Prime Minister both.

2. Meaning for History of R&AW

(i) History from 1933 to August 14, 1947 (14 year)

 (a) Intelligence Bureau (IB) created by British Govt. in 1933 for sensing political turmoil around world which continued up to 2nd World War (1945)

+ (plus)

(b) Also IB’s responsibilities increased to include collection for intelligence from India’s borders both simultaneously

(ii) History from August 15, 1947 to 1968 (21 year)

(a) Sanjeevi Pillai became director IB from August 15, 1947 being 1st Indian Director IB to train manpower after independence (1947)

(b) He tried to run bureau on MI5 (British’s IB) pattern.

(c) He organised small foreign intelligence operation in 1947


(d) India’s defeat in China-Indo War in 1962 which showed that foreign intelligence not properly effected in India.

(e) Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru ordered to establish dedicate FIA after India’s defeat in China-Indo War in 1962

(f) General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri, Chief of Army recommended after Indo-Pakistan war in 1965 for more intelligence-gatherings therefore at end of 1966 concept for separate FIA started to take concrete shape in India.

3. Meaning for Formation of R&AW in 1968

(i) Former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s administration decided that full-fledged 2nd security service needed for India.

(ii) (a) N. Kao deputy director IB submitted blueprint for FIA in India.

 (b) He was appointed chief FIA in 1968

(c) R&AW was given responsibility for Strategic External Intelligence (SEI) + human + technical + concurrent with Directorate-General of Military Intelligence (DGMI) for tactical trans-border military intelligence up to certain depth across Line of Control (LOC) + international borders (all).

(iii) (a) R&AW always being criticised for not answerable to people of India as reporting directly Prime Minister (only).

 (b) R&AW being criticised for terrorising + also intimidating opposition parties during 1975–1977 (Emergency period).

 (c) R&AW being criticised for favouritism in promotions + corruption + ego clashes + no financial accountability + inter-departmental rivalry + also etc. (all).

(d) R&AW also being criticised for suffering from ethnic imbalances for officer level.

(e) R&AW being criticised for security analyst + former Additional Secretary B. Raman criticised both for FIA’s asymmetric growth like weak in capability for intelligence collection + analysis + also assessment (all).

 (f) R&AW being criticised for low + medium-grade intelligence + weak in high-grade intelligence + not strong in technical intelligence + weak in human intelligence + not strong in collation + weak in analysis + also weak in preventions (all)

4. Meaning for Manpower + financial budget of R&AW

(i) R&AW started as wing for main IB with 250 employees

+ (plus)

(ii) Also with Annual budget INR 2 crore (USD 2.40 lac) in early 1970s

+ (plus)

(iii) Also annual budget increased to INR 3 crore (USD 3.60 lac) with proportionate additional employees.

5. Meaning for Additional child agencies of R&AW

(i) R&AW included certain additional child agencies like:

 (a) Radio Research Centre and Electronics in 1970

 (b) Radio Research Tech & Services in 1990

 (c) Govt. set up Aviation Research Centre (ARC) in 1971 for aerial reconnaissance which replaced with Indian Air Force for old reconnaissance aircraft in mid 1970s

 (d) R&AW obtained high quality aerial pictures for installations with China + Pakistan both borders.

(ii) R&AW takeover special front force for training Bengali rebels in 1970

6. Meaning for Special developments of R&AW in 1977

  • Former Prime Minister Morarji Desai dramatically cut organization’s capabilities through shutting 100% sections of R&AW like information’s division.

7. Meaning for Special developments of R&AW in 2004

(i) Prime Minister Indira Gandhi added another signal intelligence agency known National Technical Facilities Organisation (NTFO) which later renamed as National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO)

(ii) NTRO was dealing with research on imagery + communications both which used at various platforms.

8. Meaning for Formation’s objectives of R&AW

(i) For monitoring political + military + economic + scientific (all) developments in countries which have direct nexus for India’s national security + also foreign policy’s formulation both.

(ii) For moulding international public opinion + also influence foreign govts. both

(iii) For converting operations for safe guarding India’s National interests.

(iv) For anti-terror operations + also neutralising elements which have threat to India.

(v) For watching development of international communism + differences among 2 communist nations like Russia and China + also with other countries where both countries having powers + direct access to communist parties (in India).

(vi) For controlling + limiting supply of military hardware’s to Pakistan from mostly European Countries (ECs) + USA + China (all).

9. Meaning for Structure + organisation of R&AW

(i) R&AW’s India structured similar to CIA in USA.

(ii) R&AW’s chief in designated Secretary(R) in Cabinet Secretariat of India.

(iii) (a) R&AW’s previous chiefs were having experience for dealing with China or Pakistan (any).

+ (plus)

(b) Also obtained training in CIA in USA or M15 in UK or recently in Massad in Israel (any).

 (iv) R&AW is working directly under Prime Minister of India.

 (v) R&AW’s structure + operations both kept secret from Parliament in India.

 (vi) Secretary (R) required to report NSA in India on daily basis.

 (vii) Secretary (R) required to be under purview of Cabinet Secretary for limited purposes like administrative + financial both matters.

 (viii) Secretary (R) required to report on administrative matter to Cabinet Secretary who required to report to Prime Minister in India.

10. Meaning for Responsibilities of additional secretaries of R&AW

(i) Additional Secretaries in R&AW responsible for Special Operations + intelligence already collected both which received from different countries + duly processed by large number of Joint Secretaries as functional heads at various specified desks with different regional divisions or areas or countries (any) for 4 areas like

(a) Area 1 – Pakistan

(b) Area 2 – China + Southeast Asia both

(c) Area 3 – Middle East + Africa both

(d) Area 4 – Other countries.

(ii) 2 Special Joint Secretaries required to report additional secretary who is head of Electronics and Technical Department as Nodal Agency for ETS + RRC both

(iii) Directorate General of Security (DGS) in-charge for important sections like Aviation Research Centre as headed by 1 special secretary.

11. Meaning for Internal structure of R&AW

  • R&AW’s internal structure not publically known but briefs overviews are available in public domains which attached with R&AW’s main headquarters located at Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003 like:

(i) R&AW having various regional headquarters which directly linked to offices located outside India + headed by controlling officers those keeping records for different projects assigned to field officers posted outside India.

(ii) Intelligence’s information’s usually collected from several sources by field officers + deputy field officers both

(iii) Intelligence’s information’s being processed by senior field officer or by desk officer any.

(iv) Desk officer required to pass information’s to Joint Secretary + also further to Additional Secretary

(v) Additional secretary disseminating information’s to concerned end user.

(vi) R&AW’s employees known Research Officers instead of agents

(vii) R&AW employing sizeable numbers for female officers at operational level.

(viii) (a) R&AW recently shifted primary focus from Pakistan & China


(b) Started operating separate desk for other than Pakistan & China.

(ix) R&AW’s Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) under Cabinet Secretary is responsible for co-ordinating + analysing intelligence activities both between R&AW and Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA).

(x) R&AW’s JIC effectiveness is varied from time to time.

(xi) R&AW’s directors being JIC Steering Committee’s member permitted to brief Cabinet secretary on behalf of Prime Minister.

(xii) (a) R&AW’s JIC was merged with National Security Council (NSC) in 1999 where legal status being unusual like that Agency become Wing of Cabinet Secretariat headed by Cabinet secretary on behalf of Prime Minister.

+ (plus)

(b) Also R&AW not answerable to Parliament in India for any issue + also R&AW not covered under RTI Act, 2005 both.

+ (plus)

(c) Also R&AW exempted under section 24 + also Schedule II both of RTI Act, 2005.

12. Meaning for Allegations of corruptions in R&AW under RTI Act, 2005

  • Allegation of corruption + also for Human Right Violations (HRV) both covered under RTI Act, 2005

13. Meaning for Field formations of staffs of R&AW

  • R&AW has 7 field formations in India which known Special Bureaus (SB) where each SB is responsible for target given for each country those sharing land borders with India like Pakistan + China + Bangladesh + etc. (all)
S.NO Name of Zone Headquarters Rank of Zonal Head Equivalent rank in R&AW
(i) Northern Zone Jammu Additional Secretary Additional Secretary
(ii) Eastern Zone Kolkata Commissioner Joint Secretary
(iii) South-Western Zone Mumbai Commissioner Joint Secretary
(iv) North-Eastern Zone Shillong Commissioner Joint Secretary
(v) Southern Zone Chennai Additional commissioner Director
(vi) Central Zone Lucknow Additional Commissioner Director
(vii) Western Zone Jodhpur Deputy Commissioner Deputy Secretary

14. Meaning for Recruitments of staffs of R&AW

(i) R&AW initially relied on trained officers those recruited directly by IB’s external wing.

(ii) Candidates mostly recruited from Indian Police Service (IPS) + few from other civil services + also from armed forces (all) in India

(iii) R&AW also started directly recruiting graduates in few numbers from various universities in India.

(iv) R&AW created own service cadre like Research and Analysis Service (RAS) to absorb available talents from other group A civil services under Central Staffing Scheme (CSS).

(v) (a) R&AW recruiting directly at Class I executive level from Civil service officers which undergoing through Foundation course at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in India.

+ (plus)

(b) Also R&AW conducting campus interview based on selection of psychological tests + also interview both simultaneously.

+ (plus)

(c) Also R&AW inducting candidates for 1 year (only) therefore they have option for re-joining parent service if they wish otherwise they will be permanently absorbed into Research and Analysis Service (R&AS).

+ (plus)

(d) Also Delhi-based security think tank like Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses reported that R&AW already suffered from tail-end syndrome where bottom for qualifying UPSC examinations were offered jobs.

+ (plus)

(e) Also recruitments were made through deputation of officer from Armed Forces or Group A Civil Service Officers any.

+ (plus)

(f) Also Civil and Defence Service Officers those permanently resigned from their cadre thereafter joined RAS.

+ (plus)

(g) Also officers permitted to return to their parent cadre after serving specific period in R&AW if they wish.

(vi) Most of secretaries recruited from IPS + other posts held by Indian Revenue Service (IRS) + also Indian Foreign Service (IFS).

(vii) (a) R&AW also employing number of linguists + also other experts both from several other fields

+ (plus)

(b) Also R&AW officer’s service conditions being governed by R&AW (Recruitment, Cadre and Service) Rules, 1975.

15. Meaning for Basic Training of staffs of R&AW

(i) R&AW’s basic training being commenced with pep talks to boost morale of new candidates.

(ii) (a) Basic training to be completed within 10 phase in which inductee familiarised with real world for intelligence + espionage both

+ (plus)

(b) Also Common usages + tradecraft techniques + classification of information’s (all) taught.

(iii) Basic training also include financial and economic analysis + space technology + information’s securities + energy securities + scientific knowledge’s (all) covered for trainees.

(iv) (a) R&AW’s recruitments being made to specialise in foreign language + also to Geostrategic analysis both

+ (plus)

(b) Also R&AW’s training includes case studies from other agencies like CIA-USA + KGB-Russia + ISI-Pakistan + Mossad-Israel + also MI6-UK (all).

+ (plus)

(c) Also R&AW’s training includes to teach that intelligence organisations do not identify who is friend and who is not friend but country’s foreign policy prevailed.

+ (plus)

(d) Also R&AW’s basic classroom training to include tactics + also language both simultaneously to be imparted to officers at residential training and Language Institute as located in Gurgaon.

+ (plus)

(e) Also R&AW’s training include multi-disciplinary schooling for economic intelligence as located in Mumbai to train intelligence officer for investigating economic crimes like money laundering for terror purposes + also etc both simultaneously.

16. Meaning for Advanced Training of staffs of R&AW

(i) R&AW’s advanced trainings started after completing basic training by Field Intelligence Bureau (FIB) for 1 to 2

(ii) R&AW’s 1st hand experience being given through figurative cold + also conducting clandestine (secret) operations.

(iii) R&AW’s trainees being taught for infiltration + out-filtration both simultaneously during night time to exercise under realistic conditions.

(iv) R&AW’s trainees being instructed to avoid capturing + also how to face interrogation if caught.

(v) R&AW’s trainees are learning art for exact matching + making contacts + also numerous other things skills (all) for operating intelligence mission.

(vi) R&AW’s trainees being brought back to school for final polishing before their deployment in field

(vii) R&AW’s trainees being given exhaustive training for self-defence like Krav Maga + also use for technical espionage devices both

(viii) R&AW’s trainees being drilled in various administrative disciplines to take place in foreign missions without arousing suspicion.

(ix) R&AW’s trainees now ready to operate under cover of Embassy located outside India to gather information’s + set up their own network of informers + moles or operatives (all) if considered necessary.

(x) R&AW’s Field + arms both training being provided in Indian Military Academy (IMA) located at Dehradun.

(xi) R&AW’s training model being criticised for archaic (old) + police-centric + not incorporating modern technological advances for communication + also etc. (all)

17. Meaning for Shortage of staffs of R&AW

(i) R&AW having shortage of employees like 40% below sanctioned strength in 2013.

(ii) (a) The Hindu newspaper already reported that R&AW having shortage for 130 management level staff

+ (plus)

(b) Also R&AW having huge shortage for staff @ 33% approx.

18. Meaning for Functions + methods both of R&AW

(i) R&AW’s function to include intelligence collections with humanity + psychological warfare + subversion + also without sabotage (all).

(ii) R&AW maintaining active liaison with other agencies + services both simultaneously in several countries outside India like SVR for Russia + NDS for Afghanistan + Mossad for Israel + BND for Germany + CIA for USA + MI5 for UK + also Pakistan’s nuclear programme (all).

19. Meaning for locations outside India of R&AW

(i) R&AW actively obtaining information’s + also operating both through 3rd

 (ii) R&AW’s offices located abroad outside India having limited manpower strength + also largely collecting information’s for military + economic + scientific + political (all) intelligence.

(iii) R&AW monitoring activities of specific organisations located outside India for their involvement with narco terrorist elements + arm’s smuggling + ammunition + explosives + also etc. (all) for India.

(iv) R&AW not monitoring activities of criminal elements outside India which mainly confined to normal smuggling without having links to terrorist elements.

(v) R&AW’s officers being posted outside India through Indian diplomatic missions under official cover as diplomats frequently in consular wing.

(vi) Reported by Times of India (ToI) that relationship between R&AW and Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) usually unstable because both inhabit in different world.

(vi) Reported by task force through report prepared by New Delhi-based security think tank highlighting that R&AW operating with inadequate non-official cover for outside India’s operations limiting access to actual targets + also to create many issues in handling High-Value Assets (HVA).

(B) R&AW in South Asian (SA) Countries

♦ R&AW’s activities in Afghanistan ♦

20. R&AW’s role for recruiting 3 warlords – Ahmad Shah Massoud during Soviet War

  • Recruited 3 powerful warlords like Ahmad Shah Massoud during Soviet War in Afghanistan.

21. R&AW’s role for building 25-bed hospital at Farkhor Air Base from 1996 to 2001

(i) R&AW used Farkhor Air base for repairing + operating both Northern Alliance’s (NA) aerial support which further cemented in Afghan war in 2001.

(ii) R&AW built 25-bed military hospital at Farkhor Air Base in 1996.

(iii) Airbase used by Aviation Research Centre (ARC) being helping arm for R&AW

22. R&AW’s role for provided intelligence to western countries after attack in 2001

  • R&AW provided intelligence to western countries after attack on September 11, 2001 where more than 120 training camps operating in Afghanistan + also Pakistan both simultaneously by several militant groups

23. R&AW’s role for adjudging 1 FIA after throwing Taliban from Afghanistan in 2001

  • R&AW adjudged 1st FIA after overthrow of Taliban from Afghanistan in 2001 to determine extent of Kunduz airlift.

24. R&AW’s role for undertaking counter-terrorism operation in 2017

  • R&AW undertook counter-terrorism operation in 2017 which described unprecedented for its scale + scope both

25. R&AW’s role for foiling major terrorist’s attack by Islamic State (IS)

  • R&AW foiled major terrorist attack by Islamic State (IS) – Khorasan suicide bomber in New Delhi where CIA also involved in this operation.

26. R&AW’s role for transferring militants to US base in Afghanistan

(i) R&AW transferred militant to US base located in Afghanistan for further questioning.

(ii) Operation spanned in 3 countries + also involved 80 Research officers both simultaneously.

27. R&AW’s role for undertaking special out-filtration operation in 2019

  • R&AW undertook In November–December 2019 special out-filtration operation for successful rescue for minimum 4 Indian nationals those working in various parts of Afghanistan + also abducted kidnapped by Haqqani network.

28. R&AW’s role for providing tip for counter intelligence operation in 2020

  • R&AW provided tip for counter intelligence operation in 2020 for 10 MSS Operatives from Xinjiang State Security Department (XSSD) those arrested in Kabul by Afghan NDS during questioning 1 of operative told to interrogators that gathered information’s about al-Qaeda + Taliban + Turkistan Islamic Party in Kunar + Badakhshan (all) provinces + also wanted to assassinate high-level members.

♦ R&AW’s activities in Bangladesh ♦

29. R&AW’s role for Bangladesh Guerrilla’s Organization like Mukti Bahani in 1970

(i) R&AW played important role for formation of Bangladeshi guerrilla organisation like Mukti Bahini who responsible for supplying information’s + providing training + also heavy ammunition (all)

 (ii) R&AW alleged for planning + also executing both simultaneously for Indo-Pakistan war in 1971

30. R&AW’s role for Chittagong Hill tract’s military operations in 1971

  • R&AW actively participated for military operations specifically in Chittagong Hill Tract’s operation after war ended with creation of Bangladesh in 1971

31. R&AW’s role for launching military crackdown on Pakistan’s army in 1970

  • R&AW Played significant role when army of Pakistan launched military crackdown in early 1970 against Bangladesh’s independence movement where 10 million approx. refugees fled to India in 1970.

32. R&AW’s role for informing Mujibur Rahman’s assassination in 1975

(i) R&AW already informed in advance about Mujibur Rahman’s assassination


(ii) Mujibur Rahman tragically ignored inputs provided by R&AW consequently he was killed with his family at residence on August 15, 1975

33. R&AW’s role for informing Sheikh Hasina Wazed’s assassination

  • R&AW already informed in advance about Sheikh Hasina Wazed’s assassination by Islamist extremists she was daughter of Mujibur Rahman.

34. R&AW’s role for democratic uprising against Mohammed Ershad in 1990

(i) R&AW helped In 1990 for engineering + also supporting both simultaneously for democratic uprising against Mohammed Ershad which converted into his resignation.

(ii) Mohammed Ershad being Pro-Pakistan + Anti-Hindu + also threat for Indian Govt. (all)

35. R&AW’s role for bombing on ISI safe houses after Khaleda Zia’s election win in 1991

  • R&AW Spontaneously bombed on several camps + also on major ISI safe houses for Jamaat-e-Islami’s (JeI) terror network after Khaleda Zia won election in 1991 when Jel started harassing pro-India politicians + large-scale radicalisation + meticulously planned infiltration of trained extremists into Indian Territory + also JeI set-up several terror training camps located near Indian border (all).

36. R&AW’s role for training + financing to Shanti Bahini’s revels in 1977 to 1997

  • Trained + financed both simultaneously to rebels of Shanti Bahini in 1977–97 + also took active part in Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict.

37. R&AW’s role for physical survillance + traking operations in Iran in 1991

  • R&AW undertook physical surveillance + also tracking operations both for Indian nationals (citizens) from Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) those taking weapons training in Qom.

R&AW’s activities in Maldives ♦

38. R&AW’s role for finishing intelligence network of ISI + MSS in 2018-19

  • R&AW undertook several operations to finish ISI + also MSS both intelligence network located in Maldives.

39. R&AW’s role for launching military campaign to throw PLOTE in 1988

(i) R&AW provided intelligence to launch military campaign to throw People’s Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE) out of Maldives through Indian Air Force airlifted 6th parachute battalion of Parachute Regiment from Agra to Maldives.

(ii) India’s paratroopers launched military campaign after receiving request from president of Maldives, Mr. Maumoon Abdul Gayoom.

(iii) India’s paratroopers launched military campaign based on precise intelligence provided by R&AW.

(iv) (a) India’s paratroopers landed at airstrip for Hulhule Island + also restored Govt.’s powers in Maldives within 24

 (b) Abovementioned operations known Cactus which involved Indian Navy + also military both simultaneously

R&AW’s activities in Nepal ♦

40. R&AW’s role for searching Mohammad Lal before he was shot dead in 2022

(i) R&AW was looking for Mohammad Lal for his alleged connection with ISI + also D-Company both simultaneously before he shot dead by 2 unidentified armed men in Kathmandu + also assailants immediately fled scene after shooting him.

(ii) Mohammad Lal known for supplier of counterfeit Indian currency to India

41. R&AW’s role for Kidnapping ISI officer H Zahir in 2017

(i) R&AW kidnapped mid-level ISI officer Lt. Mohammed H Zahir from Lumbini.

(ii) Zahir known among ISI team that kidnapped + also taken to former Indian Navy officer Kulbhushan Jadhav from Chabahar in Iran to Meshkal in Pakistan.

42. R&AW’s role for tracking Zia Ur Rehman in 2014

(i) R&AW + also DGFI both simultaneously tracked Zia Ur Rehman Indian Mujahideen’s top commander in Nepal.

(ii) Abovementioned operation executed by DGFI after formal request from India’s R&AW + also Nepal’s law enforcement agencies similar to R&AW.

43. R&AW’s role for operations to bring militants to India in 1997 to 2013

  • R&AW + also Intelligent Bureau (IB) carried many operations where many several militant leaders secretly brought to India like:

(i) Yasin Bhatkal of Indian Mujahideen (IM)

(ii) Bhupinder Singh Bhuda of Khalistan Commando Force (KCF)

(iii) Tariq Mehmood + Asif Ali + Syed Abdul Karim Tunda + Abu Qasim of Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT)

(iv) Fayaz Ahmed Mir of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM).

44. R&AW’s role for assassinating to Raju Pargai + also Amit Arya in 2011

(i) Raju Pargai + also Amit Arya both simultaneously shot dead those known for running Mirza Dilshad Beg’s network in Uttarakhand.

(ii) Enough evidences not available to convict Lucky Bisht despite his arrest in Murder case which leading to his eventual acquittal.

45. R&AW’s role for assassinating to Mirza Dilshad in 1998

  •  Alleged assassination by R&AW for Mirza Dilshad Beg, Nepalese parliamentarian + also ISI informant both simultaneously.

♦ R&AW’s activities Pakistan ♦

46. R&AW’s role for assassinating to Panjwar, KCF’s chief on May 06, 23

  • Assassinated Paramjit Singh Panjwar, chief of Khalistan Commando Force (KCF) on May 06, 2023 who gunned down by 2 unidentified bike-borne gunmen in Johar Town of Lahore in Pakistan while he waling in morning near his residence.

47. R&AW’s role for assassinating to Bashir Ahmad on Feb 20, 2023

  • Assassinated Hizbul Commander Bashir Ahmad Peer alias Imtiyaz Alam declared India’s most wanted designated terrorist under Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 who gunned down by unidentified gunmen outside store, Rawalpindi in Pakistan.

48. R&AW’s role for assassinating to Zahoor Mistry on March 01, 2022

(i) Assassinated Zahoor Mistry who gunned down by unidentified bike-borne gunmen at Karachi in Pakistan

(ii) Zahoor Mistry known 1 of hijackers of Flight IC 814 from Kathmandu in Nepal to India

+ (plus)

(iii) Also Zahoor Mistry known for killing 25 year old newly married couple Rupin Katyal on IC 814 flight

49. R&AW’s role for identifying Markaz Syed Ahmad Shaheed training camp in 2019

  • R&AW played important role for identifying + also providing intelligence both simultaneously for Markaz Syed Ahmad Shaheed training camp in 2019 where large number of terrorists were available in camp during Balakot Airstrike.

50. R&AW’s role for arresting Kulbhushan Jadhav in Pakistan in 2016

(i) R&AW’s Kulbhushan Jadhav, Indian naval officer who working agent

(ii) Kulbhushan Jadhav arrested at Baluchistan in Pakistan + charged for spice in other country espionage + also sabotage (all).

(iii) Kulbhushan Jadhav accused for operating terror network in Baluchistan in Pakistan.

(iv) Kulbhushan Jadhav sentenced to death in 2017 by Field General Court Martial in Pakistan.

(v) Kulbhushan Jadhav confessed that having tasked given by R&AW to plan + to organise espionage + to sabotage activities in Baluchistan + also Karachi (all).

51. R&AW’s role for providing intelligence to strike on LoC in 2016

(i) R&AW played important role for strike on Line of Control (LoC) for providing real time + accurate intelligence to operational advisors + also planners (all).

(ii) Indian army deployed human assets (soldiers) closest to demarcated launch-pads in Pakistan near Kashmir.

(ii) started physical surveillance of Chief of Pakistan army, 10 Corps commander + also force commander of Northern Areas both

52. R&AW’s role for intercepting calls before Mumbai’s attack in 2008

(i) Intercepted telephone calls before 26/11 Mumbai’s attack through SIGINT which pointed about expected attacks on Mumbai Hotels by Pakistan-based terrorists.

(ii) Abovementioned information failed for co-ordination + also for follow up action both

(iii) R&AW’s technician monitoring satellite transmissions picked up conversations between attackers and handlers that attackers sailing toward Mumbai.

(iv) R&AW’s technician flagged conversations as suspicious + also passed to his superiors both

(v) R&AW immediately alerted to office of National Security Advisor (NSA)


(vi) Abovementioned intelligence ignored by NSA.

(vii) R&AW’s technicians started monitoring 6 phones being used by terrorists + also recorded conversations between terrorists and their handlers both

53. R&AW’s role for helping to foil 3rd assassination attempt on Musharraf in 2004

  • R&AW timely helped to foil 3rd assassination attempt against Pakistan’s former president, General Pervez Musharraf in 2004.

54. R&AW’s role for intercepting talks between Musharraf and Mohd. Aziz in 1999

  • R&AW during Kargil War successful intercepted telephonic conversation between Pervez Musharraf Pakistan Army Chief in China and his chief of staff Lt. Gen. Mohammed Aziz in Islamabad where this tape later published in India to prove Pakistani’s involvement in Kargil War incursion.

55. R&AW’s role for undertaking operations to stop militants in 1990

(i) R&AW undertook operation to infiltrate various ISI-backed militant operating in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K).

(ii) R&AW operatives infiltrated area + collected military intelligence + provided evidence for ISI’s involvement in training + also funding separatist groups (all).

(iii) R&AW successfully unearth links + infiltrated + also neutralised terrorism in Kashmir’s valley (all).

(iv) R&AW created split in Hizb-ul-Mujahideen.

(v) R&AW carried operation Chanakya to create pro-Indian groups in Kashmir’s valley like Ikhwan-ul-Muslimeen + Muslim Mujahideen + also etc. (all) where counter-insurgencies consisting of ex-militants + also relatives of persons those killed in conflict like Ikhwan-ul-Muslimeen leader Kokka Parrey himself assassinated by separatists.

56. R&AW’s role for setting 2 special units for Pakistan + also etc. in 1980

(i) R&AW set up 2 special units like

  • 1st Counterintelligence Team-X (CIT-X) for Pakistan
  • 2nd Counterintelligence Team-J (CIT-J) for Khalistani group

(ii) Rabinder Singh R&AW officer who later defected to USA in 2004 helped to run CIT-J in early years.

(iii) CIT-X + CIT-J both units used for cross-border traffickers to ferry weapons and funds across border for their ISI counterparts.

(iv) R&AW able to end ISI’s interference + also support both for khalistani militants in Punjab to 100% stop violence and insurgency

57. R&AW’s role for informing about Pak’s nuclear weapons in 1978

(i) R&AW 1st time confirmed about Pakistan’s nuclear programs through analysing hair samples snatched from floor of barber shops near Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) at Kahuta which showed that Pakistan already developed ability for enrich uranium equivalent to weapons-grade quality like gas centrifuge enrichment technology for producing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

(ii) R&AW in early 1978 operatives knew about KRL at Kahuta

(iii) Indian Prime Minister, Morarji Desai accidentally exposed R&AW’s operations about Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program through telephone conversation with Pakistan President Zia-ul-Haq that India aware consequently Pakistan’s ISI + also army both eliminated most of R&AW’s assets existed near Kahuta.

(iv) R&AW received information from 1 informant being London-based company who supplied Arctic-weather gear to Indian troops in Ladakh that Pakistan paramilitary forces also bought similar Arctic-weather gear.

(v) R&AW shared this information with Indian Army who launched operation Meghdoot to take control of Siachen Glacier with around 300 acclimatised troops to Siachen before Pakistan could launch any operation resulting in Indian head start + also Indian control 100% major peaks in Siachen.

58. R&AW’s role for spying by Ravindra Kaushik in 1970

(i) R&AW’s most successful spy Ravindra Kaushik who spied in Pakistan.

(ii) R&AW Ravindra Kaushik belongs from Sri Ganganagar Rajasthan

(iii) Ravindra Kaushik during study in school in India had dream to become film actor + also used to do acting on stage both.

(iv) R&AW’s recruiter spotted him when he was acting in patriotic play.

(v) Ravindra Kaushik joined R&AW in 1975 at age of 23.

(vi) R&AW trained him + given disguise identity and also sent to Pakistan.

(vii) R&AW‘s Ravindra Kaushik did LLB in Karachi University + also joined Pakistan’s army

(viii) Pakistan’s Army promoted Ravindra Kaushik to rank of major.

(ix) R&AW’s Ravindra Kaushik passed valuable information’s to R&AW from 1979 to 1983

(x) R&AW’s Ravindra Kaushik received title The Black Tiger from Indian Prime Minister Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi.

59. R&AW’s role for infiltrating higher Pakistan military + political leaders in 1960

(i) R&AW infiltrated highest levels of Pakistani military + also political leadership both.

(ii) R&AW also entered inside General Yahya Khan’s Office.

(iii) R&AW also alerted Indian armed forces just 1 week before from Pakistan’s Air attack.

(iv) R&AW abovementioned alert proved correct when Pakistan attacked India on December 3, 1971 before starting Indo-Pakistan’s War in 1971.

R&AW’s activities in Sri Lanka ♦

60. R&AW’s role for infiltrating PLA communication by Chinese military in 2019

  • R&AW was able to infiltrate PLA communication through Chinese military to Sri Lanka.

61. R&AW’s role for intelligence warning to Sri Lanka before church bombing in 2018

  • R&AW was issued precision intelligence warnings to Sri Lanka’s counterpart about expected terrorist attack based on HUMINT gathered by it.

62. R&AW’s role for uniting opposition parties to defeat Mahinda Rajapaksa in 2015

(i) R&AW in 2015 played major role for uniting opposition parties to defeat Mahinda Rajapaksa because India’s govt. feeling concern for increasing influence of economic + military both by China in Sri Lanka’s affairs.

(ii) (a) Mahinda Rajapaksa further increased India’s govt. concern by allowing 2 Chinese submarines to Lanka’s dock in 2014 without informing India

+ (plus)

(b) Also beside existence of standstill agreement between India and Sri Lanka.

+ (plus)

(c) Also India’s govt. viewed that Mahinda Rajapaksa tilting towards China.

63. R&AW’s role for co-ordinating talks within opposition parties in 2015

  • R&AW Chief of Station in Colombo provided coordination for talks within opposition parties + for convincing former PM Ranil Wickremasinghe for not to stand against Mahinda Rajapaksa + also to choose common opposition candidate to have better chances of winning.

64. R&AW’s role for touching with Kumaratunga for common candidate in 2015

(i) R&AW’s Chief of Station in Colombo touched with Chandrika Kumaratunga who played key role for convincing Maithripala Sirisena to become common candidate.


(ii) Abovementioned report denied by India’s govt. + also by Sri Lanka’s Foreign Minister Mangala Samaraweera both

65. R&AW’s role for capturing Sheikh Abdul + also secretly taken to India in 2010

  • R&AW in 2010 carried snatch operation in Sri Lanka where top HuJI militant Sheikh Abdul Khawaja handler of 26/11 Mumbai terror attackers captured + also secretly taken away to India.

66. R&AW’s role for providing intelligence support to Sri Lanka’s govt. in 1980

  • R&AW switched side’s + also started providing intelligence support to Sri Lanka’s govt. after Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi forced to send Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) under Operation Pawan in 1987 to restore normalcy in region.

67. R&AW’s role for co-ordinating with IPKF who treated disastrous in 1980

(i) R&AW co-ordination with IPKF treated most disastrous manifestation where Heliborne assaulted on LTTE HQ in Jaffna University campus area during opening stages for operation Pawan.

(ii) Dropping paratroopers became easy targets for LTTE where several soldiers killed.

(iii) Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi ended India’s involvement in Sri Lanka’s Civil war.

68. R&AW’s role for funding + training to LTTE to keep check on Sri Lanka in 1980

 (i) R&AW started funding + also training LTTE to keep check on Sri Lanka to avoid help to Pakistan during Indo-Pak War through allowing Pakistan’s ships to refuel at Sri Lanka’s ports.


(ii) LTTE created lot of problems + also complications both for India’s govt..

(C) R&AW in South East Asian (SEA) Countries

♦ R&AW’s activities in Malaysia ♦

69. R&AW’s role for identifying Khalistani militants in Malaysia in 2014

(i)R&AW undertook several identifications + physical surveillances + tracking operations (all) in Malaysia for targeting Khalistani organisations.

(ii) In view of above operations many high-ranking Khalistani militants arrested + also deported to India both simultaneously like Harminder Singh Mintoo + Tara Singh + Kulbir Kaur + Ramandeep Singh + etc. (all)

♦ R&AW’s activities in Myanmar ♦

70. R&AW’s role for providing intelligence for counter insurgency operatons in 2015

  • R&AW and Indian Army’s Military Intelligence provided intelligence in 2015 to 21 Para (SF) for counter-insurgency operation in Myanmar.

71. R&AW’s role for capturing Hathi who trained by Pakistani ISI on Apr 05, 1995

(i) India’s troops captured insurgent named Hathi Bsrvah, trained by Pakistani ISI near Karachi.

+ (plus)

(ii) Also abovementioned operation finally called off on May 21, 1995.

72. R&AW’s role for informing for arm’s consignment to Cox’s Bazar in 1995

(i) R&AW provided information’s that huge arm’s consignment for northern eastern already reached at Cox’s Bazar Bangladesh

+ (plus)

(ii) Also to be sent to insurgents in Manipur like Isak-Muivah group in Manipur + also Nagaland both

73. R&AW’s role for providing intelligence for Golden Bird operation in 1995

  • 57th Mountain Division of Indian Army carried Operation named Golden Bird in Mizoram + India-Myanmar border to counter-insurgency in Manipur + Nagaland through radio sets + also other technological instruments used for intercepting insurgents messages (all).

74. R&AW’s role for cultivating Myanmar rebel groups in 1990

(i) R&AW cultivated Burmese (Myanmar) rebel groups and pro-democracy coalitions like Kachin Independence Army (KIA).

(ii) India allowed KIA to carry limited trade in jade and precious stones using Indian Territory + also supplied weapons to them both.

(iii) KIA chief Maran Brang Seng met 2 time to Secretary Revenue in Delhi.

(iv) KIA became main source for training and weapons to militant groups operating in Northeast in India.

(v) R&AW initiated operation with code named Operation Leech to assassinate leaders of Burmese rebels to create example before other militant groups operating in North east in India.

(vi) 6 top rebel leaders including military wing chief of National Unity Party of Arakans (NUPA) Khaing Raza shot dead + 34 Arakanese guerrillas arrested + also charged for gun running (all).

♦ R&AW’s activities in Philippines ♦

75. R&AW’s role for naming 3 suspected of KTF in Philippines in March, 2023

(i) R&AW named 3 suspected members of Khalistan Tiger Force (KTF) in Illoilo city in Philippine

(ii) Philippine Bureau of Immigration, Cybercrime Investigation and Coordinating Centre + Military Intelligence Group jointly arrested 3 suspected members of KTF + also deported to India in May 2023.

(D) R&AW in European Countries (EC)

♦ R&AW’s activities in Belgium ♦

76. R&AW’s role for foiling assassination attempt by KCF in Belgium in 2021

  • R&AW foiled assassination attempt planned by militants of Khalistan Commando Force (KCF) from Belgium + also from United Kingdom both to target farmer’s leaders those protesting in Delhi.

♦ R&AW’s activities in Germany ♦

77. R&AW’s role for undertaking surveillance on Gurmeet Bagga of KCF in 2019

  • R&AW undertaken surveillance for targeting Gurmeet Singh Bagga, co-leader of Khalistan Ziadabad Force (KZF) + also wanted for Punjab’s drone Arms drop case both simultaneously.

78. R&AW’s role for undertaking physical surveillance + tracking operations in 2014

(i) R&AW undertaken several physical surveillances + identifications + tracking operations for targeting Khalistani militants + also Islamic fundamentalists both

+ (plus)

(ii) Also recruited aggressively agents within pro-Khalistan circles in various cities of Germany like Frankfurt + Berlin + also etc all.

(iii) R&AW managed to extract certain technical knowledge as necessary for UAV flight’s controls for advancing India’s Indigenous Military UAV program.

♦ R&AW’s activities in Italy ♦

79. R&AW’s role for establishing new station ater Mumabi’s attack in Italy in 1908

(i)R&AW established new station in Rome after Mumbai’s attack on Nov 26, 2008 which commonly known 26/11

+ (plus)

(ii) Also R&AW undertaken 100’s operations + directed for Sleeper cells or operatives for Pakistan-based Islamic + Khalistani militant organisations all.

+ (plus)

(iii) Also R&AW recruited aggressively agents within Pro-Khalistan circles in various cities

(iv) (a) R&AW already learned about Pakistan’s ISI involvement for providing large funds for Mumbai’s attack 26/11.

+ (plus)

(b) Also ISI arranged VOIP calls to enable militants to talk with their handlers located in Brescia city in Italy.

R&AW’s activities in Turkey ♦

80. R&AW’s role for providing security for visiting PM Modi in G20 in Turkey in 2015

  • R&AW’s station in Ankara increased its strength to provide additional security cover for visiting PM Modi for G20 meeting along with SPG Officers from M15- UK + from Mossad-Israel to provide Security under liaison agreement (all).

R&AW’s activities in United Kingdom (UK)

81. R&AW’s role for launching operation to naturalise Pak’s Abdul in UK in 1980s

  • R&AW launched extensive operation in London to neutralise UK-based Pak’s Citizen Abdul Khan who played instrumental role for sheltering extremists + also planning attacks in India.

(E) R&AW in African Countries (AC)

♦ R&AW’s activities in Mauritius ♦

82. R&AW’s role for supervising intelligence’s operation in Mauritius in 1983

(i) R&AW chief Nowsher F. Suntook, supervised intelligence-led operation for reuniting Mauritius’s Indian community

+ (plus)

(ii) Also to avoid coup by rival politician Paul Bérenger both simultaneously on instruction from India’s Prime minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi after receiving request from Mauritius’s Prime minister Mr. Anerood Jugnauth

♦ R&AW’s activities in South Africa + Nimibia ♦

83. R&AW’s role for training intelligence officers operating in South Africa + Namibia

(i) R&AW’s trained intelligence officers operating independently in African countries + also with anti-apartheid skin’s colour struggles in South Africa + Namibia both.

(ii) R&AW’s retired officers deputed to work in training institutes for intelligence agencies in African countries.

R&AW’s activities in Senegal ♦

84. R&AW’s role for providing information’s for Ravi Pujari’s location in Senegal

(i) R&AW declared 1st primary agency to provided information’s for Ravi Pujari, who located in Senegal.

(ii) Information provided to Senegal’s authorities to arrest Ravi Pujari + also to deport to India both

(iii) Ravi Pujari formally arrested at Kempegowda International Airport by Karnataka Police.

(F) R&AW in Other Asian (OA) Countries

♦ R&AW’s activities in China ♦

85. R&AW’s role for forming SFF core team to conduct joint operation in 20-21

(i) Special Frontier Force (SFF) formed core team to conduct joint operation near Gurung Hill at Rezang La + also captured heights in South Pangong Tso range both simultaneously.

(ii) Team leader Nyima Tenzin died in landmine blast on September 01, 2020 when undertaking reconnaissance mission near Line of Actual Control (LAC).

(iii) Tsering Norbu awarded Mention in despatches for his contribution + also successful execution of Operation Snow Leopard both simultaneously on January 26, 2021.

86. R&AW’s role for providing intelligence to customs deptt. to detain Ship in 2020

(i) Indian Customs officials detained China’s ship from Shanghai Port at Kandla Port in India.

(ii) Ship to be travelled for Port Qasim at Karachi in Pakistan.

(iii) Ship seized for wrong declaring autoclave which may be used for launching of ballistic missiles industrial dryer.

(iv) Ship seized based on intelligence tip-off received from R&AW.

87. R&AW’s role for providing intelligence for 1st nuclear weapons in 1964

(i) India + USA both shared common fear for nuclear capabilities of China due to extreme remoteness for Chinese testing grounds

+ (plus)

(ii) Also strict secrecy surrounding Chinese’s nuclear programme

+ (plus)

(iii) Also extreme difficult for India + USA to carry any HUMINT operation.

88. R&AW’s role for providing intelligence to monitor misile launch in 1960

(i) Monitoring device implanted mountaineering expedition to Nanda Devi

(ii) Replanted device lost + further discovered in sediment below mountain.

(iii) ELINT device used to monitor missile launch for transceiver powered through plutonium battery to detect + also to report both for data on future’s nuclear tests to be carried by China.

♦ R&AW’s activities in Saudi Arabia ♦

89. R&AW’s role for capturing Karim Tunda + also to bring him to India in 1990

(i) R&AW substantially expanded its activities + operations in Saudi Arabia + captured Abdul Karim Tunda + also secretly brought to India (all).

(ii) R&AW felt that largest source of funds + also promoters both for Salafism Islamic ideology considered major security challenge for India.

90. R&AW’s role for finding high ranking terrorist like Abu Jundal + etc. in 2012

(i) R&AW carried numerous operations in Saudi Arabia to find high ranking terrorist like Abu Jundal + Habibur Rahman + Sabeel Ahmed + Muhammed Gulnawaz + also etc. (all)

(ii) Abovementioned terrorists deported from Saudi Arabia + also arrested in India both.

91. R&AW’s role for co-ordinating for cooperation with Saudi’s intelligence in 2023

(i) R&AW played major role for joint co-operation between Indian Intelligence agencies and govt. of Saudi Arabia

(ii) Saudi Arabia’s cabinet approved for joint cooperation with Indian intelligence agencies in April 2023.

(iii) Saudi Arabia’s cabinet also approved Riyadh’s status as dialogue partner for SCO where India prepares to host SCO summit in July 2023.

(iv) India-Saudi defence and security partnership steadily growing.

(v) Several high-level bilateral visits + also meetings both held from February, 2023 with 1st official visit to India by Lt Gen Fahd bin Abdullah Mohammed Al-Mutair, commander of Royal Saudi Land Forces.

R&AW’s activities in Tajikistan ♦

92. R&AW’s role for using Farkhor Air Base for activities in Tajikistan in 1990

(i) of India acquired Farkhor Air Base after rise of Pakistan backed Taliban in Afghanistan to support Northern Alliance (NA).

(ii) (a) R&AW used air base along with M.I. for 100% activities in Afghanistan like to covert paramilitary operations + also HUMINT gathering.

(b) Also airbase used by Aviation Research Centre (ARC) + DAI both to provide aerial reconnaissance to NA.

(G) R&AW in Australian Continent

♦ R&AW’s activities in Fiji ♦

93. R&AW’s role for launching operations based on informants in Fiji

  • R&AW launched operation based on informants located in Australia + New Zealand + also UK (all) for removing Sitiveni Rabuka from political power in Fiji who persecuted cruel and unfair way to Fijians + Indian both ancestry

(H) R&AW in North America

♦ R&AW’s activities in Canada ♦

94. R&AW’s role for assassinating Hardeep Singh Nijjar on Sep 18, 2023

(i) Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau formally accused in Canada’s Parliament that India’s govt. responsible for Hardeep Singh Nijjar’s killing through R&AW’s operation.

+ (plus)

(ii) Also expelled prominent Indian diplomat from Canada


(iii) India’s govt. rejected Canada govt.’s allegation for R&AW’s involvement in Hardeep Singh Nijjar’s killing + told that abovementioned allegation be absurd + also motivated (all)

(iv) Hardeep Singh Nijjar prominent Khalistani leader + also alleged chief of Khalistan Tiger Force (KTF) killed outside parking lot for Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara in Surrey British Columbia.

(v) Hardeep Singh Nijjar was funding for training of members of separatist group + also declared terrorist by India

+ (plus)

(vi) India’s govt. announced award bounty for USD 15,000 equivalent to INR 12 lac in 2023 for providing information’s to lead his arrest.

95. R&AW’s role for launching operations to influence Canada’s govt. in 2009 to 2015

(i) R&AW + IB both simultaneously launched extensive operation from 2009 to 2015 to influence Canada’s govt. + politicians for supporting India’s interest in Canada.

+ (plus)

(ii) Also Canada being accused by India for having safe haven for Khalistani separatists in Canada.

96. R&AW’s role for providing intelligence to Canadian Security Intelligence in 2020

(i)Canadian Security Intelligence (CSI) put 2 Sikh men for passenger protect in no-fly list in July 2020 based on information’s received from R&AW that both intended to travel to Pakistan to carry ISI-backed terrorist attack inside India.

+ (plus)

(ii) Also 1 of Sikh men identified son of Lakhbir Singh Rode who well-known Khalistani separatist.

97. R&AW’s role for not providing intelligence for Kanishka Bombing on June 23, 1985

(i) Kanishka Bombing in Air India’s Flight 182 which killed 329 person

+ (plus)

(ii) Also Bombing in Air India Flight 301 at Narita airport in Tokyo-Japan

+ (plus)

(iii) Also abovementioned both bombing considered major setback to R&AW for missing enough intelligence about Khalistani militants.

♦ Backgrounds for R&AW’s Secretary (R) worked in India ♦

98. Meaning for R&AW Secretaries (R) particulars like name + also period for Job 

No. Name of officer Period for staying in R&AW’s secretariat Particulars of Job Profile
(i) R. N. Kao From 1968 to 1977 (a) Appointed as founder of R&AW, ARC

(b) Worked for Bangladesh Liberation War

(c) Worked for Operation Smiling Buddha

(d) Worked for Amalgamation of Sikkim

(e) Worked for ELINT operation with CIA against China

(ii) K. Sankaran Nair From 1977 to 1977 Resigned from R&AW in protest for downgrading designation from Secretary (R) to Director, R&AW
(iii) N. F. Suntook From 1977 to 1983 (a) Appointed as founder of Radio Research Centre (RRC)

(b) Worked as Director of RRC, ETS

(c) Worked for Lal Dora operation

(iv) Girish Chandra Saxena From 1983 to 1986 (a) Collaborated with several Intelligence agencies like USA + USSR + China + Iran + Afghanistan + Saudi Arabia + also etc. (all)

(b) Worked for investigation of Kanishka Bombing

(c) Worked for Blue Star operation in Amritsar

(v) S. E. Joshi From 1986 to 1987 (a) Collaboration continued with abovementioned Intelligence Agencies

(b) Re-designated to Secretary (R) from director of R&AW

(vi) A. K. Verma From 1987 to 1990 Worked for Cactus operation under Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF)
(vii) G. S. Bajpai From 1990 to 1991 Worked for Counter Insurgency operations
(viii) N. Narasimhan From 1991 to 1993
(ix) J. S. Bedi From 1993 to 1993 (a) Worked for investigation in Mumbai bombings in 1993

(b) Worked as specialist for China + Pakistan + also counter terrorism (all).

(x) A. S. Syali From 1993 to 1996 (a) Worked for increasing economic surveillance

(b) Worked for emphasis on advanced training + also additional recruitments both

(xi) Ranjan Roy From 1996 to 1997 Worked for negotiation on Farkhor Air Base in Afghanistan
(xii) Arvind Dave From 1997 to 1999 Worked for operation Shakti in Kargil war
(xiii) A. S. Dulat From 1999 to 2000 (a) Negotiated with IC 814 hijackers

(b) Reduced service with allegations for incompetence + also mishandling both.

(xiv) Vikram Sood From 2000 to 2003 Appointed as founder for National Technical Facilities Organisation (NTFO)
(xv) C. D. Sahay From 2003 to 2005 (a) Revamped ARC

(b) Inaugurated for R&AW’s headquarters located at Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003

(xvi) P. K. H. Tharakan From 2005 to 2007 (a) Played important role for settings of Nuclear Command Authority (India)

(b) Negotiated for end of Nepalese Civil War + also helped warring parties to sign Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA)

(xvii) Ashok Chaturvedi From 2007 to 2009 (a) Investigated for Samjhauta train bombings

(b) Reduced service with several allegations for nepotism + also corruption both

(xviii) K. C. Verma From 2009 to 2010 Investigated for Mumbai’s attacks in 2008
(xix) Sanjeev Tripathi From 2010 to 2012
(xx) Alok Joshi From 2012 to 2014
(xxi) Rajinder Khanna From 2014 to 2017 (a) Worked for Indian counter-insurgency operation in Myanmar 2015

(b) Worked for Indian Line of Control strike (2016)

(xxii) Anil Dhasmana From 2017 to 2019 (a) Worked for Sunrise operation

(b) Worked for Balakot airstrike (2019)

(xxiii) Samant Goel From 2019 to 2023 Worked for abrogation of Article 370 + also 35A both for J&K
(xxiv) Ravi Sinha From July 01, 2023 to till date

99. Meaning for N. Kao R&AW’s Secretary (R) From 1968 to 1977

  • R.N. Kao belonged to Imperial Police (IP) of British colonial rules which later renamed as Indian Police Service (IPS) after India’s Independence (1947) before joining R&AW’s Secretary (R).

100. Meaning for Sankaran Nair R&AW’s Secretary (R) From 1977 to 1977

  • K. Sankaran Nair belonged to Imperial Police (IP) of British colonial rules which later renamed as Indian Police Service (IPS) after India’s Independence (1947) before joining R&AW’s Secretary (R).

101. Meaning for F. Suntook R&AW’s Secretary (R) From 1977 to 1983

  • N. F. Suntook belongs to Indian Navy Æ Indian Police Service (IPS) Æ Indian Frontier Administration Service (IFAS) before joining R&AW’s Secretary (R).

102. Meaning for Vikram Sood R&AW’s Secretary (R) From 2000 to 2003

  • Vikram Sood belongs to Indian Postal Service (IPoS) before joining R&AW’s Secretary (R)

103. Meaning for S. Dulat R&AW’s Secretary (R) From 1999 to 2000

  • A. S. Dulat belongs to Indian Police Service (IPS) officer who deputed from Intelligence Bureau (IB).

104. Meaning for expertise of R&AW’s Secretary (R)

  • 100% R&AW’s Secretary (R) were expert on China or Pakistan any except Ashok Chaturvedi, who was expert on Nepal only.

(I) R&AW’s miscellaneous impact

♦ R&AW’s Corruption cases ♦

105. Meaning for Ashok Chaturvedi’s corruption case

(i) Corruption through use of govt.’s fund to take his wife for international trips

  • (a) Reported in outlook magazine on February 08, 2010 that Ashok Chaturvedi, former R&AW Chief used govt.’s funds to take his wife for international trips.

(ii) Corruption through use of diplomatic passports for himself + wife after retirement

(a) Ashok Chaturvedi used diplomatic passports for himself + also for wife both after retirement.

(b) IFS officers usually posted in key countries like UK + USA + also etc. (all) under grade A ambassadors permitted for using diplomatic passport after retirement

 (c) 100% former R&AW’s chiefs confirmed that they already surrendered their diplomatic passports on date of retirement.

+ (plus)

(d) Also their spouse not entitled for diplomatic passport even when they were in service.

106. Meaning for protest leave by 7 additional secretaries from RAS in Sep, 2009

(i) 7 additional Secretaries from RAS cadre in Sep, 2009 took protest leave after supersede to post of Special Secretary by A.B. Mathur, IPS officer.

(ii) R&AW’s workings suffered for several years due to tussle between RAS cadre and IPS officers on deputation.

107. Meaning for arresting senior technical officer for bribe by CBI on Feb 04, 2009

(i)CBI arrested senior technical officer on Feb 04, 2009 for taking bribe.

(ii) Abovementioned officers worked as Scientist, at Director level in division which granted export licenses to companies dealing in sensitive items + also defence-related equipment

(iii) Accused accepted bribe for INR 1 lac from Chennai based manufacturer for granting export license.

108. Meaning for trying to commit suicide infront of PM’s office on Aug 19, 2008

(i) R&AW Director Language + also head of R&AW training Institute in Gurgaon tried to commit suicide in front of Prime Minister’s (PM) office for alleging inaction + also wrong findings both for sexual harassment complaint filed against Joint Secretary who deputed to R&AW.

(ii) She was discharged from duty on ground that she was mentally unfit + also her identity disclosed.

(iii) She was later separately charged for criminal trespass + human trafficking + also for repeated attempts to commit suicide.

(iv) Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) ordered R&AW to reinstate her

(v) (a) R&AW filed appeal against CAT’s order before Delhi High Court on January 20, 2011

+ (plus)

(b) Also she was sent for psychological evaluation + medical detention both by Delhi High Court when she tried to strip herself in court protesting over slow pace of her trial.

(vi) (a)Psychological evaluation report stated that she may be suffering mental problem due to loss of job + also her continuous running at courts


(b) She was certainly not suffering from any permanent or grave mental disorder.

(vii) Supreme court of India quashed on December 15, 2014 media released, 2008 which proclaimed that Ms Bhatia as mentally unstable on ground that it affected dignity + reputation + also privacy (all) of citizen of India.

109. Meaning for CBI’s raid on Major General (retired) VK Singh in Sep, 2007

(i) R&AW involved in controversy due to high-profile CBI raid at residence of Major General (retired) V K Singh on Sep, 2007

(ii) R&AW Joint Secretary (retired) written book on R&AW + also alleged that political interference and also corruption both existence in R&AW which create vulnerable to defections.

(iii) Abovementioned book also wrote that due to corruption R&AW given preference towards purchasing intelligence from Rohde and Schwarz Company.

(iv) Further wrote in book reasons for corruption in R&AW due to not answerable to outside agency any except control of PM’s Office where many officers thought that they not only above law but law unto themselves.

(v) Case under Official Secrets Act filed against V K Singh.

110. Meaning for defection’s operations + also spy’s scandals in 1980

(i) R&AW’s V. Unnikrishnan, 1962 batch IPS officer posted at Colombo was honey-trapped by CIA between 1985 and 1987 when he was deputed as station chief at Chennai + also coordinating Sri Lanka’s operations both

(ii) V. Unnikrishnan gave information to his handler on training + also arming Tamil groups including LTTE

(iii) India’s govt. negotiated positions on peace accord with Sri Lanka + also used encryption code by R&AW.

(iv) V. Unnikrishnan caught by IB counter-intelligence in 1987 + spent 1 year in Tihar jail + also dismissed from IPS cadre (all).

111. Meaning for spy scandal + also defection by Rabinder Singh in 2004

(i) Rabinder Singh, Joint Secretary + head of R&AW’s South East Asia department made spy scandal involving CIA + also defected to America on June 05, 2004.

(ii) R&AW already suspicious about Rabinder Singh’s movements + also put under surveillance for very long time.

(iii) Rabinder Singh confronted by Counter Intelligence officials on April 19, 2004.

(iv) Rabinder Singh despite all precautions managed to defect with sensitive files allegedly removed from R&AW’s headquarters in New Delhi.

(v) Abovementioned defection by Rabinder Singh which embarrassing fiasco + also national security failure attributed to weak surveillance + shoddy investigation + also lack of coordination between Counter Intelligence and Security like between Intelligence Bureau (IB) and R&AW.

(vi) Rabinder Singh surfaced in Virginia-USA + also submitted affidavit to court both.

(vii) R&AW deposed that Rabinder Singh traced in New Jersey-USA.

(viii) Speculated in book Mission R&AW that CIA directly involved for compromising Rabinder Singh + V.Unnikrishnan + minimum 8 other R&AW’s officers managed to clandestinely migrate + also to settle in foreign countries all like USA or Canada any with help of their spy agencies.

112. Meaning for spy scandal by Bangladesh’s DGFI agent in 2007

(i) Bangladeshi DGFI’s agent concealed his nationality before joining R&AW + also known by name Diwan Chand Malik in R&AW both.

(ii) He know some important Intel which was damaging for India’s security.

(iii) He joined R&AW in 1999 + also lived in East Delhi both.

(iv) R&AW filed FIR at Lodhi colony police station for cheating + also forgery both against based on complaint made by R&AW’s senior official.

113. Meaning for arresting Kulbhushan Jadhav by Pakistan’s govt. on March 25, 2016

(i) Pakistan arrested Kulbhushan Jadhav citizen of India on allegation that he is R&AW’s agent operating in Baluchistan province under fake name Hussain Mubarak Patel.

(ii) Pakistan claimed that he carrying passport under fake identity + also used to operate jewellery shop in Chahbahar in Iran.

(iii) Pakistan claimed that he was serving commander-ranked officer in Indian Navy.

(iv) Pakistan’s media alleged that he was involved in terrorist incidents in Karachi + also Baluchistan both specifically terrorist attack on bus with 100% Shia passengers in Safoora Goth in Karachi.

(v) (a) MEA in India claimed that Kulbhushan Jadhav was Indian Navy officer + also retired prematurely both

+ (plus)

(b) Also having no link with India’s govt.

(vi) (a) India’s high commission in Pakistan sought consular access to Kulbhushan Jadhav


(b) Pakistan’s govt. not agreed for consular access to Kulbhushan Jadhav + also leaked some information’s without realizing glaring loopholes in same.

(vi) Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani dismissed Pakistan’s claim + also stated as mere rumours both.

(vii) India’s govt. claimed that Kulbhushan Jadhav owning cargo business in Iran + working at Bandar Abbas + also Chabahar ports (all).

(viii) India’s govt. claimed that Kulbhushan Jadhav strayed into Pakistan waters territory + he lured into Pakistan sometime back + also fake documents created by Pakistan’s govt. (all).

R&AW’s functioning through Films + TV serials + mass surveillance ♦

114. Meaning for production of films + TV serials + also etc (all) on R&AW

(i) Indian Film industry made several films on R&AW’s working

 (a) Hindi Film Aankhen with Dharmendra + also Mala Sinha in 1968

(b) Hindi Film Prem Pujari with Dev Anand in 1970

(c) Hindi Film Hindustan Ki Kasam with Raaj Kumar + also Priya Rajvansh in 1973

(d) Hindi Film Hero with Sunny Deol where he eliminated Pakistan’s terrorists who tried to below bomb in India in 2003.

(e) Hindi Film Romeo Akbar Walter with John Abraham who played spy’s role.

(f) Malayalam film Highway with Suresh Gopi + also Bhanupriya.

(ii) Indian TV industry made several documentary films on R&AW’s working

(a) TV broadcasted biography on Ravindra Kaushik, R&AW’s agent in Adrishya to dedicate to India’s legendry spy.

(b) TV broadcasted on Ajit Doval, R&AW’s agent, presently working as National Security Advisor (NSA) under Priminiser-ship of Mr. Narender Modi from 2014 to till date.

(c) TV broadcasted 2612 with Cabir Maira, R&AW’s agent for Anand Swami who helped STF officer Randeep Rathore for saving India from terrorist attack.

(d) TV broadcasted Time Bomb 9/11 on Zee (Hindi) with Rajeev Khandelwal, R&AW’s filed officer who attempted to defuse nuclear bomb + also saved life of prime minister of India.

(e) TV broadcasted on Zee (Bangla) named Mohona, R&AW’s chief protagonist officer

(f) TV broadcasted on Start Plus (Hindi) named Sajda Tere Pyar Mein with Shaleen Bhanot R&AW’s officer who asks young woman named Aliya for help in catching spy Mahendra Pratap

(iii) Indian commentators on R&AW’s working

  • Several academic commentators linked for increasing surfeit of Indian films + also TV series both where Indian hero staves impending global catastrophe being marker of aspirational Pax Indica not based on older paradigms of internationalism based on universal brotherhood + also non-violent pacifism associated with Gandhi and Nehru’ but on motif of increasing assertive potential superpower.

115. Meaning for mass surveillance in India

(i)Mass surveillance known as massive surveillance for 100% (wholly) or not 100% (substantial) of population.

(ii)Mass surveillance in India includes surveillance + telephone tapping + open-source intelligence + lawful interception (all) + also surveillance under Indian Telegraph Act, 1885.

(iii)Now days India using facial-recognition technology through law enforcement.

(iv) Telangana known most surveilled state in India having 36 CCTV cameras per 1 thousand people

(v) Delhi + also Chennai have more cameras per square mile comparative to cities in China.

(Source for information’s: www.allgov.com + public domains + social media + Misc (all))


(Author can be reached at email address satishagarwal307@yahoo.com or on Mobile No. 9811081957)

Disclaimer : The contents of this article are solely for informational purpose. Neither this article nor the information as contained herein constitutes a contract or will form the basis of a contract. The material contained in this article does not constitute or substitute professional advice that may be required before acting on any matter. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this article to ensure its accuracy at the time of publication. Satish Agarwal assumes no responsibility for any error which despite all precautions may be found herein. We shall not be liable for direct, indirect or consequential damages if any arising out of or in any way connected with the use of this article or the information as contained herein.


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February 2024