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Introduction:

The role of chartered accountants in the capacity of Auditors assures smooth-running business that helps to reduce fraud and accounting. Audit in banks is useful not only from the point of view of the management, who is the appointing authority but also from the point of other parties, who are interested in their different objectives viz, the Government, public, RBI, Investors, Depositors and Analysts. In order to get an assurance that the norms stated in the loan sanction form have not been disregarded, the bank appoints an external auditor, who is an independent person. The auditor undertaking such responsibility should take care that the requirements of the banks are met and early detection of the lapses and inconsistencies is done.

The main purpose of conducting the Inventories audit in banks is to get an assurance that the security against which the loan is sanctioned represents the quality and quantity it claims to possess. With this assurance, the purpose of the Inventories audit as required by the bank is served.

The thrust of any stock verification process is to verify the system followed or the procedure adopted to compile the quantities of stocks as on a given date and the rate applied for evaluation. The audit objectives remain the same though the accounting procedures vary from business to business, country to country, and product to product.

The examination of the securities against which the loan has been sanctioned consists of not only physical verification of the securities but also includes verification of aspects such as ownership, valuation and proper storage. The Auditor’s role assumes great significance in this regard as his report is considered veritable and neutral. He is therefore expected to be objective and unbiased while undertaking the Inventories audit.

The Expert Role of Chartered Accountant In Stock Audit

The most essential components, which form a significant portion of the total assets of an entity in general and current assets in particular are Inventories and Debtors. They are considered as the lifeblood of every business activity since they are the indicators of good health of the company. The basic objective of verification of these assets is to indicate their physical existence and safety aspects.

In view of the magnitude of loans, entities obtain from banks in the form of cash credit against hypothecation of Inventories and debtors, the importance of the physical verification of Inventories, their valuation, and security aspects are not overemphasized, but rightly stated. The banks would like to get an assurance that the loans that have been made are backed by security that has a proper repaying capacity.

Meaning of Stock Audit/Inventory Audit

Meaning of Inventories

Inventories denote tangible property held for sale in the ordinary course of business or in the process of production for such sale or for consumption in the production of goods or services for sale, including maintenance supplies and consumables stores and spare parts meant for replacement in the normal course.

Inventories thus normally comprised of

1. stores,

2. spares parts,

3. loose tools,

4. Maintenance supplies,

5. raw materials including components,

6. work in process,

7. finished goods including by-products,

8. Waste or by-products, etc.

The Expert Role of Chartered Accountant In Stock Audit

Meaning of Debtors

A debtor represents the amount due to an entity for goods sold or a service rendered or in respect of other similar contractual obligations but the amount includes such amounts which are in the nature of loans and advances. Debtors are represented only by documentary evidence in the form of invoices and they don’t have any physical existence.

Cash-credit facility

A major part of the working capital requirement of any unit would consist of maintenance of Inventories of raw materials, semi-finished goods, finished goods, stores, and spares, etc. In trading concerns, the requirement of funds will be to maintain adequate inventories in trade. Finance against such inventories by banks is generally granted in the shape of a cash credit facility where drawings will be permitted against inventories of goods. It is a running account facility where deposits and withdrawals are permitted.

The cash credit facility is of two types (depending upon the type of charge on goods taken as security by the bank.)

1. Cash credit – pledge: When the possession of the goods is with the bank and drawings in the account are linked with the actual movement of goods from/to the possession of the bank. The physical control of the goods is exercised by the bank.

2. Cash credit- hypothecation: when the possession of the goods remains with the borrower and a floating charge over the inventories is created in favor of the bank. The borrower has complete control over the goods and the drawings in the account are permitted on the basis of stock statements submitted by the borrower.

Stock /receivables audit

The term Stock Audit in the context of banks refers to verification and valuation of the entire gamut of current assets, current liabilities, loans and advances, diversion of funds, application of funds, the accuracy of stock statements, arriving at the revised drawing power, and any other matter connected with the credit administration by the banks.

Objectives of Inventories/Stock Audit

The main thrust in stock audit, therefore, is towards authentication of the quantity, quality, composition, and valuation of the inventories and debtors.

  • To evaluate the actual levels of Stock, Debtors & creditors as against the relevant stock statement/financial statements including physical verification of stocks.
  • To evaluate the present methodology of inventory accounting, valuation including work in progress and inventory management.
  • To ensure safety and security measures are being followed for the preservation of stock.
  • To identify any event affecting the going concern of the borrower.
  • To evaluate the adequacy of Primary Security against which the Bank has advanced the loan.
  • To match actual level of Stock, Debtor, with the projections given at time of sanction.
  • To evaluate any sudden increase/Decrease in Stock/Debtors.
  • To ascertain whether the third-party inventory is included in stock or not.
  • To evaluate whether the Debtors are arising out of the commercial transactions.
  • To check whether any bill discounted are included in Sundry Debtors.
  • To compare the actual level of creditors with those stated in Stock Statement.
  • To ascertain the basis of Stock Valuation as per the sanctioned terms & compliance of Accounting Standards.
  • To affirm the Adequacy of Insurance of Stock & other assets charged to the Bank.
  • To verify the major additions/deletion in Fixed Assets and source of addition.
  • To ensure that there is no offsetting of sales & purchase and netting off of debtors & creditors.
  • To check whether the information submitted to banks are in line with the latest audited financials.
  • To examine any overvaluation in case of current assets and under valuation in case of creditors.
  • To examine whether there is any double financing of Stock.

Credit Audit

Credit Audit examines the compliance of sanctions and post sanction procedures laid down by the bank. It is also known as Loan Review Mechanism.

Credit Audit aims at achieving continuous improvement in the quality of the Commercial Credit portfolio. Credit audit aims at examining the probability of default, identifying risks, and suggesting risk mitigation measures.

Objectives of Credit Audit

1. Improvement in the Quality of Credit Portfolio

2. Review Sanction process and Compliance status

3. Feedback on regulatory Compliances

4. Credit Risk Assessment

5. Pick up early warning signals and suggest remedial measures

6. Recommend corrective action for improving credit quality, credit administration, skills of staff in credit department

Every advance under audit would have following stages –

1. Credit Appraisal

2. Sanctioning and disbursement,

  • Review, Monitoring, Supervision and Inspection,

1. Renewal, Enhancement, Rescheduling, Call back,

2.

3. Credit Appraisal

Credit appraisal is the process initiated on receiving the application by the bank from the proposed borrower. It can also be described as the process by which a lender appraises the technical feasibility, economic viability, and bankability including the creditworthiness of the prospective borrower.

The auditor should check

1. Whether the application received from the borrower is in the prescribed format furnishing his entire borrowing requirement?

2. Whether the branch has complied with general guidelines and procedures of the bank for lending, while processing the proposal. These guidelines include assessing the technical feasibility, economic viability and industry performance, etc.?

3. Whether both the receipt of application and processing of the same are properly recorded and documented by the branch?

4. Whether the same has been sent to the controlling/sanctioning authority within the time-frame for sanction?

ii) Sanctioning and disbursement

Every bank has got various layers of sanctioning authorities. Hence the auditor has to test check whether the sanctions have been made by particular sanctioning authorities. The auditor should verify the following.

1. A sanction letter is properly drawn up and communicated to the borrower and acceptance by the borrower is kept on record.

2. Proper documents, correctly stamped, and duly executed are obtained.

3. Creation/modification of charges with ROC wherever applicable.

4. Inspection of the register of charges is made in the ROC office before and after creating Charge.

5. Proper valuation of immoveable property by Approved Valuer is made and apparently the valuation is not found on higher side.

6. Whether Valuation Report submitted by the Valuer is in Bank’s prescribed format.

7. Clear and unambiguous Legal Scrutiny report obtained in Bank’s prescribed format from Bank’s empaneled Advocate and kept with documents.

8. Proper equitable/legal mortgage as per guidelines is created.

9. Maintaining proper records by way of security register etc. for safekeeping of the security documents is to be ensured.

10. Compliance with the terms and conditions of sanction is to be ensured and to verify whether confirmation thereof is sent to higher authorities.

11. Amount disbursed as per prescribed rules and guidelines in order to ensure proper end-use of funds.

12. Whether specific approval of sanctioning authority is obtained for deviations if any.

13. Whether a register for rejected loan proposals is maintained by the Branch and that these are regularly reported to the Regional Manager/Head Office through periodical statements as per guidelines laid down by Head Office?

iii) Review, Monitoring, Supervision, and Inspection

Once the loan is disbursed, it becomes necessary to monitor the end use of the funds.  Every bank has its own monitoring strategy.

Generally, post disbursement monitoring should include the following:

1. Monitoring operations in the accounts like cash withdrawals, kite flying, diversion of funds etc.

2. Conduct of periodical inspections as per terms of sanction and reports in proper format held on record / sent to controlling offices wherever applicable with comments of branch Manager.

3. Obtaining stock statements, MSOD/QIS/Cash Budget as applicable, analysis thereof, and fixation of quarterly operative limits

4. Maintenance of prescribed books and registers like insurance due date register, stock statements register, inspection register, etc.

5. Compliance of laid down guidelines in respect of consortium accounts, like periodical meetings, joint documentation, creation of charge, exchange of information, etc.

6. Application of prescribed rates of interest, incidental & service charges, processing fees, etc.

7. Timely review/ renewal of credit limits is done and technical review, if any made, is not more than 3 months old.

8. Follow up and recovery of devolved LCs & guarantees, Overdue PC, Bills and Adhoc limits, recovery of due installments/interest in time, etc.

9. Classification of the advance under the Credit Rating norms in accordance with the guidelines of the controlling authorities of the Bank.

10. Periodical review of credit rating followed by revision of rate of interest.

11. Proper reporting of sanctions, submission of Control Returns, and other periodical returns to higher authorities.

12. Control returns on advances have to be sent regularly to the R.O/H.O.

v) Classification

Advances are classified as Performing and Non-Performing Assets. The banks should follow the Reserve Bank of India’s guidelines to classify an advance as Non-Performing Asset (NPA) and the proper classification of advances is the primary responsibility of the bank’s management.

Borrower Audit

The credit audit verifies all the documents and facts at the end of the lender. But before it can be ascertained that the funds borrowed are utilized for the allotted purposes, an audit inspection of the borrowers’ units also is necessary.

A borrower audit includes inspection of the unit before disbursement and during the loan period.  It also includes an audit of the hypothecated/pledged stock, book debts.  At times a special inspection may be ordered if the circumstances so require.

Terms used in banking parlance in context to Stock Audit

Cash Credit

A credit facility under which a customer draws up to the preset limit, subject to availability of sufficient security with the bank. The difference between an overdraft and cash credit account is that while the former is extended more to individuals, and less for business, the latter is extended only to business bodies.

Further the cash credit facility is more or less on a permanent basis so long as the business is going on. Internationally at the end of specific period the overdraft facility is withdrawn and the customer is required to pay back the amount lent by the bank. The purpose of cash credit is for working capital. The operations are similar to overdraft.

Cash credit facility is of two types (depending upon the type of charge on goods taken as security by bank.)

(i) Cash credit – pledge: when the possession of the goods is with the bank and drawings in the account are linked with the actual movement of goods from/to the possession of the bank. The physical control of the goods is exercised by the bank.

(ii) Cash credit- hypothecation: when the possession of the goods remains with the borrower and a floating charge over the stocks is created in favor of the bank. The borrower has complete control over the goods and the drawings in the account are permitted on the basis of stock statements submitted by the borrower.

Charge on assets of a company

A charge means an interest or right which a lender or creditor obtains in the property of the company by way of security that the company will pay back the debt. Charges are of 2 types:

1. Fixed charge: Such a charge is against a specific clearly identifiable and defined property. The property under charge is identified at the time of the creation of the charge. The nature and identity of the property does not change during the existence of the charge. The company can transfer the property charged only subject to that charge so that the charge holder or mortgage must be paid first whatever is due to him before disposing off that property.

2. Floating charge: Such a charge is available only to companies as borrower. A Floating charge does attach to any definite property but covers the property of a circulating and fluctuating nature such as stock-in-trade, debtors, etc. It attaches to the property charged in the varying conditions in which happens to be from time to time. Such a charge remains dormant until the undertaking charge ceases to be a going concern or until the person in whose favor charge created takes steps to crystallize the floating charge. A floating charge on crystallization becomes a fixed charge

Consortium lending

This approach to lending was introduced by the RBI in 1974. Accordingly, more than one bank finances a single borrower requiring large credit limit. It (a) enables banks to spread risk of lending, (b) broke the monopoly of big banks to have large accounts, (c) enables banks to share experience and expertise, (d) introduces uniformity in approaches to lending, (e) enables banks to pool resources, and (f) checks multiple financing of the same account.

Each consortium has a lead bank, which has the largest share in the loan, which processes the loans low rates proposal, which calls the meetings of the consortium for sanction of limits and review of accounts, which obtains RBI permission for credit limits, and which conducts joint inspection of the borrower’s activities. The borrower executes a single set of documents with the lead bank. It obtains the letter of authority from member banks and releases the initial requirements of the borrower. Thereafter it obtains reimbursements from the member banks to the extent of their shares in advance. If the member banks delaythe reimbursement beyond a week, the lead bank was entitled to charge a penal interest for the period of delay. This arrangement was also called a Single Window Lending.

Creditors

An entity (person or institution) that extends credit by giving another entity permission to borrow money with a stipulation for repayment at a later date

Drawing power

It is the limit up to which the borrower can utilize the cash credit. Drawing power is required to be arrived at based on the stock statement which is current.  If the outstanding exceeds the drawing power, it will attract penal interest. The outstanding in the account based on drawing power calculated from stock statements older than three months, would be deemed as irregular. While calculating drawing power based on stock and debtors’ statements, care must be taken to exclude old, obsolete and non-moving stock and long outstanding debtors.

Debtors/ Receivables

A person or entity that owes an amount of money or favor to another person or entity, in the normal course of business, due to sale of goods or provision of services The balance in the debtor’s accounts is also referred to as Accounts Receivable.

Inventories

Inventories denotes tangible property held for sale in the ordinary course of business or in the process of production for such sale or for consumption in the production of goods or services for sale, including maintenance supplies and consumables stores and spare parts meant for replacement in the normal course.

Paid Inventories refers to the Inventories which is fully paid i.e. excluding Sundry creditors

Limit sanctioned

This refers to the extent of facility granted to the borrower based on his working capital requirements and securities offered. In the case of cash credit, it is the limit up to which the borrower can withdraw from his borrowal account. The extent to which the borrower draws up to his preset limit depicts the utilized amount

Margin money

Margin money is like a security deposit retained by the bank till the loan is fully settled.

The credit limit is sanctioned by the banks after retaining a margin on the value of the security offered. The percentage of margin requirements varies as per RBI guidelines.

Memorandum of satisfaction

A company must make a report to the Registrar of payment of satisfying in full of any charge registered under this act. The satisfaction of charges must be filed with the Registrar within 30 days from the date of such a payment of charge. On receipt of intimation to the company, the Registrar gives notice to the charge-holder calling upon him to show cause within time not exceeding 14 days as why the payment of satisfaction should not be registered. If no cause is shown within the time stipulated above the Registrar must enter the satisfaction of the payment of charge. If some cause is shown, the Registrar must record note to that effect in the register and inform the company accordingly.

Mortgage

A mortgage is the transfer of an interest is specific immovable property for the purpose of securing the payment of money advanced or to be advanced by way of loan, an existing or future debt, or the performance of an engagement which may give rise to a pecuniary liability. The transferor is called a mortgagor, the transferee a mortgagee; the principal money and interest of which payment is secured for the time being are called the mortgage-money and the instrument (if any) by which the transfer is effected is called a mortgage-deed.

Non-performing assets

An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank.

A non-performing asset (NPA) shall be a loan or an advance where;

1. interest and/or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term loan,

2. the account remains ‘out of order’ for a period of more than 90 days, in respect of an Overdraft/Cash Credit (OD/CC),

  • the bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted,

1. interest and/or installment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agricultural purposes, and

2. Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of other accounts.

Out of Order / Irregular account

An account should be treated as ‘out of order’ if the outstanding balance remains continuously in excess of the sanctioned limit/drawing power. In cases where the outstanding balance in the principal operating account is less than the sanctioned limit/drawing power, but there are no credits continuously for six months as on the date of Balance Sheet or credits are not enough to cover the interest debited during the same period, these accounts should be treated as ‘out of order’.

The outstanding in the account based on drawing power calculated from stock statements older than three months would be deemed as irregular. A working capital borrowal account will become NPA if such irregular drawings are permitted in the account for a continuous period of 90 days (with effect from March 31, 2004).

Overdue account

Any amount due to the bank under any credit facility is ‘overdue’ if it is not paid on the due date fixed by the bank

Pledge

It is a bailment of property as a security for debt / amount borrowed.

Stock statements

It is a statement (normally in a prescribed format of the lending bank) showing the details of the various items of stock. It should clearly indicate the movement of the stock during the period. Stock which has not been paid for has to be excluded. Stock statements are to be signed by an authorized signatory and submitted to the banks at intervals stipulated in the sanction letter.

Non- submission of stock statements on time will attract penal interest.

Working Capital

There are two measures of working capital: gross working capital and net working capital. Gross working capital is the total of the current assets. Net working capital is the difference between the total of current assets and the total of current liabilities

Types of Mortgages

Meaning of mortgage

As explained earlier, Mortgage is a transfer of interest in specific immovable property for the purpose securing payment of money advanced, or to be advanced by way of loan, an existing or future debt, or the performance of an engagement, which may give rise to a financial liability.

The transferor is called a Mortgagor and the transferee is a Mortgagee, the principal money and interest of which payment is secured for the time being are called mortgage money, and the instrument, if any, by which the transfer is effected is called a Mortgage Deed.

Sec 58(a) of the Transfer of property act 1882 deals with mortgage. Accordingly, the necessary ingredients of a mortgage are: –

1. Transfer of interest in specific immovable property.

2. A transfer is for the purpose of securing the payment of money advanced or to be advanced by way of loan.

3. It may be existing and future debt.

4. It may be also for performance of an engagement, which may lead to financial liability.

Different types of mortgages

There are 6 types of mortgages. They are:

1. Simple Mortgage,

2. English Mortgage,

3. Equitable Mortgage or Mortgage by deposit of title deeds,

4. Usufructuary Mortgage,

5. Mortgage by Conditional Sale,

6. Anomalous Mortgage

Simple Mortgage

This mortgage is an agreement only whereby the mortgagor personally binds and agrees to repay the money borrowed to the mortgagee and agrees that in the event of failure to do so, the property may be sold and the money realized out of the sale proceeds. However, it must be registered. Simple mortgage does not refer to any property transfer at all.

English Mortgage 

Where the mortgagor binds himself to repay the mortgage-money on a certain date, and transfers the mortgaged property absolutely to the mortgagee, but subject to a proviso that he will re-transfer it to the mortgagor upon payment of the mortgage-money as agreed, the transaction is called an English mortgage

Equitable Mortgage

Where a person in any of the following towns, namely, the towns of Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai, and in any other town which the State Government concerned may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, delivers to a creditor or his agent documents of title to immovable property, with intent to create a security thereon, the transaction is called a mortgage by deposit of title-deeds.

Mortgage by conditional sale

Where the mortgagor ostensibly sells the mortgaged property

  • on condition that on default of payment of the mortgage-money on a certain date the sale shall become absolute, or
  • on condition that on such payment being made the sale shall become void, or
  • on condition that on such payment being made the buyer shall transfer the property to the seller,

the transaction is called a mortgage by conditional sale and the mortgagee a mortgagee by conditional sale:

Provided that no such transaction shall be deemed to be a mortgage, unless the condition is embodied in the document which effects or purports to effect the sale.

Usufructuary Mortgage

Where the mortgagor delivers possession or expressly or by implication binds himself to deliver possession of the mortgaged property to the mortgagee, and authorizes him to retain such possession until payment of the mortgage-money, and to receive the rents and profits accruing from the property or any part of such rents and profits and to appropriate the same in lieu of interest, or in payment of the mortgage-money, or partly in lieu of interest or partly in payment of the mortgage-money, the transaction is called an usufructuary mortgage and the mortgagee an usufructuary mortgagee.

Anomalous Mortgage

A mortgage which is not a simple mortgage, a mortgage by conditional sale, a usufructuary mortgage, an English mortgage or a mortgage by deposit of title-deeds within the meaning of this section is called an anomalous mortgage.

Difference between Mortgage and Pledge

Mortgages are dealt as per the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 whereas the Indian Contract Act, 1872 deals with pledge.

Pledge is the bailment of goods, as security for payment of debt, performance of promise. The creditor holds the possession of goods as security, but has no right of foreclosure; as there is no transfer of ownership. The right of enjoyment of property is not given to the pledge.

While, transfer of possession is very important in case of pledge it is not necessarily so in case of mortgage (depending upon type of mortgage).

In mortgage there is transfer of interest, whereas in case of pledge, the pledgee has only special right of detaining the goods till repayment of loan.

Mortgagor has right of redemption and mortgagee has right of foreclosure, whereas the pledgee does not have right of foreclosure.

Charge

The word Charge is not defined in the Companies Act, 2013. Section 124 merely states the expression ‘charge’ includes mortgage. However, Section 100 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 defines “mortgage’. These two provisions give a fair idea that Charge is nothing but security of its property by the Company in favor of creditor with the intent of securing his debt.

Differences between “Mortgage” and “Charge”

In Raja Sri Shiva Prasad v. Beni Madhab AIR 1922 Pat. 529, Das J. stated that the broad distinction between a “mortgage” and “charge” is:

“Whereas a charge only gives a right to payment out of a particular fund or particular property without transferring that fund or property, a mortgage is in essence a transfer of an interest in specific immovable property.”

In other words –

A “mortgage” effectuates transfer of property or an interest therein but there is no such transfer in “charge”. In every “mortgage” there is “charge” but in “charge” there is no “mortgage”.

Need, Scope and Applicability of Inventories audit

Need for Inventories audit

Like any other audit, the rationale for conducting Inventories Audit also lies in prevention and early detection of frauds and errors. Inventories audit acts as a safeguard against occurrence of both Internal and External frauds.

An Inventories audit is essential for the following purposes:

1. To give the bankers an assurance regarding the following:

1. That a suitable environment for preservation of inventories exists.

2. That a responsible person for safeguarding the inventories is always present.

    • That degraded inventories have been written off.

1. That adequate safeguards exist against fire and natural calamities.

2. That physical inventories tally with the stock statements submitted to bank.

3. That the pledged/hypothecated inventories are realizable.

    • That inventory is owned by the borrower.
    • That all sanction terms have been adhered to.

1. That inventories are not stagnating and becoming obsolete.

2. To investigate, wherever the party is not submitting periodic Inventories statements regularly.

3. To investigate, where the accounts have been marked as substandard.

4. To find out reasons when there are too many qualifying remarks about inventories and receivables in the Auditor’s report on the Balance Sheet of the borrower.

5. To find out suspect dealing in lending procedure.

6. To make the banks aware of their right of enforcement of the security interest provided in the Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and enforcement of the Security Interest Act, 2002.

7. To fulfill Head Office requirement

Scope of Inventories audit

The scope of the audit covers all the aspects that have a direct impact on the working capital of the unit as well as the aspects relating to inventories that have a bearing on the bank finance. In other words, it deals with the matters that have an effect on the security and liquidity in view of the banker.

It encompasses the following aspects:

  • Physical verification of inventories
  • Verification of condition of storage
  • Valuation of inventories and pointing out variances
  • Valuation of obsolete / non-moving Inventories
  • Age-wise categorization of inventories
  • Evaluation of the inventory’s management by the company
  • Reconciliation of stock statements submitted with the accounting records maintained by borrowers particularly, relating to quantity, rate, value of inventories, age, marketability, etc.
  • Verification and evaluation of sundry creditors indicating separately those relating to stock and their relationship with bank finance
  • Commenting upon the sources of the raw materials, i.e., whether any credit is available for the material and which of the items are available against cash payments
  • Review of the Inventories valuation system
  • Age-wise and value-wise qualification of debtors
  • Determination of the drawing power
  • Determining adequacy of the insurance cover
  • Verification of documents/ securities
  • Commenting upon the comparative Profitability and Inventories ratio
  • Ensuring that the compliance of the terms and conditions of limit sanctioned
  • Verification of transactions with sister concerns, unsecured Loans to Directors and others
  • Any other matters of interest to the bank

Applicability of Stock Audit

Under the following circumstances it is advisable for banks to get annual stock audit done by the Independent Agencies-

  • Where there are over dues in term loans or other accounts, where the banks’ stake is high.
  • Where there is evidence of pressure on the borrower from the creditors
  • Where the inventories are stagnating.
  • Where party is not submitting periodic stock statements regularly.
  • Where there are grounds to suspect that the position of chargeable current assets indicated may not be correct.
  • Where there are too many qualifying remarks about inventories and receivables in the auditor’s report on the balance sheet of a borrower.
  • Where the account is marked as sub-standard.
  • Suspect dealings in lending procedure, jeopardizing advances given
  • An errant borrower, where Inventories audit is needed to supplement actions of the branches for recovery.
  • Any other valid reason such as mismanagement, heavy losses, lockout, strikes etc.
  • Fulfilling the criteria fixed by the head office to get stock audit done.

Responsibility of the auditor

The responsibility of an auditor lies towards the employing authority and the authority, which regulates the profession. In case of Inventories audit, the bank or the financial institution employs the auditor. They place reliance on the audit report and acts accordingly, due to which the auditors are responsible to them. The reports issued by the auditor also cater to the needs of others including the investors, society, creditors, etc.

The importance of Inventories audit is not limited to only compliance and discharge of responsibility. Inventories Audits also acts as a warning signal to those accounts, which are expected to turn into Non-performing assets (NPA). It may be possible that certain advances are prospective NPAs and their timely detection may prevent them from turning into actual NPAs. The auditor should try to detect such inconsistencies and plug these loopholes so as to prevent the misuse of funds. Thus, the Inventories audit assists the bank in the process of early detection and prevention of NPAs, so that appropriate action can be taken and such instances avoided. Auditors can perform this function in view of their expertise in this area and help banks form a judgment. The Auditor thus should see to it that the purposes for which the Inventories audit is undertaken are served satisfactorily.

The responsibilities of Auditor are underlined as under

1. Having Skills & knowledge to conduct Stock Audit

2. Have understanding of Nature of Business of entity being Audited

3. Must not get into influence of the Entity being audited

4. Strictly adhere to the Scope of assignment

5. Must regularly update the Financial institution timely for any intervention

6. Should ensure written communication from the Auditee to avoid any communication gaps

7. Should avoid arguments with the Auditee and discuss the matter with Financial institution

8. Should apply Due Diligence in carrying out the assignment

9. Wherever, the auditor feels that the absence of information provided is material, he should discuss draft report with the financial institution before finalizing report.

10. In case, independence of auditor is affected or he is forced to manipulate the actual facts, he should withdraw from the assignment.

Procedure of Stock Audit

Relevant Standards on Auditing

The auditor should apply the relevant Standards on Auditing, that will facilitate him in the process of giving the assurance of repaying ability that the bank seeks. The auditor should approach the audit with a perspective, which enables him in the process of preventing and in the process, taking corrective measures, for the probable frauds and errors that exist.

The Standards on Auditing (SAs) in the 100-700 series apply to an audit of financial statements and are to be adapted as necessary in the circumstances when applied to audits of other historical financial information.  SA 805 on Audits of Single Financial Statement or of a specific element, account or item of financial statement is applicable to stock audit.  This standard has been discussed elsewhere in this writeup.

The five stages in any audit and Stock Audit is no exception to it:

1. Pre-engagement

2. Understanding the entity

3. Audit planning

4. Audit procedures

5. Reporting

1. Pre-engagement:

Obtaining Engagement Letter from the Management (Bank):

An engagement letter in case of an audit, documents and confirms the auditor’s acceptance of appointment, the objective and scope of audit and the e00xtent of the auditor’s responsibilities to the client.

Obtaining all relevant details about the borrower from the Bank:

1. Name of the unit and of the key persons

2. Contact number & Email Id of the Borrower’s Representative

  • Address of both the registered office and factory of the unit

1. Nature of business

2. Sanction terms and conditions

3. Bank Account No, banking facilities enjoyed by the borrower

  • If the advance is a consortium lending, names of lead bank and other banks and their participation
  • Last three months bank statements

1. Last three months Inventories statements

2. Latest inspection report of the account, Annual report or any available audit reports

3. Insurance particulars

Confirmation of the date of visit with the borrower

2. Understanding the Entity:

  • The nature of business, nature of goods, multiple locations (if applicable),
  • The processes involved in manufacture, production and ascertaining whether any part of the work is to be sent out of the entity for further processing.
  • The key personnel involved in preparation and submission of stock statements and financial statements to the bank.
  • The business of the entity in order to identify the events and risks that may have an impact on the audit report.
  • The method of stock keeping and valuation of stock.
  • The accounting and internal control system of the client.
  • Various elements that form the total stock holding of the company, like the raw materials, work in progress inventory, other ancillary goods.

3. Audit Planning:

  • The nature of the accounting and internal control systems used regarding Inventories.
  • Inherent, control and detection risks, and materiality related to Inventories.
  • Whether adequate procedures are established and proper instructions issued for physical Inventories counting.
  • The timing of the count.
  • The locations at which Inventories is held and its nature.
  • Whether an expert’s assistance is needed.

4.  Audit Procedure:

Before making visit to party

  • Prepare a list of requirements and convey the same to the borrower so that the borrower can keep that ready and the same is available on the visit.
  • List down the date of sanction, sanction limit, drawing power & current balance in the account. Obtain a copy (Xerox) of the original sanction letter and the latest review note.
  • Gather information about the borrower and his business from the authorities with which its business is registered.
  • Ensure whether the party is regularly submitting the statement of stock& book debts.
  • Verify that the insurance policy has been issued in favour of bank.
  • Study the previous visit record made by branch manager, advance officer or any other officer of the branch.
  • Check whether the interest on overdraft or cash credit facility has been regularly paid, same is the case of installment payments of term loan.

At the borrower’s office

  • Verify if the stock register is properly maintained by the borrower.
  • Check whether other books of account have been maintained by the party i.e. cashbook, bank passbook, purchase book, sales book, debtors’ ledger & creditor ledger etc.
  • Verify the payments of statutory dues.
  • Test check the sales and purchase invoices for valuation of Stock.
  • Bank nameplate stating “Hypothecated to Name of Bank/ Financial Institution” should be affixed on the wall in inventories premise.
  • Damaged inventories should not be considered in calculation of drawing power.
  • Inventories must be in sufficient quantity to cover the advance given by the bank.
  • Check whether the stock storage appropriate, so as not to deteriorate the quality of goods. The premises should be free from water leakages, fire, & other hazards etc.
  • Fire-fighting equipment must be available in Inventories premises and it should be regularly checked to preserve its utility.
  • Cross verify the stock book with the accounting records.

Procedure for verification of Pledged Inventories

  • Ensure that a board is prominently displayed at the entrance and within the godown, clearly stating that the goods are hypothecated or pledged with the respective bank or financial institution.
  • A Board displaying the name of the borrower should also be checked.
  • Examine the lock to ensure that Bank’s / financial institution’s name is engraved there on.
  • Examine the layout of the godown where inventories are stored.
  • If the premise is rented, inspect the rent receipt and ensure that it is in the name of the borrower. Also ensure that the rent is not in arrears. If the premise is owned, verify the ownership agreement and ensure that it is in the name of the borrower.
  • Ensure that there is no other gate or entrance to the godown and if it is there, it is properly locked from inside.
  • Ensure that the godown is located at the address given to the bank and as mentioned in the insurance policy and other documents.
  • Ensure that no hazardous material is stored nearby the godown. If so, it should be specifically mentioned in the insurance policy.
  • Ensure that no other Inventories other than those pledged to the bank are stored in the godown without the specific prior authority and if they are stored, then adequate insurance cover is taken.
  • Ensure that the godown is in a good condition without any leakage or seepage of water and dampness.
  • Ensure that the bin cards are signed by the godown keeper and by all inspecting officers.
  • Ensure that the goods are stacked properly.
  • Ensure that the deteriorated goods are not stored in the godown.
  • Ensure that the goods are not re-pledged.

Procedure for verification of Hypothecated Inventories

In the case of hypothecation accounts, there will always be some difference between the inventories shown in the stock statements and the actual stock on the date of inspection, due to the time lag involved. Hence, the figures appearing in the Inventories statement and the borrower’s books should be reconciled by making necessary adjustments for sales, purchases, production and consumption since the date of stock statement. The audit should be designed in such a manner that if the Inventories is large, an extensive check should be made of the material control system.

  • Verify the actual inventories in the godown physically with that declared in the Inventories statement.
  • Verify that there are adequate internal control systems commensurate with the size of the concern.
  • The auditor should review management’s instructions regarding:
    • The application of control procedures, for example, collection of used stock-sheets, accounting for unused stock-sheets, tagging and count and re-count procedures;
    • Accurate identification of the stage of completion of work in progress, slow moving, obsolete, damaged or rejected items, inventories owned by a third party, for example, on consignment and inventories in transit; and
    • Appropriate arrangements made regarding the movement of inventories between areas and the shipping and receipt of inventories before and after the cut-off date.
  • The auditor should also consider cut-off procedures including details of the movement of inventories just prior to, during and after the count to ensure that such movements are appropriately included and/or excluded, as applicable from such inventories. For example,
    • Goods purchased but not received are included in the inventories;
    • Goods sold but not dispatched are excluded from the inventories.
  • Verify whether consistent and accepted accounting principles are adopted for valuation of stocks.
  • Evaluation of the security measures for prevention of theft and pilferage.
  • Costing system in operation to ensure the value of the system in use.
  • Go through the “Purchase register “, “Sales register “, “Goods received note” and “Goods returned note” and verify with the invoices. If these registers are not prepared, then examine the books, which serve as a record of the things made as in these registers.

Other points to be taken care

  • If there is any difference between the physical verification of the inventories and the records, the same should be jotted down.
  • In case the inventories are lying with processors, verify whether the branch has obtained a letter of no-lien from the processors. Scrutinize at least 20 % of the total raw material and 85 % of the total finished goods and semi-finished goods lying in the godown.
  • Bifurcate the inventories into paid and unpaid and ensure that only paid inventories are taken for the purpose of calculation of drawing power.
  • In case of unpaid inventories, the Bank/Financial Institution should not provide any assistance or credit facility to that extent.
  • Check whether the Insurance policies cover the following risks:
    • Fire
    • Marine
    • Other Natural Calamities
  • The inventories hypothecated should be well within the norms. If the borrower is keeping excess inventories than the prescribed norms, the borrowers should give a time-bound program to reduce the level of inventories.
  • A written declaration from the borrower about his existing credit facilities with other banks, if any, and an undertaking that the inventories will not be hypothecated to any other banks without the prior consent of the bank is taken on record.
  • Also, verification of the Production register should be done.
  • Details of the inventories as regards to quantity, quality, life, date of purchase and price must be verified.
  • Check whether goods require any specialized preservation, and if so, then proper arrangement should be made for facilitating such storage.
  • Check the method, which has been employed for ascertaining the final value of closing inventories.
  • Check whether borrower follows the method consistently or not.
  • Verify the movement of stock.
  • Check the work in progress and its basis of valuation and percentage of completion.

Procedure for verification of hypothecated book debts

The inventories auditor has to ensure that the book debts charged to the bank have arisen out of genuine trade transactions. Hypothecation of books debts, to be precise, is more like clean advances. Their safety depends upon the quality of checks the branch exercises over the book debts statements, submitted from time to time. Following checks, however, should be done:

  • The debts shown as outstanding should be shown in the respective ledger account in the books of the borrower.
  • Test check invoices to ensure actual movement of stocks.
  • If sundry debtors include related party accounts, the same shall be treated as per sanction letter as normally, drawing power against related party debts is not being provided.
  • Sundry Debtors may be classified as sound i.e. fully realizable or doubtful.
  • Prepare the age-wise list of the Book debts in the following manner.
    • More than 12 Months Old
    • More than 6 Months Old and Less than 12 Months Old
    • More than 3 Months Old and Less than 6 Months Old
    • More than 1 Month Old and Less than 3 Months Old
    • Less than 1 Month Old.
    • The age of the book debts should not be more than stipulated in the sanction. The debts of over a period of 3 months (or as stipulated in sanction) should be excluded while estimating the drawing power
  • The debt should represent sales and service transactions only.
  • Ledger of Sundry debtors and Sales-register should be collectively pursued.
  • Bad or doubtful debts should be excluded while calculating the drawing power.
  • Examine the statement of debtors to ascertain whether there is undue concentration of debts involving large amount from a few parties. If so, examine whether limits for individual debtors have been fixed and whether the limits are adhered to.
  • Compare the statement of Book Debts with the Debtors ledger to ascertain the genuineness of the debt, aging of debt, & cases of non-realization of long outstanding debts.
  • All realizations are duly deposited in the account and the borrower furnishes realization statement of book debts.
  • The debtors whose bills have been discounting should have been reduced from Debtor List.
  • The drawing power is revised from time to time on the basis of statements and the required margin is maintained in the account.
  • While valuing debtors, it should be seen that the bad and doubtful debts have been written off so as to reflect their correct value.

The following are the indicators that the debts are doubtful and uncollectible:

  • Terms of credit have been repeatedly ignored
  • Stagnation or lack of healthy turnover
  • Payments have been received but balances are increasing continuously
  • Cheques are repeatedly dishonored
  • Debt under litigation, arbitration or dispute
  • Collection becomes time barred
  • Debtor is unable to repay the due amount due to insolvency or disowns the debt.

Confirmations

Where significant stocks of the entity are held by third parties, the auditor should examine that the third parties are entitled to hold the stocks of the entity. The auditor should also directly obtain from the third parties, written confirmation of the stocks held. Arrangements should be made with the entity for sending requests for confirmation to such third parties. In the process of audit, external evidence is considered to be more reliable than internal evidence. Therefore, confirmation of Accounts Receivables, which are hypothecated for the purpose of loans from financial institutions or bank, is a generally practiced auditing procedure to obtain such evidence. This establishes reliably the existence and the value of the debts as is reflected in the accounts.

The entire process is as follows:

  • Select the parties for obtaining confirmation.
  • Design the confirmation request.
  • Communicate the confirmation request to the third party.
  • Obtain response from the third party.
  • Evaluate the information provided by the third party and scrutinize the same for reliability.
  • The date of request of confirmation is also very important.
  • The date may be as follows:
    • Yearend date
    • Date prior to year-end.

Generally, the confirmation request should be sent approximately a week before the date specified in the request.  The auditor should first obtain a schedule of accounts receivable. The auditor should also determine that there are no totaling errors. He should investigate the credit balances and compare all or a selected sample of account balances with the account balances in the ledgers.

The auditor should select the following accounts for the purpose of verification of accounts:

  • All accounts with a balance over a pre-determined amount. The predetermined amount is based on the auditor’s assessment of materiality.
  • All accounts having zero balances.
  • Accounts with old unpaid balances especially when subsequent sales have been paid off.
  • Accounts written off during the year under review.
  • Certain accounts that had appeared on the prior year’s accounts receivable schedule but not on the current year’s schedule.
  • All accounts with credit balances.

Calculation of Drawing Power

  • Ensure margin requirements as per sanction terms are considered
  • Check for arithmetical accuracy
  • Check that old and obsolete inventories are excluded
  • Check that debtors greater than 90 days are excluded or as mentioned in sanction letter
  • Check that unpaid stock [ Sundry Creditors] has been excluded
  • Check that the statement is submitted as per bank’s format only
  • Drawing power is required to be arrived at based on the inventories statement which is current
  • In case, Related party/ sister concern debtors are not to be considered, the same shall not be included in above calculations.
  • The outstanding in the account based on drawing power calculated from inventories statements older than three months, would be deemed as irregular
  • The account will become NPA if such irregular drawings are permitted in the account for a continuous period of 90 days even though the unit may be working or the borrower’s financial position is satisfactory.

Verification of Insurance coverage

  • Check whether the inventories hypothecated is adequately insured
  • Check whether the policy is in force
  • Check whether inventories with third parties are also covered
  • Check whether Bank clause is included in the policy
  • Check whether the Inventories is covered against all major perils
  • Check whether the collateral security is also insured adequately

Documents to be taken as Working Papers

The auditor should comply with the requirements of the SA 230 [Earlier AAS 3] on documentation and gather the following records as documentary evidence for the purpose of facilitating him in the process of audit

  • Auditor’s report on Inventories for the previous three periods.
  • Bank statements of the last 3 months.
  • A statement showing previous year’s Opening Inventories, Purchases, Sales, Work in progress and Finished Goods.
  • Details of Installed capacity, licensed capacity and Actual production with documentary evidence.
  • Copies of sales invoice, purchase invoices forming basis of valuation of Stock
  • The statement of Profit and Loss account for the last 1 year.
  • Month-wise Inventories statement of the last one year.
  • Month-wise book debt statement of the last one year.
  • In case of a manufacturing concern, a brief summary of the manufacturing process
  • Detailed statement of debtors showing the date of the bill and age-wise classification of debtors.
  • An Inventories statement as on the date of physical verification along with date of purchase with the detailed breakup of its components.
  • A copy of agreement of ownership / Lease agreement / Rent agreement for office / Factory / Godown.
  • A list of sundry creditors with date of bill for goods purchased on date of physical verification.
  • A certified copy of the Insurance policy in force.
  • A certified copy of the loan sanction letter.
  • Comprehensive management representation letter.
  • A note specifying the accounting policies that are employed.

The auditor should verify the documents that are available with the bank branch and satisfy him about the adequacy of such documents. As far as possible the auditor should not, call for these documents if they are insufficient since the borrower may be resistant to divulge his trade documents to a third party. Instead the banks should be asked to call for these documents.

5. Reporting

  • The report has to be submitted to the authority appointing the auditor.
  • It should be in the prescribed format and should be exhaustive and inclusive of all facts and summaries.
  • It should include the date, time, location of visit and the name of the officials conducting the audit and the official of the entity present at the entity at the time of conducting the audit.
  • Copies of confirmations, management representations, etc. should be submitted along with the report.
  • If the auditor is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence concerning the existence of stocks or adequacy of procedures adopted by the management in respect of physical inventories count, the auditor should make a reference to a scope of limitation in his audit report.
  • If the stock is not disclosed appropriately in the financial statements, the auditor should issue a qualified opinion.

Valuation of Inventories:

If the inventories are not valued properly then it projects a wrong picture of the financial statements of the company. The valuation of inventories therefore is an important area that needs to be addressed well by the auditors.

There cannot be a universal principle to be applied for the purpose of valuation. Different methods of valuation are adopted, depending upon the type of inventories in particular and the type if the business in general. The auditor is therefore required to ascertain the method of valuation that best suits the requirement.

However, it should be borne in mind that he should adopt the principle of conservatism while valuing the inventories. The inventories should be valued at cost or market price, whichever is lower. The fundamental concept is that provision for losses should be made and unrealized profits should not be considered. This helps the accounts to project the true value in the real sense.

In the area of valuation, an auditor is therefore expected to do the following:

1. Find out the cost price of the Inventories

2. Determine the market value of the Inventories

  • Since different types of Inventories require different methods of valuation, ascertaining the appropriate method of valuation and valuing it accordingly

1. Value the obsolete inventories/non-moving/scrap inventories

2. Actual Cost of the Inventories:

Two aspects need to be addressed while arriving at the cost price:

1. The method of valuation and

2. Compliance of the section 145A and 145B of the Income Tax Act, 1961

Methods of Valuation:

The term, cost price is elusive since it is not well defined anywhere. The auditor has to use his discretion to decide which method of ascertaining the cost price best suits his requirement. There are various methods that can be adopted. However, the Institute of Chartered Accountants has prescribed the methods that are mandatory for the valuation of inventories, by means of the Accounting Standard – 2, which deals with the valuation of inventories.

These methods are Specific Identification method, First-in-First-out method and Weighted Average Method. It is the duty of the auditor to verify that the Inventories has been valued by either of the above methods. The auditor should report any variance from the same.

A brief idea of these methods is given as under:

1. Specific Identification Method: If the materials that have been purchased are utilized for a particular job, the actual purchase price can be charged as the cost of the inventories. This method is appropriate when there are minimum fluctuations in the prices.

2. First in First out Method (FIFO): This is the most widely used method adopted for valuing the inventories. Here the stock is valued on the basis of the principle that it is utilized in the order in which it is received. Hence the Inventories remaining is from the latest purchase.

3. Weighted Average Method (WAM): This is a relatively practical method of valuation. As per this method; the inventories is valued at an average price which is arrived at every time a purchase is made. The simple principle of average should be applied. In other words, the total value of the Inventories should be divided by the quantity to arrive at the weighted average price.

Any of the above methods can be employed for the purpose of valuation of Inventories. If any other method is employed the auditor should take note of it and report the discrepancy in the report that is submitted.

Compliance with the sec. 145A:

The Income Tax Act, 1961 has substituted Section 145A and 145B for section 145A, with effect from April 1, 2017.

  • As per Section 145A, the valuation of inventory shall be made at actual cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower, in accordance with the Income Computation and Disclosure Standards (ICDS) notified under Section 145 of the Income Tax Act. ICDS 2 on Valuation of Inventories is applicable here.
  • Further adjusted to include the amount of any cess, tax, fee (by whatever name called) actually paid or incurred or fee by the assessee to bring the goods to the place of its location and condition as on the date of valuation.
  • If the inventory consists of securities listed but not regular quoted, or unlisted securities, it shall be recorded at actual cost initially recognized, in accordance with income computation and disclosure standards.
  • The inventory of securities other than that listed above shall be valued at lower of the actual cost or the net realizable value.
  • The securities held by public financial institution or a scheduled bank shall be valued in accordance with ICDS, keeping in view, any directives or guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India.

While valuing the Inventories, it should be ensured that the above requirement of the statute is complied with. The auditor should obtain a satisfaction to the effect that the value of the Inventories is inclusive of any cess, tax or fee that has been either incurred or paid on such Inventories. The auditor should bring any lapse on this account to the notice in the report.

 1. Net Realizable Value of the Inventories

After having arrived at the cost price of the Inventories, on the basis of the aforementioned parameters, the auditor has to find out the Net Realizable Value of the Inventories. As the inventories are to be valued at cost or net realizable value whichever is lower, it is an important step in the process of valuation. The net realizable value may seem to be a very simple term, in the sense that it is the price of the inventories that prevails in the market and can be realized from the sale of inventories in the market. However, in order to arrive at the Net Realizable Value, the purpose for which the inventories is held is to be found out. If it is held for use then the Net Realizable value is the value arrived at net of selling expenses. Similarly, if the inventories are required to be replaced, then the cost of replacement as on the date of balance sheet should be taken as the net realizable value.

Thus, after arriving at the net realizable value on the above basis, the auditor can quantify the value of the Inventories.

  • Valuation of different types of Inventories:

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India defines, inventories to include, stores, spare parts, loose tools, raw materials, materials in process, finished products, waste or by products, etc. Each type of Inventories entails different methods of valuation depending on their unique characteristics. The following points should be kept in mind while arriving at their value:

1. Stores: Stores have been defined as that component of inventories that is not held for sale. They are in fact, consumed in the manufacturing process. Examples of stores would include, oil, tallow, grease, dyes, fuel, etc. Since they are not inventories in the real sense of the term, they should be shown as a separate item in the balance sheet and the amount of stores consumed should be debited to the Manufacturing Account, so as to arrive at the true cost of manufacture. The stores should be shown at cost price only. However, any deterioration in the price should be incorporated to arrive at their true value.

2. Spare Parts: It refers to the parts that form part of any Plant and Machinery. Spare parts are usually carried as inventory and recognized in profit or loss as and when consumed. However, major spare parts which entity expect to use for more than one accounting period or which can only be used in connection of particular item of plant, property or equipment are capitalized with the cost of the plant, property or equipment with which it can be used. Spare parts should be valued at the cost price only. It is the duty of the auditor to get a list of these spare parts from the Works Manager so that he can verify their existence.

  • Raw Materials: It consists of the inventories that are consumed in the process of manufacture. Raw material is valued at the cost or net realizable value whichever is lower. Cost is generally the invoice price, i.e. the cost price plus a reasonable proportion of freight, duty, etc. that has been paid with regard to the inventories. Either the actual cost or the average price can be taken as a method of valuation of raw material, depending upon the availability of data. For any diminution in the value of the raw materials, sufficient provision of the fall in the value should be made.

3. Materials in process: The goods which are not completed on the date of the balance sheet, some process needs to be carried out thereon, are called materials in process or semi-manufactured goods. These should be valued at cost plus a proportionate amount of wages and other charges, on the basis of percentage of completion. The auditor should verify that the percentage of completion has been worked out properly and hence valuation is in order.

For this purpose, the auditor should or may examine the production / costing records (e.g. cost sheets), hold discussion with the personnel concerned, and obtain expert opinion, where necessary.

In certain cases, due to the nature of the product and the manufacturing process involved, physical verification of work–in– process may be impracticable. In such cases the auditor should lay greater emphasis on ascertaining whether the system from which the W- I- P is ascertained, is reliable.

1. Finished Goods: The Finished goods are valued at the cost price. The cost price is arrived at after adding all the expenses incurred in the process of manufacture. The auditor should verify that the expenses have been appropriately apportioned.

2. Goods on consignment: It may happen sometimes that the goods are sent on a consignment basis and they do not arrive till the date of stock verification. In this case, the goods should be valued at the cost price plus proportionate expenses like, freight, dock dues, etc. The auditor should insist on the consignee to verify the quantity of inventories lying with him. Any expenses incurred during the process of sale, it should be allocated only to the goods sold and not added to the unsold Inventories. Here again the principle of conservatism should be followed, a price higher than the market price should not be taken, while provision for losses should be done. If the inventories is valued at selling price, when sent as a consignment, it should be ascertained that the inventories should be valued after making the adjustments, or else the inventories will be over-valued.

For computing accumulation of huge inventories, the number of days holding of Inventories etc., the following method may be followed:

  • For Raw Material:

=    Actual Holding_   X 365 ____

Annual Raw Material Consumed

  • For Inventories in Process:

  Actual holding       X 365____

The annual cost of production

  • For Finished Goods:

  Actual holding       X 365____

Annual cost sales

  • For sundry debtors:

  Actual outstanding debtor’s   X 365____

Annual sales

  • for sundry creditors

  Actual sundry creditors’         X 365____

Annual purchases

1. Valuation of obsolete/ Dormant/Slow-moving/Excess Inventories:

The term obsolete Inventories refers to the Inventories that has become un saleable due to reasons like

a) Discontinuation of the product in the market b) Physical Deterioration c) Change in the design of the product d) Substitution by a better material in lieu of the existing one. The auditor should try to find out the inventories that have become obsolete due to any of the above reasons. After preparing a list of them, they should be presented to the management who can decide whether they should be disposed of or kept. Obsolete inventories should be valued at net realizable value.

Dormant inventories mean the Inventories whose movement is temporarily hampered due to a variety of reasons, but they are expected to be consumed in the days to come. One such reason for their slow movement is that the Inventories is consumed in the manufacture of goods that are sold seasonally and hence their production is stopped during the off-season. Slow-moving Inventories means Inventories with a low turnover rate. In other words, they move at a slow rate.

The dormant and slow-moving inventories should be valued at net realizable value, cost or replacement price, whichever is the lowest. The auditor should make a list of these items also and speed up their disposal, if necessitated by the management.

Excess inventories, as the name suggests, is the excess of inventories that has accumulated due to either unwarranted purchase of goods, lapse in the forecast of sales leading to excess inventories than can be consumed, unhealthy practices in the inventories management, etc. The question whether any Inventories is in excess is subjective and depends on the discretion of the company. In general, any stock that is in excess of three years usage will be considered as excess Inventories. The auditor should see to it that the excess Inventories is sold and unless there is any possibility of its usage in the production process.

The auditor should bear in mind the fact that either of the above kind of Inventories necessitates additional blockage of funds, Mis-utilization of space, maintenance cost, Storage cost and fear of pilferage and further deterioration. This has an adverse impact on the bottom line of the company. He should therefore make an effort to see that proper controls are in force so as to ensure that such inventories are kept under check and as far as feasible avoided.

Techniques for the measurement of Cost

For convenience IAS 2 Inventories prescribes two techniques for measurement of cost, Standard Costing and Retail method, if it results in approximate cost.

Standard Costing

Standard costs take into account normal levels of materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation. They are regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of current conditions

Retail Method

The retail method is a costing methodology often employed in the retail industry to measure large numbers of rapidly changing items with similar margins for which it is impractical to use other costing methods.

The cost of the inventory is determined by reducing the sales value of the inventory by the appropriate gross margin percentage. The percentage must include inventory that has been marked down below its original selling price. An average percentage per department is often used.

Controls that should be exercised by the auditor:

1. Controls with regard to scrap, waste, and spoilage:

The term scrap refers to that Inventories that arise due to the manufacturing process and has very small value. Waste, on the other hand means goods that have no recovery value. While, spoilage refers to those goods that do not meet the quality standards and hence have to dispose of at less than their actual value.

The auditor should bear the following points in mind while exercising control over the scrap, waste and spoilage.

1. The management should establish normal rates of scrap at which scrap is generated after having considered the past records and experience.

2. Proper documentation of the scrap records should be done

3. The actual scrap realized should be compared with the standard set and the variance should be reported

4. The scrap should be considered as good units for the purpose of valuing the Inventories. Any sale proceeds derived from the sale of such scrap should be deducted from the cost of production.

5. An important area for the auditor to keep a check is that of sale proceeds of the scrap. He should satisfy himself that the sale proceeds are properly accounted and they have not been misappropriated

6. The scrap units should be properly stored in the stores department

7. Top management should be aware of the scrap generated and hence a periodic report should be generated.

1. Controls with regard to stores maintenance:

Raw material forms the most important component in the cost sheet and hence an effort should be made that optimum Inventories is maintained. An auditor should see that the following points have been considered and any deviation from these should be immediately reported:

1. It should be seen that the Inventories requirement has been properly planned so as to avoid a problem of either excess Inventories or shortage of Inventories. If the Inventories is more than which is required, it will lead to excess blockage of funds, in the other scenario if the Inventories is short, it will hamper the production process.

2. The Inventories should be properly handled and stored so as to prevent deterioration in value.

3. The stores department should be well located so as to minimize the transportation cost.

4. There should be an effective system for recording the movement of Inventories. Any movement should be well documented.

5. The system of First-in-First-out should be adopted so as to prevent obsolescence of old Inventories

6. Any non-moving item should be identified and written off, if necessitated.

7. The principle of re-order point should be followed so as to ensure the continuous supply of goods at any point in time.

8. A system of Continuous Inventories-taking should be in force

Auditor’s duty with regard to the valuation of Stock:

The cost of Inventories includes

  • Cost of purchases

1. Cost of purchase including taxes and duties

2. Freight inward

3. Other directly attributable costs

4. Trade discounts, duty drawbacks, rebates

5. Cost of conversion comprising of cost of direct labor and allocated Fixed and variable overheads.

While valuing the Inventories, the auditor has to consider the following:

1. He should ascertain the accounting policy adopted for valuation of stocks and consider the appropriateness as per AS-2on Valuation of Inventories. As per AS-2, the lower of the cost and net realizable value is considered as the value of inventory.

2. He should verify that the cost of Inventories does not include:

1. Abnormal waste material, labor or other production costs

2. Storage cost unless necessary in the production and manufacturing process

  • Administrative overheads not contributing to bringing the Inventories to the present location

1. Selling and distribution expenses

2. Interest cost

3. He should check the basis for Net realizable value determination

4. He should ascertain that the cost of the damaged and obsolete items is written off

5. He should check the arithmetic accuracy of stock valuation

6. He should check the consistency of the basis of valuation

7. He should review Inventories records for identifying slow-moving and obsolete items

8. He should review the system of overheads allocation

Limitations of Stock Audit

Conducting Stock Audit does not necessarily guarantee absolute veracity of the stock records or even the healthy financial position, for that matter. There are certain inherent deficiencies that are inevitably there. They take place in the following ways:

1. The auditors appointed for the purpose of Stock Audit cannot be expected to be aware of the industry scenario precisely. If the risk assessment and demand analysis is done without taking into consideration the future industry prospects, then it will undoubtedly reveal a wrong picture and hence a futile report as a result.

2. The scope of the auditor’s work is limited; in the sense that he is not allowed to delve deep in the technical aspects. Also, it is not humanely possible for him to be conversant with the technical details and this prevents him from judging the concept of technological obsolesce, which is a critical aspect as far as stocks are concerned.

  • Since the system of allocation of stock audit is not based on a well-worked out methodology, it is sometimes allocated without considering the proper evaluation of the competence, manpower or experience. As a result, it fails to serve the purpose it was meant to serve.

3. Several banks resort to window dressing for the purpose of reflecting a healthy financial position than it actually is. This may be in the form of certain liabilities which are not reflected in the books. This is particularly true in cases where the borrower has various group companies.

Remedies:

It is not possible to deal with all the inconsistencies in a fool-proof manner.  However, the following can be done:

  • The appointment procedure of the Stock auditors can be more scientific and should be based on merit.
  • As required by SA 310 [Earlier AAS-20], the auditor should acquaint himself with the Knowledge of the business, before he starts the audit, both technical as well as financial aspects, to give him a better understanding.

Special considerations while conducting Stock Audits:

  • If the stock statement as shown in the hypothecation statement does not tally with the stocks as in the balance sheet, then appropriate action should be taken to find reasons for the differences.
  • It should be seen that the stocks have been properly valued, after considering the relevant accounting principles, AS and Engagement standards
  • It should be seen that Current Assets are not over-stated.
  • It should be seen that the Turnover is not over-stated.
  • It should be seen that the accounting policies with regard to stock and debtors is appropriately employed.
  • It should be seen that the stocks that are genuinely owned by the borrower are shown in the accounts.

Applicability of SA 805

SA 210 [earlier AS 26] issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India requires the auditor and the client to agree on the terms of engagement of the audit. The engagement letter should be sent by the auditor, preferably before the engagement to avoid any misunderstandings later. Two copies of the letter should be sent to enable the client to return a duly signed copy to the auditor as an acceptance of the terms stated therein.

  • On recurring audits, the auditor should consider the necessity for revision or for reminding the client of the terms of engagement.
  • The scope of an audit shall depend upon the terms of engagement, statutory requirements, and the pronouncements issued by the Institute.
  • The auditor should not agree to a change in the engagement unless there is a reasonable justification for the same. On refusal to accept change, if the auditor is not permitted to continue the original engagement, he should withdraw and consider whether he has any obligation to report withdrawal to other parties.
  • The major objectives of engagement letter for the auditor is to ensure if there are any preconditions for audit and confirming that there is a common understanding between auditor and management.

Besides SA 210, SA805 on “Special Considerations – Audit of Single Financial Statements and Specific Elements, Accounts or Items of a Financial Statement” will also be applicable

  • SA 805 is effective for audits of single financial statements or of specific elements, accounts or items for periods beginning on or after April 1, 2011.
  • The objective of the auditor, when applying SAs in an audit of a single financial statement or of a specific element, account or item of a financial statement, is to address appropriately the special considerations that are relevant to the acceptance of the engagement, planning and performance of the engagement and forming an opinion and reporting thereof, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the internal controls of the entity.
  • SA 200 requires auditor to comply with all relevant SAs to the audit. SA 805 also has a similar provision.
  • SA 805 states that the auditor shall adapt all the SAs relevant to the audit as necessary in the circumstances of engagement.
  • for forming an opinion and reporting on a single financial statement or the specific element of a financial statement, the auditor shall apply the requirements of SA 700 (Revised), detailing “Forming an Opinion and Reporting on Financial Statements”

Specimen Documentation

Checklist for Audit of Inventories and Receivables

Bank:                                      Branch:                                         Zone:

Name of the account:

Address:

I) Office:

II) Factory & Go down:

Constitution:

Name of the Partners /directors:

Nature of business:

Latest Sanction:

Authority:

Date

Position of account:

Nature Of Facility Sanctioned Limit

(Rs.)

Drawing Power

(Rs.)

Outstanding as On

(Rs.)

Overdue Excess, If Any.

(Rs.)

Term Loan Specify the assets

a) Land & Building

b) Plant & Machinery

c) Others Cash Credit

(Inventories & Book- Debts.)

Remarks on the payment of interest & installments:

Inspected by:

Date of inspection:

Name and designation of

Attendant:

A) Before going for Physical verification:

Sr No Particulars Yes/ No/Not applicable
1 Have you sent an engagement letter?
2 Have you verified the borrower’s file at the branch to ascertain the following details?
a) Name of the borrower
b)  Location of

-Office

– Godown / Factory

c) Constitution (Sole proprietor, Partnership, Pvt. Ltd)
d) Managing director / managing partner’s details

Name,

Complete address,

Landline number,

Mobile number and

Email ID

e) Nature of Business
f) Date of establishment and date of commercial production
g) Website Address of the borrower, if any
h) Particulars of credit limits

Loan A/c No Facility Sanctioned Limits D.P Balance O/S Overdue/excess
i)  Particulars of security:

A)  Primary:

B) Secondary

3 What is the asset code: (Standard, Sub-standard, Doubtful or Loss Assets)?
4 Whether advance is sanctioned on Consortium Basis? Is so, the position of each of the banks?

Name of the Bank Limit sanctioned Value of security Balance Outstanding as on ———- Overdrawn amount
5 Insurance Particulars:

Policy No Assets covered/ Location Amount Insured Date of expiry of Policy Whether Bank clause exists in the policy
6 Whether additional risks like theft, earthquake and machinery breakdown are included as per sanction terms and are complied with by the borrower?
7 Whether the address/ location of goods is properly stated and includes Door No./ Survey No. Municipal no etc.?
8 Whether goods sent to the processing units, sub-contractors are insured/ transit insurance obtained?
9 Whether all locations/ all industry-specific risks are covered?
10 Whether proper documents, including charging of primary and secondary securities, have been obtained?
11 What is the date of documentation?
12 Whether documents are properly stamped?
13 Whether equitable/ registered mortgage of property created?
14 Whether search report has been got done up to the date of equitable/ registered mortgage?
15 Wherever required whether the charge has been registered with ROC within the prescribed time?
16 Have you verified the periodical stock statements submitted by the borrower with reference to any conditions stipulated in the sanction regarding:

a)  Quantity of stocks,

b)Place of storage,

c) Value of stocks

d)   Composition of stocks- Proportion of raw material, work – in- process and finished goods

17 Have you verified that the stock statements are?

a) signed by authorized persons only

b)  sent in bank’s format

c) sent within the stipulated time to the bank

18 Have you verified the godown stock register in case of pledged accounts to ascertain the nature and quantity of stock pledged in each godown, age and turnover in the stocks?
19 Have you verified the operations in the account to ensure that:

a) Operations and utilization of the funds and turnover are satisfactory

b) Drawings are allowed within the drawing power and sanction stipulations are complied with

c) Sale proceeds of hypothecated stocks are routed through the account only

20 Have you verified the previous stock audit/ branch inspection reports to ascertain whether any steps have been taken to rectify irregularities pointed out?
21 Have you obtained a representation letter from the borrower clearly indicating the places /branches where the goods are stored?
22 Have you obtained the following documents from the borrower?

1) A written representation from management concerning:

(a)  The completeness of the information provided regarding the Inventories; and

(b)  Assurance with regard to adherence to laid down procedures for physical Inventories count.

2)  Balance Sheet & Profit & Loss Account of the borrower for the last 3 years.

3) Inventories Statement & Book Debts Statement as on the last day of the quarter and for the year & preceding 3 months before the date of inspection.

4) Copy of Memorandum of association, Articles of association along with Form No. 32 & 18, partnerships deed, Trust deed &its bye-laws as may be applicable

5) Copy of Audited financial statements

23 Have you inquired about the Associations of which borrower party is member?
24 Have you done documentary checking of ownership or lease? Have you taken a copy of the same?
25 Have you taken the phone numbers of CA’s – Statutory Auditor, Tax Auditor, etc.?
26 Have you made a comparison of the previous 2 to 3 years’ financial position of the borrower?
27 Have you checked whether the account is a suit filed account?

B) Physical verification of stocks

Verification of Hypothecated Stock

Sr No Particulars Yes/ No/ Not applicable
1 Is there any difference between the stocks as shown in the stock statement and the actual stock?
2 Whether any reconciliation for the difference has been made?
3 Whether the stocks represent those reflected in the stock statements sent to the Banks?
4 Is the level of Inventories held found to be too high?
5 Is the material control system employed by the borrower proper?
6 Whether the borrower has maintained up to date records?
7 Whether the borrower is having adequate internal control system commensurate with the size of the concern?
8 What is the Accounting software used by the borrower?
9 Whether borrower is following consistent and accepted accounting principles for valuation of stocks?
10 Whether the quality and salability of the stocks are good?
12 Whether the following records of the borrower have been checked?

a) Excise records

b) Raw materials consumption, Production register, Purchase, and sales records

c)  Purchase and sales invoice

d)  Cost records and order books

e)  Sales, Purchase, Sundry creditors and Debtors ledgers

13 Has the stock been stored properly?
14 Is there direct access to the godown?
15 What is the value of

a) Obsolete stock

b) Slow- moving stock

c)Damaged/ Rejected stocks

d)Unpaid stock

16 Whether Sundry creditors have been deducted as per the policy of the bank and as per sanction terms?
17 Whether stipulated margin as per sanction terms has been deducted?
18 Whether stocks received under usance L/C, co-acceptances, and guarantees for the purchase of raw materials have been reduced?
19 Whether the Bank Hypothecation Board has been displayed?
20 Whether stocks belonging to sister concerns, received for job- work, etc. are properly segregated?
21 Whether the movement of stock in and out of the godown is properly accounted for and monitored?
22 What is the Work in progress and level of completion?
23 Whether the goods which require any specialized preservation, are properly preserved?
24 Whether rent/ property tax/ municipal tax receipts pertaining to godowns have been verified?
25 Whether, in case of stocks which have expiry dates (such as drugs, food items) the same have been excluded for calculation of drawing power
26 Whether, stocks have been examined at laboratories (in case of chemicals, dyes etc.)
27 Whether goods-in transit is included in the stock statements? Is the inclusion of such goods as per sanction terms?

Whether the relative bills/ challans/ invoices have been verified?

28 Whether goods sent to third parties for job work, finishing or machining etc. have been inspected?
29 Whether any written confirmation is on record for stock with third parties?
30 Whether the sanction terms permit storage of goods with clearing agents?
31 If so, whether the agents are in the approved list of the bank and within the limits fixed by the bank?
32 Whether clearing agents’ charges and other dues have been paid?
33 Whether any irregularities pointed out in the last Concurrent audit/ Inspection report have been rectified?
34 Whether a written declaration has been obtained from the borrower that the stocks will not be hypothecated to other banks without the prior consent of the bank?
35 Whether, in case of consortium advances, information is exchanged between the banks?
36 Whether the hypothecated Plant & Machinery is maintained properly and found in working condition?
37 Were there any instances of breakdown causing interruptions in the working of the unit in the recent past?
38 Whether fire protection measures are satisfactory?
39 Whether security arrangements at the godown/ Factory are satisfactory?
40 Have you checked up the Sales Tax Provision?
41 Have you checked Income Assessment Orders?
42 Have you checked the provisions relating to ESIS Challans?
43 Have you checked provisions relating to PF – Challans, assessment order?
44 Has the factory license been renewed?
45 Have you received the details of no. of skilled and unskilled employees, office staff? Have you checked up the Salary register?
46 Have you considered the inherent control and detection risks, and materiality related to Inventories?
47 Whether adequate procedures are established and proper instructions issued for physical Inventories counting?
48 Whether persons involved in stock taking differ from those responsible for store-keeping?
49 Whether store procedures provide for the use of pre-numbered forms
50 Whether a system of cross-checking exists for checking data generated by different departments?
51 Whether controls exist for receipts and issues of stores?

Hypothecation of book- debts

Sr. No. Particulars Yes / No/ Not applicable
1. Are standard price lists maintained?
2. Are prices that are not based on a standard price list, required to be approved by a senior executive outside the sales department?
3. Are written orders received from customers?
4. If oral/telephonic orders are received from customers, whether the same are recorded immediately in the standard forms?
5. Is there a numerical control over all customers’ orders?
6. Are credit limits fixed in respect of individual customers? Does an official independent of the sales department approve these limits?
7. Are credit limits reviewed periodically?
8. Are customers’ credit limits checked before orders are accepted? Is this done by a person independent of the sales department?
9. If sales to employees are made at concessional prices:

a) Is there a limit to the value of such sales?

b) Are the amounts recovered in accordance with the terms of sale?

a)  Is there an adequate procedure to see that the limits are not exceeded?

10. Are dispatches of goods authorized only by Dispatch Notes/Gate Passes or similar documents?
11. Do such Dispatch Notes/Gate Passes or similar documents bear pre-printed numbers?
12. Are they under numerical control?
13. Are they prepared by a person independent of:

a) The Sales Department?

b) The processing of invoices?

14. Except when all documents are prepared in one operation, are the Dispatch Notes/Gate Passes matched with?

a) Excise Duty Records?

b) Sales invoices?

c) Freight payable to carriers (where applicable)?

15. Are unmatched Dispatch Notes/Gate Passes reviewed periodically?
16. Are the goods actually dispatched checked independently with the Dispatch Notes/Gate Passes and customer’s orders?
17. Are acknowledgements obtained from the customers, for the goods delivered?
18. Are the customer’s orders marked for goods delivered?
19. Are shortages in goods delivered to the customers investigated?
20. Are credits to customers for shortages, breakage & losses in transit match the claim lodged against carriers/insurers?
21. Are sales invoices pre-numbered?
22. Are invoices checked for:

a) Prices?

b) Calculations (including excise duty and sales tax)?

c) Terms of payment?

23. Are ‘no charge’ invoices authorized by a person independent of the custody of goods or cash?
24. Are invoices mailed directly to the customers promptly?
25. Are credits to customers for remittance posted only from the entries in the cash book (or equivalent record)?
26. Does cashier notify immediately:

a) Sales Department,

b) Debtors Ledger Section and

c) Credit Controller;

i) Of all dishonored cheques or other negotiable instruments?

ii) Of all documents sent through bank but not returned by the customers?

27. Is immediate follow-up action taken on such notification?
28. Are the bills of exchange, etc. periodically verified with the bills on hand?
29. Is a record of customers’ claims maintained?

a) Are such claims properly dealt with in the accounts?

30. Does the Receiving Department record them on sales Return Note?
31. Does the Receiving Department count, weigh or measure the goods returned?
32. Are copies of Sales Returns Notes sent to:

a) Customer?

b) Sales Department?

c) Debtors’ Ledger Section?

33. Are the returned goods taken into stock immediately?
34. Is a Credit Note issued to the customer for the goods returned?
35. Are all Credit Notes pre-numbered?
36. Are Credit Notes numerically controlled?
37. Are Credit Notes authorized by a person independent of:

a) Custody of goods?

b) Cash receipts?

c) Debtors’ ledger?

38. Are Credit Notes:

a) Compared with Sales Returns Notes or other substantiating evidence?

b) Checked for prices?

c) Checked for calculations?

39. Are corresponding recoveries of sales commissions made when Credit Notes are issued to customers?
40. Are units of sales (as per sales invoices) correlated and reconciled with the purchases (or production) and stock on hand?
41. Is the Sales Ledger balanced periodically and tallied with the General Ledger Control account?
42. Are aging schedules prepared periodically?
43. Does a responsible person review them?
44. Are statements of accounts regularly sent to all customers?
45. Are the statements checked with the Debtors’ Ledger before they are issued?
46. Does a person independent of the ledger keeper mail the statements?
47. Are confirmations of balances obtained periodically?
48. Do a person independent of the ledger-keeper and the person preparing the statement verify the confirmations?
49. Is special approval required for:

a) Payments of customers’ credit balances?

b) Writing of bad debts?

50. Is any accounting control kept for bad debts written off?
51. Is any follow-up action taken for recovering amounts written off?
52. In the case of export sales:

a) Is a record maintained of import entitlements due?

b) Does the record cover the utilization disposal of such entitlements?

c) Is there a procedure to ensure that claims for incentives etc., receivable are made in time?

53. Are sales of scrap and wastage subject to the same procedures and controls as sales of finished goods?
54. Is age wise classification of debtors done? Has care been taken to exclude long outstanding debtors from drawing power calculation?
55 Whether the debt represents sales and service transactions only?
56 Whether all realizations from debtors are routed through the borrower’s account?
57  Whether care is taken to ensure that receivables already advanced by way of bills purchased/ Bills discounted have been excluded?
58 Whether reasons for non-realisation of overdue debts have been examined?
59 Whether Power of Attorney in favour of the bank, wherever prescribed has been duly registered?
60 Whether the statement of book debts submitted to the bank is as per Bank’s format?
61 Whether the drawing power is revised from time to time on the basis of the statements and the required margin is maintained in the account?

III)  Pledged Inventories

Sr. No. Particulars Yes / No/ Not applicable
1 Have you verified that a board is prominently displayed at the entrance and within the godown, clearly stating that the goods are hypothecated or pledged with the respective bank or financial institution?
2 Have you examined the lock to ensure that Bank’s / financial institution’s name is engraved there on?
3 Have you examined the layout of the godown where inventories are stored?
4 If the godown is rented, have you inspected the rent receipt and ensured that it is in the name of the borrower? Have you ensured that the rent is not in arrears?
5 If the godown is in ownership, have you verified the ownership agreement and ensured that it is in the name of the borrower?
6 Have you ensured that there is no other gate or entrance to the godown and if it is there, it is properly locked from inside?
7 Have you ensured that the godown is located at the address given to the bank and as mentioned in the insurance policy and other documents?
8 Have you ensured that the ventilators are covered by grills?
9 Have you ensured that no hazardous material is stored nearby the godown? (If so, it should be specifically mentioned in the insurance policy)
10 Have you verified that no other inventories other than those pledged to the bank are stored in the go down without the specific prior authority and if they are stored, then adequate insurance cover is taken?
11 Have you verified that the godown is in a good condition without and leakage or Seepage of water and dampness?
12 Have you verified that the bin cards are signed by the godown keeper and by all inspecting officers?
13 Have you verified that there is proper stacking of goods?
14 Have you ensured that the deteriorated goods are not stored in the godown?
15 Have you verified that the goods are not re-pledged?
16 Have you verified that manufactured goods are stored in their original packing?
17 Have you ensured that goods are delivered only in the presence of the Bank’s representative?
18 Have you ensured that the turnover of the stocks is satisfactory and that there is no old stock?

How to provide more services in the field of Stock and Credit Audit?

After going through all the technicalities of Stock Audit and Credit Audit, how can we as professionals, auditors, provide more and more services in the field?

Generally, credit audits are required by:

1. Banks

2. Other financial institutions, like the NBFCs, co-operative credit societies, and other entities in the business of lending funds, for various purposes.

Stock audits are required by:

1. Banks

2. Other financial institutions

3. Consumer goods companies have goods stored at godowns at various locations.

4. Public sector companies

5. The principal-agent of goods, who have sub-agents holding certain stock, as various locations.

These entities maintain a panel of auditors at their head offices or at the zonal or district levels.  To be empaneled on such panels a follow-up with respective offices is necessary.  Such follow-up is not against the Code of Conduct.

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