Q.1 What is CIBIL?

CIBIL – India’s first credit information bureau- is a repository of information, which contains the credit history of commercial and consumer borrowers. CIBIL provides this information to its Members in the form of credit information reports.

Q.2 Who owns CIBIL?

CIBIL’s equity was held by State Bank of India, Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited, Dun & Bradstreet Information Services India Private Limited and Trans Union International Inc. The shareholding pattern was in the proportion of 40:40:10:10 respectively.

Current Shareholding

The shareholding pattern has now been diversified to include the following entities representing varied categories of credit grantors : –

cibil shareholding

Q.3 On which segments does CIBIL provide credit reports?

CIBIL is a composite Credit Bureau, which caters to both commercial and consumer segments. The Consumer Credit Bureau covers credit availed by individuals while the Commercial Credit Bureau covers credit availed by non-individuals such as partnership firms, proprietary concerns, private and public limited companies, etc.

Q.4 Who are Members of CIBIL?

Banks, Financial Institutions, State Financial Corporations, Non-Banking Financial Companies, Housing Finance Companies and Credit Card Companies are Members of CIBIL.

Operations Of CIBIL

Q.5 How does CIBIL function?

For credit grantors to gain a complete picture of the payment history of a credit applicant, they must be able to gain access to the applicant’s complete credit record that may be spread over different institutions. CIBIL collects commercial and consumer credit-related data and collates such data to create and distribute credit reports to Members.

Q.6 Where does CIBIL get the information from?

CIBIL primarily gets information from its Members only and at a subsequent stage will supplement it with public domain information in order to create a truly comprehensive snapshot of an entity’s financial track record.

Q.7 What is a Credit Information Report?

A Credit Information Report (CIR) is a factual record of a borrower’s credit payment history compiled from information received from different credit grantors. Its purpose is to help credit grantors make informed lending decisions – quickly and objectively.

Information Security at CIBIL

Q.8 What are the measures taken by CIBIL to ensure the security of Member’s data?

The security of the Members’ data is of paramount importance to CIBIL. CIBIL’s security measures are aligned with global ‘best practices’, stringent risk management standards and are subject to regular audits by independent auditors. CIBIL has adopted state-of-the- art technology to provide information security. The important aspects are detailed below:

  • Information in our database is accessed only on a strictly ‘Need to Know’ basis. For example, the access to the Data Center is available only to authorized personnel engaged in regular systems and database administration.
  • Access control devices, surveillance cameras installed at strategic locations and biometric access system at the Data Center with the highest levels of security.
  • Comprehensive perimeter security solution consisting of a Firewall, Intrusion Detection and Vulnerability Assessment System to secure the network infrastructure from external security risk.
  • Installation of the following devices to deal with fire hazards:
  • State-of-the- art (VESDA) smoke detection system to provide early warning and isolation of potential fire hazards.
  • FM200 based Fire Suppression System to extinguish fire with minimal damage to the IT systems.

Anti -Virus software installed on all servers in the Data Center. Security patches and necessary configurations are continuously applied to the Servers and Network appliances.

Another vital area in which security is of the utmost importance is the two-way transmission of information between CIBIL and it’s Members. In this regard, CIBIL uses:

  • 128-bit SSL encryption for all Web-based transactions including FTP.
  • Cryptographic solutions for all information sent or received through any physical media i.e. CD, DAT and DLT.

Q.9 What is encryption?

Encryption is technique used to mask proprietary information in order to prevent it from being accessed by unauthorized individuals. Only authorized individuals who have been provided with the appropriate decoding software can unscramble the information. Thus, encrypted information that our Members provide us with is extremely secure.

Type Of Information Held By CIBIL

Q.10 What type of information on a borrower is available in the CIR?

The CIR includes the following information:

  • Basic borrower information like:
    1. Name
    2. Address

In case of individuals:

    1. Identification numbers
    2. Passport ID
    3. Voters ID
    4. Date of birth

In case of non-individuals

    1. D-U-N-S® Number
    2. Registration Number
    3. Legal Constitution
  • Records of all the credit facilities availed by the borrower
  • Past payment history
  • Amount overdue
  • Number of inquiries made on that borrower, by different Members
  • Suit-filed status.

Q.11 What type of information is NOT included in the CIR?

The CIR does not contain:

  • Income / Revenue details
  • Amount(s) deposited with the bank
  • Details of borrowers’ assets
  • Value of asset(s) mortgaged
  • Details of investment(s)

Q.12 When is a credit facility classified as ‘default’?

CIBIL does not classify any accounts as default accounts. It merely reflects this information after the Member has classified it as such. The Number of Days Past Due and / or Asset Classification as per RBI definition as submitted by Members is reflected in the CIR.

Q.13 How do I ensure that a CIR drawn on me as an individual / organisation does not contain negative information?

The best preventive measure is to exercise good money management practices and make repayments on time. Please see ‘How to improve your credit’ section for more details.

Q.14 If I am a first-time borrower, will I be at a disadvantage as there will be no information on me?

As a new borrower, there will be a new file created for you. It will then be in your interest to build up a favourable repayment track record for future credit applications.

Access To CIBIL Information

Q.15 Who can access CIRs?

Reports can be accessed by Members on the principle of reciprocity ie only those Members who have provided all their data to CIBIL are permitted to access CIRs. Members can do so only to take valid credit decisions. Disclosure to any other person or entity is prohibited.

Q.16 Can the borrower obtain his own CIR from CIBIL?

Yes. Borrower can now obtain the same.  See our article on this at the link given below:-


Q.17 Can CIBIL provides CIRs to credit providers in other countries?

No. CIBIL will provide credit information reports only to its Members in India.

Q.18 Whether Right to Information Act, 2005 is applicable to CIBIL?

No. The reason being that the CIBIL is not a “Public Authority” as defined under Sec 2(h) of the Right to Information Act, 2005.

Lending Decisions

Q.19 Does the CIR indicates if credit should or should not be given?

The CIR only provides available factual credit information and does not provide any opinion, indication or comment pertaining to whether credit should or should not be granted. The credit grantors who have received an application for credit will make the credit decision. CIBIL does not grant or deny credit.

Q.20 If my credit application has been rejected, will this fact appear in my credit record?

The Members do not provide this information to CIBIL and hence it will not be in the CIR.

Q.21 If a credit grantor has denied me credit, could others reject my application?

Not necessarily. Different credit grantors may use a CIR differently, or take into account other factors when they assess your application. Although one bank may deny you credit, another bank could take a different view and accept your application.

Q.22 What benefits does a borrower get from CIBIL?

CIBIL’s CIRs are aimed at helping credit grantors make fast and objective lending decisions. This will contribute to a more competitive credit marketplace among Credit Grantors. With a Bureau in place, responsible customers can expect faster and more competitive services at better terms from the Credit Grantors.

Rectifying Inaccurate Information in Your Credit Report

Q.23 How do I rectify information in a credit report drawn on me?

Please contact the credit grantor from whom you have availed the loan and request the necessary changes. The credit grantor will then report the change to CIBIL and we will subsequently make the necessary updates.

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  1. Vijayashankar Na says:

    I understand that the share holding pattern of CIBIL has now changed and Trans Union has acquired upto 92.1% of the shares. Are you aware under which FDI program this investment has been allowed.

  2. Rahul Goswami says:

    had two credit cards from HDFC and CITI. Both were written-off/closed by the bank due to non-payment. Now, I have paid all the outstanding amount on both the cards and there is not a single penny left unpaid. Also, I have obtained the No Due Letter for the same from both the banks. The payment was done in May’2013. Now, when I am applying for a fresh credit card i am getting rejections from the bank.
    My question is if I have paid all my outstanding then why am I getting rejections? How can I apply for a new credit card?
    Please note that this is NOT A SETTLEMENT, I paid the amount in full.

    Please Help !

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December 2023