CS Ambika Mehrotra
Amendment to Section 89 and insertion of Section 90 are one of the key amendments brought in by the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 (‘Amendment Act’). The said provisions were enforced w.e.f. June 14, 2018 and Companies (Significant Beneficial Owners) Rules, 2018 were notified(‘SBO Rules’). MCA, thereafter, issued General Circular No. 7/2018 dated 06/09/2018 for extending the last date of filing eForm BEN-2 and General Circular No. 08/2018 dated 10/09/2018 to the effect that the format of declaration to be submitted by Significant Beneficial Owner (SBO) will undergo revision.
MCA on February 8, 2019 amended SBO Rules by amending the definition of significant beneficial owner by Companies (Significant Beneficial Owners) Amendment Rules, 2019. The due date for submission of declaration in Form BEN-1 was 90 days from the said amendment. However, e Form for filing the said declaration with MCA was not made available.
MCA, on July 1, 2019, issued Companies (Significant Beneficial Owners) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 thereby notifying e Form BEN-2 required to be submitted by companies.
Scope of Section 90
Section 90 focuses on the identification of a ‘significant beneficial owner’ through his ‘indirect holdings’ in an entity, which is to be considered only where the individual has majority interest in the vehicle holding stake in the “reporting company”, or in the ultimate holding entity of such holding vehicle.That is to say, simply direct holding or direct control, or direct significant influence (without any indirect holdings) were not required to be reported as significant beneficial interest under the Rules, irrespective of the magnitude of direct holding.Therefore, the direct holding of interest by an individual is relevant only if the direct holding may be clubbed with indirect holding.
Onus of making the declaration
The individual holding significant beneficial interest by virtue of holding shares or voting rights or right to distributable dividend or exercising significant influence was required to furnish the declaration in Form No. BEN-1 within 90 days of February 8, 2019 and there afterin case of any change, to the reporting company. Herein, the onus lies on the individual to come forward and submit the declaration. The reporting companies on the other hand were required to give notice to members (other than individual) holding 10% or more of participating interest [either of shares, voting rights, or right to receive or participate in the dividend or any other distribution], seeking information about the individual who is significant beneficial owner in the reporting company in Form BEN-4.
It is pertinent to note that the obligation of the individual to self-declare his significant beneficial holdings and the obligation of the company to send notice seeking information from members in terms of Rule 2Aare independent obligations.
Intimation to the ROC by the reporting entity
As per the SBO Rules as amended from time to time,the declaration of beneficial interest is required to be filed in e- Form BEN-2 with the Registrar in respect of such declaration, within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of declaration by the company.
With the deployment of e-Form BEN -2 vide Companies (Significant Beneficial Owners) Second Amendment Rules, 2019, the Companies shall be required to intimate the same to the Registrar within 30 days of its deployment.
Companies are facing difficulty in identification of SBO in view of complex structures. Until receipt of declaration in Form BEN-1, companies will not be able to file e Form BEN-2.
Consequences of non-filing
Section 90(11) of the Act, 2013 provides for penal provisions for the failure of the part of the company and every officer in default in complying with the provisions of Section 90(4) i.e. filing of the above return and changes therein with the Registrar with a fine:-
Analysis of e-Form BEN -2
Pursuant to Rule 8 of the SBO Rules, which states that the rules are not applicable to the extent the shares of the reporting company is held by its holding reporting company. It is presumed that the SBO of the holding company is also the SBO of the subsidiary company for the shares held by the holding company.
First bullet ofField no. 3 requires the companies to report the details of such holding reporting company which shall be mapped through the CIN of such company.
In order to specify the manner in which significant beneficial interest is being held or exercised either indirectly or together with any direct holding or right, the form requires attachment of agreement in following cases:
1. Exercise of control
2. Exercise of significant influence
This might be a serious constraint, as it may not be necessary that the companies might have in place a written and executed agreement specifying the control and/ or significant influence exercised by the members. However, at present the mode of mapping of control and/ or significant influence has only been done through the agreement to be attached in the form.
While, the eForm BEN-2 seems a derivative of the format of declaration Form BEN no. 1, companies will be able to report correctly subject to receipt of accurate declarations from the SBOs.
Other practical difficulties in reporting in the eForm can be ascertained once the eForm is deployed on MCA portal.
(Author is associated with Vinod Kothari & Company and can be reached at email@example.com)