pri Goods and Service Tax- A detailed explanation with examples!! Goods and Service Tax- A detailed explanation with examples!!

Brief Intro: Introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST) will indeed be an important perfection and the next logical step towards a widespread indirect tax reforms in India. As per, First Discussion Paper released by the Empowered Committee of the State Finance Ministers on 10.11.2009, it has been made clear that there would be a “Dual GST” in India, i.e. taxation power lies with both by the Centre and the State to levy the taxes on the Goods and Services.

The scheme was supposed to be implemented in India from 1st April 2016, however it may get delayed since the NDA government does not have majority in Rajya sabha (‘The upper house of parliament’ or ‘the house of states’).

Further, Punjab and Haryana were reluctant to give up purchase tax, Maharashtra was unwilling to give up octroi, and all states wanted to keep petroleum and alcohol out of the ambit of GST. Gujarat and Maharashtra want the additional one per cent levy extended beyond the proposed two years, and raised to two per cent. Punjab wants purchase tax outside GST.

Constitutional Amendment: While the Centre is empowered to tax services and goods upto the production stage, the States have the power to tax sale of goods. The States do not have the powers to levy a tax on supply of services while the Centre does not have power to levy tax on the sale of goods. Thus, the Constitution does not vest express power either in the Central or State Government to levy a tax on the ‘supply of goods and services’. Moreover, the Constitution also does not empower the States to impose tax on imports. Therefore, it is essential to have Constitutional Amendments for empowering the Centre to levy tax on sale of goods and States for levy of service tax and tax on imports and other consequential issue.

What is GST?

‘G’ – Goods

‘S’ – Services

‘T’ – Tax

“Goods and Service Tax (GST) is a comprehensive tax levy on manufacture, sale and consumption of goods and service at a national level under which no distinction is made between goods and services for levying of tax. It will mostly substitute all indirect taxes levied on goods and services by the Central and State governments in India.

GST is a tax on goods and services under which every person is liable to pay tax on his output and is entitled to get input tax credit (ITC) on the tax paid on its inputs(therefore a tax on value addition only) and ultimately the final consumer shall bear the tax”.

OBJECTIVES OF GST: One of the main objective of Goods & Service Tax(GST) would be to eliminate the doubly taxation i.e. cascading effects of taxes on production and distribution cost of goods and services. The exclusion of cascading effects i.e. tax on tax till the level of final consumers will significantly improve the competitiveness of original goods and services in market which leads to beneficial impact to the GDP growth of the country. Introduction of a GST to replace the existing multiple tax structures of Centre and State taxes is not only desirable but imperative. Integration of various taxes into a GST system would make it possible to give full credit for inputs taxes collected. GST, being a destination-based consumption tax based on VAT principle.

Worldwide GST:

France was the first country to introduce GST in 1954. Worldwide, Almost 150 countries have introduced GST in one or the other form since now. Most of the countries have a unified GST system. Brazil and Canada follow a dual system vis-à-vis India is going to introduce. In China, GST applies only to goods and the provision of repairs, replacement and processing services. GST rates of some countries are given below:-

Country Rate of GST
Australia 10%
France 19.6%
Canada 5%
Germany 19%
Japan 5%
Singapore 7%
New Zealand 15%

 Rate of GST:

There would be two-rate structure –a lower rate for necessary items and items of basic importance and a standard rate for goods in general. There will also be a special rate for precious metals and a list of exempted items. For goods in general, government is considering pegging the rate of GST from 20% to 23% that is well above the global average rate of 16.4% for similar taxes, however below the revenue neutral rate of 27%.

Model of GST with example:

  • The GST shall have two components: one levied by the Centre (referred to as Central GST or CGST), and the other levied by the States (referred to as State GST or SGST). Rates for Central GST and State GST would be approved appropriately, reflecting revenue considerations and acceptability.
  • The CGST and the SGST would be applicable to all transactions of goods and services made for a consideration except the exempted goods and services.
  • Cross utilization of ITC both in case of Inputs and capital goods between the CGST and the SGST would not be permitted except in the case of inter-State supply of goods and services (i.e. IGST).
  • The Centre and the States would have concurrent jurisdiction for the entire value chain and for all taxpayers on the basis of thresholds for goods and services prescribed for the States and the Centre.

Example: 1 (Comprehensive Comparison)

Comparison between Multiple Indirect tax laws and proposed one law
Particulars Without GST With GST
Manufacture to Wholesaler
Cost of Production 5,000.00 5,000.00
Add: Profit Margin 2,000.00 2,000.00
Manufacturer Price 7,000.00 7,000.00
Add: Excise Duty @ 12% 840.00
Total Value(a) 7,840.00 7,000.00
Add: VAT @ 12.5% 980.00
Add: CGST @ 12% 840.00
Add: SGST @ 12% 840.00
Invoice Value 8,820.00 8,680.00
Wholesaler to Retailer
COG to Wholesaler(a) 7,840.00 7,000.00
Add: Profit Margin@10% 784.00 700.00
Total Value(b) 8,624.00 7,700.00
Add: VAT @ 12.5% 1,078.00
Add: CGST @ 12% 924.00
Add: SGST @ 12% 924.00
Invoice Value 9,702.00 9,548.00
Retailer to Consumer:
COG to Retailer (b) 8,624.00 7,700.00
Add: Profit Margin 862.40 770.00
Total Value(c) 9,486.40 8,470.00
Add: VAT @ 12.5% 1,185.80
Add: CGST @ 12% 1,016.40
Add: SGST @ 12% 1,016.40
Total Price to the Final consumer 10,672.20 10,502.80
Cost saving to consumer 169.40
% Cost Saving 1.59
Notes:·         Input tax credit available to wholesaler is Rs.980 and Rs.1,680 in case of without GST and with GST respectively.
·         Likewise Input tax credit available to Retailer is Rs.1,078 and Rs.1,848 in case of without GST and with GST respectively.
·         In case, VAT rate is also considered to be 12%, the saving to consumer would be 1.15%.

IGST Model (Inter-State Transactions of Goods & Services) and Input tax credit (ITC) with example: 

  • Existing CST (Central state tax, tax on interstate movement of goods) shall be discontinued.
  • Center would levy IGST (cumulative rate for CGST and SGST)on all inter-State transactions of taxable goods and services with appropriate provision for consignment or stock transfer of goods and services.
  • The ITC of SGST, CGST shall be allowed as applicable.
  • Since ITC of SGST shall be allowed, the Exporting State will transfer to the Centre the credit of SGST used in payment of IGST. The Importing dealer will claim credit of IGST while discharging his SGST liability (while selling the goods in state itself). Thereafter, the Centre will transfer to the importing State the credit of IGST used in payment of SGST. (Please see example 4 & 5)
  • The relevant information shall be submitted to the Central Agency which will act as a clearing house mechanism, verify the claims and inform the respective state governments or central government to transfer the funds.
  • Advantage of IGST:
    • No refund claim in exporting State, as ITC is used up while paying the tax.
    • Maintenance of uninterrupted ITC chain on inter-State transactions.
    • No upfront payment of tax or substantial blockage of funds for the inter-State seller or buyer.

Example –2 (Input Tax Credit)

Shiva, a registered dealer had input tax credit for CGST and SGST Rs.750/- and Rs.1,050/- respectively in respect of purchase of inputs and capital goods. He manufactured 1800 liters of finished products. 200 liters was normal loss in the process. The final product was sold at uniform price of Rs.10 per liter as follows:-

Goods sold within State – 800 liter.

Finished product sold in inter-State sale – 650 liter.

Goods sent on stock transfer to consignment agents outside the State – 350 liter.

Further, CGST and SGST rate on the finished product of dealer is 5% and 7% respectively. Further IGST rate is 12%. Calculate tax liability of SGST and CGST to be paid after tax credit.


Output Tax Calculation

Particulars Sales Within State Stock Transfer Outside State Inter State Sales Total
Qty. Sold 800 350 650
Price per unit 10 10 10
Value of Goods Sold 8,000 3,500 6,500 18,000
Tax Amount:
Tax Amount – CGST(5%) 400 400
Tax Amount – SGST(7%) 560 560
Tax Amount – IGST(12%) 420 780 1,200

Calculation of Tax Payable

Particulars CGST SGST IGST  Total
Tax Payable Amount 400 560 1200  
Less: Input Tax Credit  
CGST 400 350 750
SGST 560 490 1050
Balance Payable 360 360 


  • There would be no treatment for normal loss.
  • Input tax credit of CGST and SGST of Rs. 750 and Rs. 1050 are paid on inputs. This input tax credit should first be utilized for payment of CGST and SGST, respectively, and balance is to be used for payment of IGST. Thus, balance available for payment of IGST is Rs. 350 of CGST and Rs. 490 of SGST and he is liable to pay balance amount of IGST of Rs. 360 by cash (1200-350-490 = 360). Since credit of SGST of Rs.490 has been utilized for payment of IGST, the State Government will get debit of Rs. 490 from the Central Government.

Example –3 (Input Tax Credit)

Now, continuing with the above example 2, suppose the dealer purchases goods interstate and have input tax credit of IGST available is Rs.2,000/-. Compute the tax payable.


Calculation of Tax Payable

Particulars CGST SGST IGST
Tax Payable Amount 400 560 1,200
Less: Input Tax Credit
IGST 400 400 1,200 2000
Balance Payable 160.00 160

Note: Input tax credit of Rs.2000, IGST is available. This input tax credit should first be utilized for payment of IGST and balance is to be used first for payment of CGST and remaining for SGST. Likewise in this case Rs.400 and balance Rs.400 are utilized for CGST and SGST respectively. He is liable to pay balance amount of SGST of Rs.160 by cash.(2000-1200-400-560 = 160).

Some Specific points for specific products (being high revenue generating products)

  • This tax does not apply to alcohol and petroleum products. They will be continued to be taxed as per the existing practices.
  • Tax on Tobacco products will be subject to GST. But government can levy the extra tax percent over and above GST rate.

Other key points:

  • Manufacturing state (the state in India in which the goods are manufactured) will be allowed to levy an additional tax percent (say 1%) on supply of goods.
  • PAN based identification number will be allowed to each taxpayer to have integration of GST withDirect Tax.
  • The taxpayer would need to submit periodical returns, in common format as far as possible, to both the CGST authority and to the concerned SGST authorities.

Exemption/Composition Scheme under GST:

  • The Small Taxpayer: The small taxpayers whose gross annual turnover is less than 1.5 Crore will not be covered by GST law and no need to pay tax.
  • Scope of composition and compounding scheme under GST to be provided for this purpose, an upper ceiling on gross annual turnover (say Rs.50 Lacs) and a floor tax rate (say 0.5%) with respect to gross annual turnover should be provided.
  • Treatment for goods exempt under one state and taxable under the other to be provided.
  • List of exempt items which shall be outside the purview of GST shall be provided.

GST on Export & Import with example:

  • GST on export would be zero rated
  • Both CGST and SGST will be levied on import of goods and services into India. The incidence of tax will follow the destination principle i.e. SGST goes to the state where it is consumed. Complete set-off will be available on the GST paid on import on goods and services.

Example-4 (Import)

Shri Shiva imported goods for Rs. 10,000/- and incurred expenses to produce final saleable goods. BCD @ 10 % was chargeable on imported goods. These manufactured goods were sold within the state at Rs. 45,000 plus applicable GST. Rate of CGST and SGST is 5% and 7% respectively. Compute Cost, Sale value and tax payable for the transaction.

Solution: Calculation of Net cost of imported goods

Particulars Amount
Cost of Goods imported 10,000
Add: Basic Customs Duty @ 10% 1,000
Cost of imported goods (including BCD) 11,000
Add: CGST on Import @ 5% 550
Add: SGST on Import @ 7% 770
Cost of imported goods (including BCD & GST) (Note below) 12,320

Calculation of Sale value after import

Particulars Amount(Rs)
Sale Value (before tax) 45,000
Add: CGST on Import @ 5% 2,250
Add: SGST on Import @ 7% 3,150
Sales Value 50,400

Tax Payable Calculation

Particulars CGST SGST
(Rs.) (Rs.)
Output tax 2,250 3,150
Less: Input tax credit
CGST 550
SGST 770
Net tax payable 1,700 2,380

Note: Please note that GST shall be levied including Basic Customs Duty considering.

Example-5 (Export)

Now continuing with the above example 4, suppose the same good is exported after 1 year of use after adding margin and modification amounting Rs.10,000/- and use factor of 1 year for refund calculation is 0.20. Therefore the refund will be 0.80 of Duty amount. Compute Export Value and Refund Value.

Solution: Export Value calculation

Particulars Amount
Cost of Imported Goods(from above example) 50,400
Add: Margin and Modification Amt. 10,000
Sale Value 60,400
Add: CGST on Export @ 5%
Add: SGST on Export @ 7%
Export Value 60,400

Refund Calculation

Particulars Amount
Basic Customs Duty(BCD, from above example) 1,000.00
Refund Factor 0.80
Refund amount of BDC 800.00
Add: CGST(from above example) 550.00
Add: SGST(from above example) 770.00
Total Refund amount 2,120.00

The above example withstand two basic principles of Taxation Laws i.e. Exports are zero rated and the incidence of tax will follow the destination principle (The taxes will remain with the state where the goods are used, however use factor can be prescribed by the law)

Indirect taxes that will be included under GST:-

State taxes which will be subsumed in SGST

  • VAT/Sales Tax
  • Entertainment Tax (unless it is levied by local bodies)
  • Luxury Tax
  • Taxes on lottery, betting and gambling.
  • State cess and surcharges to the extent related to supply of goods and services.
  • Entry tax not on in lieu of octroi.

Central Taxes which will be subsumed in CGST

  • Central Excise Duty.
  • Additional Excise Duty.
  • The Excise Duty levied under the medical and Toiletries Preparation Act
  • Service Tax.
  • Additional Customs Duty, commonly known as countervailing Duty (CVD)
  • Special Additional duty of customs(SAD)
  • Education Cess
  • Surcharges

Taxes that may or may not be subsumed due to no consensus between the Central and State Governments:

  • Stamp Duty
  • Vehicle Tax
  • Electricity Duty
  • Other Entry taxes and Octroi
  • Entertainment Tax (levied by local bodies)
  • Basic customs duty and safeguard duties on import of goods into India

Other Benefits of GST apart from discussed in first 2-3 paragraph of this article:

  • Reduces transaction costs and unnecessary wastages:A single registration and a single compliance will suffice for both SGST and CGST provided government produces effective IT infrastructure and integration of states level with the union.
  • Eliminates the multiplicity of taxation: The reduction in the number of taxation applicable in a chain of transaction will help to reduce the paper work and clean up the current mess that is brought by existing indirect taxation laws.
  • One Point Single Tax: They would be focus on business rather than worrying about their taxation that may crop at later stages. This will help the business community to decide their supply chain, pricing modalities and in the long run helps the consumers being goods competitive as price will no longer be the function of tax components but function of sheer business intelligence and innovation.
  • Reduces average tax burdens:- The cost of tax that consumers have to bear will be certain and it is expected that GST would reduce the average tax burdens on the consumers.
  • Reduces the corruption:-As the no. of taxes reduces so does the no of visits to multiple department reduces and hence the reduction in corruption.
  • In all cases except a few products and states, there would be uniformity of tax rates across the states.

General points on Various Business Sectors that arise after GST implementation:-

  • Real Estate Industry: Construction and Housing sector need to be included in the GST tax base being high tax revenue generating sector and for reduction in no. of tax legislations involved.
  • FMCG Sector:.Implementation of proposed GST and opening of Foreign Direct Investment (F.D.I.) are expected to fuel the growth and raise industry’s size.
  • Rail Sector:There have been suggestions for including the rail sector under the GST umbrella to bring about significant tax gains and widen the tax net so as to keep overall GST rate low. This will have the added benefit of ensuring that all inter–state transportation of goods can be tracked through the proposed Information technology (IT) network.
  • Information Technology enabled services:At present, if the software is transferred through electronic form, it should be considered as Intellectual Property and regarded as a service and if the software is transmitted on media or any other tangible property, then it should be treated as goods and this classification is full of litigation. As GST will have uniform rate for Goods and Services and no concept of state revenue being VAT or central revenue being service tax and hence, the reduction in litigation.
  • Transport Sector: Truck drivers spend more than half of their time while negotiating check post and tolls. At present there are more than 600 check points and more than ton types of taxes in road sector.

After the introduction of GST, the time spend by the road transport industry in complaining with laws will reduce and service is going to be better which will boost the goods industry and thus the taxes also.

  • Impact on Small Enterprises:There will be three categories of Small Enterprises in the GST regime.
  • Those below threshold limit of Rs.1.5 Crores would not be covered.
  • Those between the threshold and composition turnovers will have the option to pay a turnover based tax i.e. composite tax or opt to join the GST regime.
  • Those above threshold limit will need to be within framework of GST. Possible downward changes in the threshold in some States consequent to the introduction of GST may result in obligation being created for some dealers.

Questions, please ask?

  • At what point of time, the tax will be levied?
  • What will be the nature of Taxable Event?
  • GST is proposed to be levied by both the CG and SGs. How will it be defined under CGST and SGST?

Hope you got the sound understanding of the provisions of GST.

Link to Previous Article on MAT provisions (IT Act, 1961) of Author:

No part of this article shall be reproduced, copied in any material form (including e-medium) without written permission of CA. Shivashish.

The information provided is not a substitute for legal and other professional advice where the facts and circumstances warrant.

(Author Shivashish Karnani is a  CA and can be reach out freely at and on +91-9818472772)

Author Bio

More Under Goods and Services Tax


  1. Karthik says:

    What about the service tax related to Goods and Transport services?

    I provided the service of transportation i claimed tax of GST18% for my bill they are asking SGT CGST. how should i divide the 18 %

  2. vishnu gupta says:

    in gst composition scheme my old stock which is after 1/4/16 purchased item from other state which was vat free,cst free,entry tax free ,excise duty free.allowed or not

  3. Naren says:

    Very well explained, but question comes in mind then what is a big change replacing VAT, all stages have taxes at different rates. That does not happen generally when a country implement GST.
    Next if we have 5 rates of Taxes, then increasing tax rates why can’t we have 3-4 more tax rates. This whole shit encouraged black marketing and a chance for them to increase prices of items.

  4. G KRISHNA MOHAN says:

    Sir why gst need to be collected at various levels. i.e., manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer. why cant we stop this with manufacturer itself.

  5. Rajesh says:

    sir im sweet manufacturer b4 gst vat 5% now its 18%,b4 gst an item with rs 10- mrp supplied to distribtor at 7./(inld 5% vat).n now .i supplied same .with same mrp and same price.(reduced basic prce.but he complained that his profit margn reduced due to incresed tax%.please solve my doubt

  6. lokesh mahajan says:

    nicely you have explained
    i hope every indian will understand its importance and it will be our one another step towards developed india THANKYOU.

  7. Harshit says:

    Effective tax incidence is increasing if calc in first of the example in comparision with and without gst irrelevant of cost reduction due to reduction in profit element??can anyone plz explain

  8. Rajasree says:

    Very help full information.Give examples of taxation of services and combination of goods and services together. Thank you.

  9. Bharati C says:

    Is it possible to have a “Virtual GST framework “: ::::::: :::::::::::::Current GST lists are maintained, all applicable taxes would be filed and paid / collected and due payments to Centre/State would be transferred in a manner TRANSPARENT to the end users ie goods providers and consumers? ::::::::::::: Individual state legislatures may vote to ‘SUBSCRIBE ‘ or not, to such framework. ::::::::::: This ‘working arrangement’ would avoid need for Constitutional amendment, provide streamlining for payment, collection and give states confidence to proceed.::::::Thanks for your response.

  10. Calm says:

    Is GST also to bring many many under the tax net (I-tax) .
    Is there a prohobited list also , the concept of tax free for those under the poverty line.
    The calculations do convince that the price will not be affected . Within less than 6 months the budget will be introduced .Policy of increasing as question of decreasing does not arise should be made clear. What percentage of deficit will be balanced from GST.
    GST has taxes both levied by state as well as centre ,so its merely rechristening taxes and revising the list.

    Why can’t the centre get it through if supported by the states. Few objections from State of Punjab on implementing local tax will be null and void once GST gets through.
    Tax slab (I-tax should be raised in the budget session).
    It is obvious that while GST will be charged on the people by professionals
    Retailers might have the number but the receipts show that VAT is charged on common man .Will we face the same in GST.

  11. Shivanand Belure says:

    As GST: is most improtant tax reform in India. It is really helpful to Manufacturer’s, Business community and service providers to ease tax payment system.

    Need to understand once implemented by the NDA government after clearance in the session.


    (Shivanand Belure)

  12. S.Senthilraj says:

    You article only indicate benefit. Today lot of essential things may apply 4% of vat only not impact any excise duty… like food items.. food grains.. agriculture retail products… Pl furnish details of pro and cons after GST impact… and clarify Present service Tax module on GST… Present day lot of small manufacturing and service industries not covered under Excise and service Tax after GST how to evaluate those

  13. Abhishek Jha says:

    Dear Sir,

    I appreciate for your research & your understanding language is also too easy to understand but I have also a Question for you –

    You told Every thing About CGST & SGST related Mfg. business & Trading business but what about the Service industries. How can we charged GST on Services Industries. Please Clear this matter also.

    Thank You
    Abhishek Jha (CWA)

  14. Ganapathy Subramaniam T K says:


    Very informative & narrated beautifully. I have few queries:
    In case of part shipments, how the CGST, SGST & IGST will be calculated? i.e., If the Wholesaler invoices 100 qty to Retailer but ships only 80.

    Similarly in case of Sales Return, how these are effected?

  15. Varun T says:

    Dear Mr. Kumar

    An excellent article, I had been searching the internet for relevant examples but yours were the only lucid ones.

    I have a poser for you and every reader who is concerned about GST.

    Both the state and central government claim that GST shall result in fall in prices across the board. Who shall bear the loss in revenue ?

    Middlemen – Wholesalers or Dealers
    State Government
    Central Government

    I do not see any of these three parties bearing the loss. Middlemen shall continue getting their margins and neither state or central government forego their revenue, they shall increase the tax rate to compensate.

    Who benefits ?

  16. CA. Shivashish Kumar says:

    Hi to all,…thanku very much for your good comments. Please note that i reply only to professional queries raised through mail. email@

    There is one updation in the last page of this article.. Please refer heading “impact on small enterprises” or if not found then do ‘Ctrl’ + ‘F’ and search:

    Here is the updation:
    Therehold limit for exemption(common for both goods and services) shall be in between Rs.10-20 lacs.
    Gross turnover of goods upto Rs.1.5 crores may be assigned exclusively to states.
    Gross turnover of services upto Rs.1.5 crores may be assigned exclusively to centre.
    Gross turnover of above 1.5 crores shall be assigned to both central and state government i.e. SGST to state government and CGST to central government.


    CA.Shivashish Kumar

  17. Prof Swaminathan Shivakumar says:

    The article is good . I can judge it since I know the subject to a certain extent. But I wanted something more insightful and I got it here, although the presentation and drafting are of poor quality. If I had not had prior exposure to the topic, I would not have been able to understand the article and appreciate its worth. It is this aspect you have to take care of. If you want, I can properly edit it and present it in a “presentable” format, so to speak! If you are interested, I can chip in. I am available on mobile number: 9945077644 (Bangalore). Hope I have not been mistaken.


    Prof Swaminathan Shivakumar

  18. Siddharth says:

    Fantastic Article ! the most authentic explanation on the concept of GST ever delivered by an author …look forward to more such informatory stuff …

  19. Abhilash says:

    Manufacturers + Distributors + Retailers will increase selling price just by showing the new increased tax rate. Customer will stop buying against bill & will buy without bill. This is India. Under GST both central & state employees will have higher cut on bribery.

  20. Abhilash says:

    Fall in market demand is the result of such so called reforms. Consumer in India is slowly getting educated & knows hows to tackle problems. It will be very difficult for the existing government to face the public by the end of 5th year.

    If RBI supports the government by rate cut & pledging some gold (from its vault or within country )in the coming 3 fy , there will be something happening in the economy. Ban importing gold & generic medicines. PMs foreign tours for favors may not be sufficient for such a big country.

    Else wait for the next government.

  21. Somnath Bhattacharya says:

    Dear Shivasish.

    Thanks for such informative articles, which earlier not brought to my notice. Really
    a note worthy article which help us to understand the spirit of GST. Awaiting such
    type article when much more clarity will come on GST.
    Pray for your good health and happy spirit.
    Senior Activist.

  22. Somnath Bhattacharya says:

    No doubt we have ever read this type analytically narration in any articles. Very informative and note worthy article.

    We are awaiting to read such type of informative, interesting articles in near future also.
    Senior Activists.

  23. Shitij says:

    A simple, easy and detailed explanation. Hats off to you as i very well know how much strength it take to right a article that is so detailed.

  24. senthil kumar says:

    Dear Sir
    Very good write with clear examples. We expect similar write up from experts like you when GST moves on with more clarities to come.

    In implementing GST, we need to see who is the real beneficiary and who is the loser. Let us take first example provided by you. The first impression is that the prices to the consumer will fall down…. right on whose cost. Kindly see the margin money retained by the whole seller and retailer. These people in the supply chain will lose Rs.176.40 (although margin 10% is constant) for which they will oppose and will demand increased margin from manufacturer to compensate their loss.

    The State Government will lose Rs.169.40. The Central Government will gain Rs.176.40.

    The consumer will benefit only when the whole seller & retailer accept the loss. In the game of GST the biggest beneficiary will be Central Government and price of commodities will definitely go up.

  25. Ashwin says:


    Thanks for the info., but what would be works contractor, & other construction services including (Civil & Labor contractors) ?

    Can u please reply ?

    Best Regards,

  26. RM says:

    Nice Explanation.

    However, I am doubtful whether the 1.59% benefit will be passed on to the Consumer in practical sense. For what we see, any adverse impact in market is directly forwarded to Consumer as burden, but benefits are not.

    Eg. PetroChem Prices. Reduction in Crude Oil Prices never benefited the consumer, where as smallest of increase in crude-oil directly resulted in increase in Petrol/Diesel prices.

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