The Goods and Services Tax (GST) system in India has revolutionized the taxation landscape, aiming for a simplified and uniform approach. However, as businesses grapple with compliance, one critical aspect often overlooked is the intricate world of GST classification. In this detailed exploration, we will unravel the theoretical groundwork necessary to comprehend the implications of misclassification, using a practical example involving retailers, wholesalers, and manufacturers.

The Dynamics of the Supply Chain:

At the heart of the GST system lies the supply chain, beginning with manufacturers determining the applicable GST rate for their products. This rate cascades through wholesalers to retailers and eventually reaches the end consumer. The inherent challenge arises when misclassification occurs at any point in this chain, triggering potential repercussions for all stakeholders involved.

Example Scenario Unveiled:

Consider a hypothetical scenario where a TV manufacturer inadvertently misclassifies their product, applying an 18% GST rate instead of the correct 28%. Oblivious to this error, wholesalers and retailers dutifully follow suit, uniformly applying the 18% rate. The end consumer, having purchased the TV at the lower rate, is unlikely to comply with the additional 10% tax owed.

Implications and Individual Liability:

In the aftermath of misclassification, individual liability becomes a critical concern. Separate notices are issued to manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers, notifying them of the tax shortfall. Each entity is then required to rectify the error by personally covering the difference from their financial reserves, regardless of the initial misclassification by the manufacturer.

Challenges in GST Classification:

GST classification is a nuanced process fraught with challenges. A historical case involving Kit Kat underscores the complexity of these determinations. Even prominent companies may encounter difficulties in substantiating the correct classification, with potential financial ramifications for all players within the supply chain.

Unique Challenges for Retailers:

While manufacturers can recoup some costs through Input Tax Credit (ITC), retailers confront a distinctive challenge. Section 175 stipulates that any amount recovered after assessment is ineligible for ITC. Consequently, retailers find themselves burdened with the additional tax, directly impacting their financial bottom line.

Key Takeaways for Businesses:

  • Individual Liability: Every entity within the supply chain bears individual responsibility for accurately determining the applicable GST rate for their products.
  • Defensive Misclassification: Pleading ignorance by blindly following rates set by vendors is not a viable defense. Each entity is accountable for their unique classification.
  • ITC Limitations: Retailers may not fully benefit from ITC if they have personally funded additional tax payments post-assessment.


In navigating the intricate landscape of the GST system, meticulous attention to classification is paramount. Blindly adhering to rates set by vendors can lead to substantial financial implications. Understanding individual liability and the constraints of ITC is crucial for businesses to navigate potential pitfalls in the dynamic and evolving world of GST regulations. Staying informed and proactive in accurate classification is the cornerstone of ensuring a smooth and compliant business operation.


Authored by Arghya Sen, 3rd year BALLB(Hons.) Student at Amity University, Kolkata 

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February 2024