Depreciation under the Companies Act 2013 is a crucial aspect of financial reporting, determining the systematic allocation of an asset’s cost over its useful life. This article delves into Schedule II of the Act, focusing on the computation of useful lives for various tangible assets and the guidelines governing depreciation.
The Schedule II presents comprehensive information regarding the useful lives of tangible assets, categorized under Part ‘C.’ Additionally, it provides insights into depreciation for special plant and machinery used in diverse industries, like power generation, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, and more.
The Schedule outlines the method of amortization for intangible assets, ensuring complete cost amortization over the concession period. It includes examples illustrating the calculation of depreciation charges and amortization rates.
Furthermore, the article highlights the significance of disclosing depreciation methods used and the useful lives of assets in financial statements.
Depreciation plays a significant role in financial reporting under the Companies Act 2013. Understanding the guidelines and computations specified in Schedule II is crucial for businesses to maintain accurate financial records and comply with legal requirements.
Depreciation under Companies Act, 2013
(See section 123)
USEFUL LIVES TO COMPUTE DEPRECIATION
1. Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life. The depreciable amount of an asset is the cost of an asset or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. The useful life of an asset is the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use by an entity, or the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by the entity.
2. For the purpose of this Schedule, the term depreciation includes amortisation.
3. Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions of paragraph 1,—
3[(i) The useful life of an asset shall not be longer than the useful life specified in Part ‘C’ and the residual value of an asset shall not be more than five per cent of the original cost of the asset:
Provided that where a company uses a useful life or residual value of the asset which is different from the above limits, justification for the difference shall be disclosed in its financial statement.
(ii) For intangible assets, the provisions of the accounting standards applicable for the time being in force shall apply, except in case of intangible assets (Toll Roads) created under ‘Build, Operate and Transfer’, ‘Build, Own, Operate and Transfer’ or any other form of public private partnership route in case of road projects. Amortisation in such cases may be done as follows:—
(a) Mode of amortisation
Cost of Intangible Assets (A)
Amortisation Amount =
Actual Revenue for the year (B)
Projected Revenue from Intangible Asset (till the end of the concession period) (C)
(b) Meaning of particulars are as follows :—
Cost of Intangible Assets (A)
|=||Cost incurred by the company in accordance with the accounting standards.|
|Actual Revenue for the year (B)||=||Actual revenue (Toll Charges) received during the accounting year.|
|Projected Revenue from Intangible Asset (C)||=||Total projected revenue from the Intangible Assets as provided to the project lender at the time of financial closure/agreement.|
The amortisation amount or rate should ensure that the whole of the cost of the intangible asset is amortised over the concession period.
Revenue shall be reviewed at the end of each financial year and projected revenue shall be adjusted to reflect such changes, if any, in the estimates as will lead to the actual collection at the end of the concession period.
|Cost of creation of Intangible Assets||:||Rs. 500 Crores|
|Total period of Agreement||:||20 Years|
|Time used for creation of Intangible Assets||:||2 Years|
|Intangible Assets to be amortised in||:||18 Years|
Assuming that the Total revenue to be generated out of Intangible Assets over the period would be Rs. 600 Crores, in the following manner:—
|Year No.||Revenue (In Rs. Crores)||Remarks|
‘*’ will be actual at the end of financial year.
Based on this the charge for first year would be Rs. 4.16 Crore (approximately) (i.e. Rs. 5/Rs. 600 × Rs. 500 Crores) which would be charged to profit and loss and 0.83% (i.e. Rs. 4.16 Crore/Rs. 500 Crore × 100) is the amortisation rate for the first year.
Where a company arrives at the amortisation amount in respect of the said Intangible Assets in accordance with any method as per the applicable Accounting Standards, it shall disclose the same.]
4. The useful life or residual value of any specific asset, as notified for accounting purposes by a Regulatory Authority constituted under an Act of Parliament or by the Central Government shall be applied in calculating the depreciation to be provided for such asset irrespective of the requirements of this Schedule.
5. Subject to Parts A and B above, the following are the useful lives of various tangible assets:
Nature of assets
|I. Buildings [NESD]|
|(a) Buildings (other than factory buildings) RCC Frame Structure||60 Years|
|(b) Buildings (other than factory buildings) other than RCC Frame Structure||30 Years|
|(c) Factory buildings||-do-|
|(d) Fences, wells, tube wells||5 Years|
|(e) Others (including temporary structure, etc.)||3 Years|
|II. Bridges, culverts, bunders, etc. [NESD]||30 Years|
|III. Roads [NESD]|
|(a) Carpeted roads|
|(i) Carpeted Roads—RCC||10 Years|
|(ii) Carpeted Roads—other than RCC||5 Years|
|(b) Non-carpeted roads||3 Years|
|IV. Plant and Machinery|
|(i) General rate applicable to plant and machinery not covered under special plant and machinery|
|(a) Plant and Machinery other than continuous process plant not covered under specific industries||15 Years|
|4[(b) Continuous process plant for which no special rate has been prescribed under (ii) below [NESD]||25 Years]|
|(ii) Special Plant and Machinery|
|(a) Plant and Machinery related to production and exhibition of Motion Picture Films|
|1. Cinematograph films—Machinery used in the production and exhibition of cinematograph films, recording and reproducing equipments, developing machines, printing machines, editing machines, synchronizers and studio lights except bulbs||13 Years|
|2. Projecting equipment for exhibition of films||-do-|
|(b) Plant and Machinery used in glass manufacturing|
|1. Plant and Machinery except direct fire glass melting furnaces —|
|Recuperative and regenerative glass melting furnaces||13 Years|
|2. Plant and Machinery except direct fire glass melting furnaces — Moulds [NESD]||8 Years|
|3. Float Glass Melting Furnaces [NESD]||10 Years|
|(c) Plant and Machinery used in mines and quarries—Portable under ground machinery and earth moving machinery used in open cast mining [NESD]||8 Years|
|(d) Plant and Machinery used in Telecommunications [NESD]|
|1. Towers||18 Years|
|2. Telecom transreceivers, switching centres, transmission and other network equipment||13 Years|
|3. Telecom—Ducts, Cables and optical fibre||18 Years|
|(e) Plant and Machinery used in exploration, production and refining oil and gas [NESD]|
|1. Refineries||25 Years|
|2. Oil and gas assets (including wells), processing plant and facilities||-do-|
|3. Petrochemical Plant||-do-|
|4. Storage tanks and related equipment||-do-|
|5. Pipelines||30 Years|
|6. Drilling Rig||-do-|
|7. Field operations (above ground) Portable boilers, drilling tools, well-head tanks, etc.||8 Years|
|(f) Plant and Machinery used in generation, transmission and distribution of power [NESD]|
|1. Thermal/Gas/Combined Cycle Power Generation Plant||40 Years|
|2. Hydro Power Generation Plant||-do-|
|3. Nuclear Power Generation Plant||-do-|
|4. Transmission lines, cables and other network assets||-do-|
|5. Wind Power Generation Plant||22 Years|
|6. Electric Distribution Plant||35 Years|
|7. Gas Storage and Distribution Plant||30 Years|
|8. Water Distribution Plant including pipelines||-do-|
|(g) Plant and Machinery used in manufacture of steel|
|1. Sinter Plant||20 Years|
|2. Blast Furnace||-do-|
|3. Coke ovens||-do-|
|4. Rolling mill in steel plant||-do-|
|5. Basic oxygen Furnace Converter||25 Years|
|(h) Plant and Machinery used in manufacture of non-ferrous metals|
|1. Metal pot line [NESD]||40 Years|
|2. Bauxite crushing and grinding section [NESD]||-do-|
|3. Digester section [NESD]||-do-|
|4. Turbine [NESD]||-do-|
|5. Equipments for Calcination [NESD]||-do-|
|6. Copper Smelter [NESD]||-do-|
|7. Roll Grinder||40 Years|
|8. Soaking Pit||30 Years|
|9. Annealing Furnace||-do-|
|10. Rolling Mills||-do-|
|11. Equipments for Scalping, Slitting, etc. [NESD]||-do-|
|12. Surface Miner, Ripper Dozer, etc., used in mines||25 Years|
|13. Copper refining plant [NESD]||-do-|
|(i) Plant and Machinery used in medical and surgical operations [NESD]|
|1. Electrical Machinery, X-ray and electrotherapeutic apparatus and accessories thereto, medical, diagnostic equipments, namely, Cat- Scan, Ultrasound Machines, ECG Monitors, etc.||13 Years|
|2. Other Equipments.||15 Years|
|(j) Plant and Machinery used in manufacture of pharmaceuticals and chemicals [NESD]|
|1. Reactors||20 Years|
|2. Distillation Columns||-do-|
|3. Drying equipments/Centrifuges and Decanters||-do-|
|4. Vessel/storage tanks||-do-|
|(k) Plant and Machinery used in civil construction|
|1. Concreting, Crushing, Piling Equipments and Road Making Equipments||12 Years|
|2. Heavy Lift Equipments—|
|Cranes with capacity of more than 100 tons||20 Years|
|Cranes with capacity of less than 100 tons||15 Years|
|3. Transmission line, Tunneling Equipments [NESD]||10 Years|
|4. Earth-moving equipments||9 Years|
|5. Others including Material Handling /Pipeline/Welding Equipments [NESD]||12 Years|
|(l) Plant and Machinery used in salt works [NESD]||15 Years|
|V. Furniture and fittings [NESD]|
|(i) General furniture and fittings||10 Years|
|(ii) Furniture and fittings used in hotels, restaurants and boarding houses, schools, colleges and other educational institutions, libraries; welfare centres; meeting halls, cinema houses; theatres and circuses; and furniture and fittings let out on hire for use on the occasion of marriages and similar functions.||8 Years|
|VI. Motor Vehicles [NESD]|
|1. Motor cycles, scooters and other mopeds||10 Years|
|2. Motor buses, motor lorries, motor cars and motor taxies used in a business of running them on hire||6 Years|
|3. Motor buses, motor lorries and motor cars other than those used in a business of running them on hire||8 Years|
|4. Motor tractors, harvesting combines and heavy vehicles||-do-|
|5. Electrically operated vehicles including battery powered or fuel cell powered vehicles||8 Years|
|VII. Ships [NESD]|
|1. Ocean-going ships|
|(i) Bulk Carriers and liner vessels||25 Years|
|(ii) Crude tankers, product carriers and easy chemical carriers with or without conventional tank coatings||20 Years|
|(iii) Chemicals and Acid Carriers :|
|(a) With Stainless steel tanks||25 Years|
|(b) With other tanks||20 Years|
|(iv) Liquified gas carriers||30 Years|
|(v) Conventional large passenger vessels which are used for cruise purpose also||-do-|
|(vi) Coastal service ships of all categories||-do-|
|(vii) Offshore supply and support vessels||20 Years|
|(viii) Catamarans and other high speed passenger for ships or boats||-do-|
|(ix) Drill ships||25 Years|
|(x) Hovercrafts||15 Years|
|(xi) Fishing vessels with wooden hull||10 Years|
|(xii) Dredgers, tugs, barges, survey launches and other similar ships used mainly for dredging purposes||14 Years|
|2. Vessels ordinarily operating on inland waters—|
|(i) Speed boats||13 Years|
|(ii) Other vessels||28 Years|
|VIII. Aircrafts or Helicopters [NESD]||20 Years|
|IX. Railways sidings, locomotives, rolling stocks, tramways and railways used by concerns, excluding railway concerns [NESD]||15 Years|
|X. Ropeway structures [NESD]||15 Years|
|XI. Office equipment [NESD]||5 Years|
|XII. Computers and data processing units [NESD]|
|(i) Servers and networks||6 Years|
|(ii) End user devices, such as, desktops, laptops, etc.||3 Years|
|XIII. Laboratory equipment [NESD]|
|(i) General laboratory equipment||10 Years|
|(ii) Laboratory equipments used in educational institutions||5 Years|
|XIV. Electrical Installations and Equipment [NESD]||10 years|
|XV. Hydraulic works, pipelines and sluices [NESD]||15 Years|
1. “Factory buildings” does not include offices, godowns, staff quarters.
2. Where, during any financial year, any addition has been made to any asset, or where any asset has been sold, discarded, demolished or destroyed, the depreciation on such assets shall be calculated on a pro rata basis from the date of such addition or, as the case may be, up to the date on which such asset has been sold, discarded, demolished or destroyed.
3. The following information shall also be disclosed in the accounts, namely:—
(i) depreciation methods used; and
(ii) the useful lives of the assets for computing depreciation, if they are different from the life specified in the Schedule.
4. Useful life specified in Part C of the Schedule is for whole of the asset. Where cost of a part of the asset is significant to total cost of the asset and useful life of that part is different from the useful life of the remaining asset, useful life of that significant part shall be determined separately.
6. The useful lives of assets working on shift basis have been specified in the Schedule based on their single shift working. Except for assets in respect of which no extra shift depreciation is permitted (indicated by NESD in Part C above), if an asset is used for any time during the year for double shift, the depreciation will increase by 50% for that period and in case of the triple shift the depreciation shall be calculated on the basis of 100% for that period.
7. From the date this Schedule comes into effect, the carrying amount of the asset as on that date—
(a) shall be depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset as per this Schedule;
(b) after retaining the residual value, shall be recognised in the opening balance of retained earnings where the remaining useful life of an asset is nil.
8.. “Continuous process plant” means a plant which is required and designed to operate for twenty-four hours a day.
1. Corresponds to Schedule XIV of the 1956 Act.
2. Enforced with effect from 1-4-2014.
3. Substituted for clauses (i) to (iii) vide Notification No. GSR 237(E) [F. No. 17/60/2012-CL-V], dated 31-3-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2014. Prior to their substitution, clauses (i) to (iii) read as under :
“(i) In case of such class of companies, as may be prescribed and whose financial statements comply with the accounting standards prescribed for such class of companies under section 133 the useful life of an asset shall not normally be different from the useful life and the residual value shall not be different from that as indicated in Part C, provided that if such a company uses a useful life or residual value which is different from the useful life or residual value indicated therein, it shall disclose the justification for the same.
(ii) In respect of other companies the useful life of an asset shall not be longer than the useful life and the residual value shall not be higher than that prescribed in Part C.
(iii) For intangible assets, the provisions of the Accounting Standards mentioned under sub-para (i) or (ii), as applicable, shall apply.”
4. Substituted vide Notification No. GSR 237(E) [F. No. 17/60/2012-CL-V], dated 31-3-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2014. Prior to its substitution, clause (b) read as under :
“(b) Continuous process plant for which no special rate has been prescribed under (ii) below [NESD]
5. Omitted vide Notification No. GSR 237(E) [F. No. 17/60/2012-CL-V], dated 31-3-2014, w.e.f. 1-4-2014. Prior to its omission, Paragraph 5 read as under :
“5. Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. Ordinarily, the residual value of an asset is often insignificant but it should generally be not more than 5% of the original cost of the asset.”
[As amended by Finance Act, 2023]