Securities and Exchange Board of India
Circular No. CIR/MRD/DP/13/2015 Dated-July 06, 2015
All Stock Exchanges, Clearing Corporation and Depositories.
Dear Sir / Madam,
Subject: Cyber Security and Cyber Resilience framework of Stock Exchanges, Clearing Corporation and Depositories
SEBI as a member of IOSCO has adopted the Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures (PFMIs) laid down by CPMI-IOSCO and has issued guidance for implementation of the principles in the securities market.
2. Principle 17 of PFMI that relates to management and mitigation of
‘Operational risk’ requires that systemically important market infrastructures institutions “should identify the plausible sources of operational risk, both internal and external, and mitigate their impact through the use of appropriate systems, policies, procedures, and controls. Systems should be designed to ensure a high degree of security and operational reliability and should have adequate, scalable capacity. Business continuity management should aim for timely recovery of operations and fulfilment of the FMI’s obligations, including in the event of a wide-scale or major disruption.”
3. Stock Exchanges, Depositories and Clearing Corporations (hereafter referred as Market Infrastructure Institutions or MIIs in this document) are systemically important market infrastructure institutions. As part of the operational risk management, these MIIs need to have robust cyber security framework to provide essential facilities and perform systemically critical functions relating to trading, clearing and settlement in securities market.
4. In view of the above, SEBI along with the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) engaged in detailed discussions with MIIs to develop necessary guidance in the area of cyber security and cyber resilience.
5. Based on the consultations and recommendations of TAC, it has been decided to lay down the framework placed at Annexure A that MIIs would be required to comply with regard to cyber security and cyber resilience.
6. MIIs are directed to take necessary steps to put in place systems for implementation of the circular, including necessary amendments to the relevant bye-laws, rules and regulations, if any, within six months from the date of the
7. This circular is being issued in exercise of powers conferred under Section 11 (1) of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 and Section 19 of the Depositories Act, 1996 to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the development of, and to regulate the securities market.
1. Cyber attacks and threats attempt to compromise the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA) of the computer systems, networks and data bases.1 Cyber security framework include measures, tools and processes that are intended to prevent cyber attacks and improve cyber resilience. Cyber Resilience is an organisation’s ability to prepare and respond to a cyber attack and to continue operation during, and recover from, a cyber attack.
2. As part of the operational risk management framework to manage risk to systems, networks and databases from cyber attacks and threats, MII should formulate a comprehensive cyber security and cyber resilience policy document encompassing the framework mentioned hereunder. The policy document should be approved by the Board, and in case of deviations from the suggested framework, reasons for such deviations should also be provided in the policy document. The policy document should be reviewed by the MII’s Board atleast annually with the view to strengthen and improve its cyber security and cyber resilience framework.
3. The cyber security and cyber resilience policy should include the following process to identify, assess, and manage cyber security risk associated with processes, information, networks and systems.
a. ‘Identify’ critical IT assets and risks associated with such assets,
b. ‘Protect’ assets by deploying suitable controls, tools and measures,
c. ‘Detect’ incidents, anomalies and attacks through appropriate monitoring tools / processes,
d. ‘Respond’ by taking immediate steps after identification of the incident, anomaly or attack,
e. ‘Recover’ from incident through incident management, disaster recovery and business continuity framework.
4. The Cyber security policy should encompass the principles prescribed by National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) of National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO), Government of India in the report titled ‘Guidelines for Protection of National Critical Information Infrastructure’ and subsequent revisions, if any, from time to time.
5. MII should also incorporate best practices from standards such as ISO 27001, ISO 27002, COBIT 5, etc., or their subsequent revisions, if any, from time to time.
6. MII should designate a senior official as Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) whose function would be to assess, identify and reduce cyber security risks, respond to incidents, establish appropriate standards and controls, and direct the establishment and implementation of processes and procedures as per the cyber security and resilience policy approved by the Board of the MII.
7. The Oversight Standing Committee on Technology2 of the stock exchanges and of the clearing corporations and the IT Strategy Committee3 of the depositories should on a quarterly basis review the implementation of the cyber security and resilience policy approved by their Boards, and such review should include review of their current IT and cyber security and resilience capabilities, set goals for a target level of cyber resilience, and establish a plan to improve and strengthen cyber security and cyber resilience.
8. MII should establish a reporting procedure to facilitate communication of unusual activities and events to CISO or to the senior management in a timely manner.
9. The aforementioned committee and the senior management of the MII, including the CISO, should periodically review instances of cyber attacks, if any, domestically and globally, and take steps to strengthen cyber security and cyber resilience framework.
10. MII should define responsibilities of its employees, outsourced staff, and employees of vendors, members or participants and other entities, who may have access or use systems / networks of MII, towards ensuring the goal of cyber security.
11. MII should identify critical assets based on their sensitivity and criticality for business operations, services and data management. To this end, MII should maintain up-to-date inventory of its hardware and systems, software and information assets (internal and external), details of its network resources, connections to its network and data flows.
12. MII should accordingly identify cyber risks (threats and vulnerabilities) that it may face, alongwith the likelihood of such threats and impact on the business and thereby, deploy controls commensurate to the criticality.
13. MII should also encourage its third-party providers, such as service providers, stock brokers, depository participants, etc. to have similar standards of Information Security.
14. No person by virtue of rank or position should have any intrinsic right to access confidential data, applications, system resources or facilities.
15. Any access to MII’s systems, applications, networks, databases, etc., should be for a defined purpose and for a defined period. MII should grant access to IT systems, applications, databases and networks on a need-to-use basis and based on the principle of least privilege. Such access should be for the period when the access is required and should be authorized using strong authentication mechanisms.
16. MII should implement strong password controls for users’ access to systems, applications, networks and databases. Password controls should include a change of password upon first log-on, minimum password length and history, password complexity as well as maximum validity period. The user credential data should be stored using strong and latest hashing algorithms.
17. MII should ensure that records of user access are uniquely identified and logged for audit and review purposes. Such logs should be maintained and stored in encrypted form for a time period not less than two (2) years.
18. MII should deploy additional controls and security measures to supervise staff with elevated system access entitlements (such as admin or privileged users). Such controls and measures should inter-alia include restricting the number of privileged users, periodic review of privileged users’ activities, disallow privileged users from accessing systems logs in which their activities are being captured, strong controls over remote access by privileged users, etc.
19. Account access lock policies after failure attempts should be implemented for all accounts.
20. Employees and outsourced staff such as employees of vendors or service providers, who may be given authorised access to the MII’s critical systems, networks and other computer resources, should be subject to stringent supervision, monitoring and access restrictions.
21. Two-factor authentication at log-in should be implemented for all users that connect using online / internet facility.
22. MII should formulate an Internet access policy to monitor and regulate the use of internet and internet based services such as social media sites, cloud-based internet storage sites, etc.
23. Proper ‘end of life’ mechanism should be adopted to deactivate access privileges of users who are leaving the organization or who access privileges have been withdrawn.
24. Physical access to the critical systems should be restricted to minimum. Physical access of outsourced staff / visitors should be properly supervised by ensuring at the minimum that outsourced staff / visitors are accompanied at all times by authorised employees.
25. Physical access to the critical systems should be revoked immediately if the same is no longer required.
26. MII should ensure that the perimeter of the critical equipments room are physically secured and monitored by employing physical, human and procedural controls such as the use of security guards, CCTVs, card access systems, mantraps, bollards, etc. where appropriate.
Network Security Management
27. MII should establish baseline standards to facilitate consistent application of security configurations to operating systems, databases, network devices and enterprise mobile devices within the IT environment. The MII should conduct regular enforcement checks to ensure that the baseline standards are applied uniformly.
28. MII should install network security devices, such as firewalls as well as intrusion detection and prevention systems, to protect its IT infrastructure from security exposures originating from internal and external sources.
29. Anti-virus software should be installed on servers and other computer systems. Updation of Anti-virus definition files and automatic anti-virus scanning should be done on a regular basis.
Security of Data
30. Data-in motion and Data-at-rest should be in encrypted form by using strong encryption methods such as Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), RSA, SHA-2, etc.
31. MII should implement measures to prevent unauthorised access or copying or transmission of data / information held in contractual or fiduciary It should be ensured that confidentiality of information is not compromised during the process of exchanging and transferring information with external parties.
32. The information security policy should also cover use of devices such as mobile phone, faxes, photocopiers, scanners, etc. that can be used for capturing and transmission of data.
33. MII should allow only authorized data storage devices through appropriate validation processes.
Hardening of Hardware and Software
34. Only a hardened and vetted hardware / software should be deployed by the MII. During the hardening process, MII should inter-alia ensure that default passwords are replaced with strong passwords and all unnecessary services are removed or disabled in equipments / software.
35. All open ports which are not in use or can potentially be used for exploitation of data should be blocked. Other open ports should be monitored and appropriate measures should be taken to secure the ports.
Application Security and Testing
36. MII should ensure that regression testing is undertaken before new or modified system is implemented. The scope of tests should cover business logic, security controls and system performance under various stress-load scenarios and recovery conditions.
37. MII should establish and ensure that the patch management procedures include the identification, categorisation and prioritisation of security patches. An implementation timeframe for each category of security patches should be established to implement security patches in a timely manner.
38. MII should perform rigorous testing of security patches before deployment into the production environment so as to ensure that the application of patches do not impact other systems.
Disposal of systems and storage devices
39. MII should frame suitable policy for disposals of the storage media and The data / information on such devices and systems should be removed by using methods viz. wiping / cleaning / overwrite, degauss and physical destruction, as applicable.
Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing (VAPT)
40. MII should regularly conduct vulnerability assessment to detect security vulnerabilities in the IT environment. MII should also carry out periodic penetration tests, atleast once in a year, in order to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the security posture of the system through simulations of actual attacks on its systems and networks.
41. Remedial actions should be immediately taken to address gaps that are identified during vulnerability assessment and penetration testing.
42. In addition, MII should perform vulnerability scanning and conduct penetration testing prior to the commissioning of a new system which offers internet accessibility and open network interfaces.
Monitoring and Detection
43 MII should establish appropriate security monitoring systems and processes to facilitate continuous monitoring of security events and timely detection of unauthorised or malicious activities, unauthorised changes, unauthorised access and unauthorised copying or transmission of data / information held in contractual or fiduciary capacity, by internal and external The security logs of systems, applications and network devices should also be monitored for anomalies.
44. Further, to ensure high resilience, high availability and timely detection of attacks on systems and networks, MII should implement suitable mechanism to monitor capacity utilization of its critical systems and networks.
45. Suitable alerts should be generated in the event of detection of unauthorized or abnormal system activities, transmission errors or unusual online
Response and Recovery
46. Alerts generated from monitoring and detection systems should be suitably investigated, including impact and forensic analysis of such alerts, in order to determine activities that are to be performed to prevent expansion of such incident of cyber attack or breach, mitigate its effect and eradicate the
47. The response and recovery plan of the MII should aim at timely restoration of systems affected by incidents of cyber attacks or breaches. The recovery plan should be in line with the Recovery Time Objective (RTO) and Recovery Point Objective (RPO) specified by SEBI.
48. The response plan should define responsibilities and actions to be performed by its employees and support / outsourced staff in the event of cyber attacks or breach of cyber security mechanism.
49. Any incident of loss or destruction of data or systems should be thoroughly analyzed and lessons learned from such incidents should be incorporated to strengthen the security mechanism and improve recovery planning and
50. MII should also conduct suitable periodic drills to test the adequacy and effectiveness of response and recovery plan.
Sharing of information
51. Quarterly reports containing information on cyber attacks and threats experienced by MII and measures taken to mitigate vulnerabilities, threats and attacks including information on bugs / vulnerabilities / threats that may be useful for other MIIs, should be submitted to SEBI.
52. Such details as are felt useful for sharing with other MIIs in masked and anonymous manner shall be shared using mechanism to be specified by SEBI from time to time.
53. MII should conduct periodic training programs to enhance awareness level among the employees and outsourced staff, vendors, etc. on IT / Cyber security policy and standards. Special focus should be given to build awareness levels and skills of staff from non-technical disciplines.
54. The training program should be reviewed and updated to ensure that the contents of the program remain current and relevant.
55. The Terms of Reference for the System Audit of MII specified vide circular CIR/MRD/DMS/1 3/2011 dated November 29, 2011 shall be accordingly modified to include audit of implementation of the aforementioned areas.
1 Confidentiality refers to limiting access of systems and information to authorized users, Integrity is the assurance that the information is reliable and accurate, and Availability refers to guarantee of reliable access to the systems and information by authorized users
2 Refer SEBI Circulars SMD/POLICY/Cir-2/98 dated January 14, 1998 and CIR/MRD/DSA/33/2012 dated December 13, 2012.
3 Refer SEBI CIR/MRD/DMS/ 03 /2014 dated January 21, 2014.