While presenting the Union Budget 2020, Finance Minister Ms. Nirmala Sitaraman announced Vivaad se Vishwas scheme (‘VSV Scheme’ or ‘the Scheme’) as a part of GOI’s direct tax relief measures, in line with Sabka Vishwas Scheme, which aims at resolution of legacy disputes in Indirect Taxes. The Scheme aims at bridging the dispute-trust divide between the government and the taxpayer and provides a short window for taxpayers to settle their tax disputes by partly paying their tax arrears and thus in turn minimising the Tax-related Litigation. The Scheme will also benefit the government by bringing a major chunk of revenue, timely
WHAT IS THE SCHEME?
Before moving to the scheme, let’s take a brief tour to the historical background of the Scheme:
As on November 30,2019 there were around 483,000 pending income tax cases before appellate authorities. The disputed tax in these appeals is nearly ₹9.32 trillion, nearly equivalent to, a year’s direct tax collection, for the government.
These staggering numbers prompted the Finance Minister to introduce a direct tax dispute resolution scheme while tabling Union Budget 2020 before the Parliament on 1 February 2020. ‘The Direct Tax Vivad se Vishwas Bill, 2020’ is intended for reducing litigation and for settling matters that have been pending for several years.
The scheme was tabled on 5 February 2020, in the Lok Sabha, and was almost immediately called back for making amendments for accommodating various representations from key stakeholders. Thereafter a revised scheme was cleared by the Cabinet, and subsequently passed by the Lok Sabha on 4 March 2020. Various aspects of the amended scheme required clarifications, which have been addressed by way of a circular issued by the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT). The circular provides clarity on the scope of the Scheme, procedural and computational aspects, and also consequential issues.
The scheme was enacted into law on 17 March 2020 and the relevant rules were prescribed on 18 March 2020.
The Scheme provides a golden opportunity for the taxpayers to settle their tax disputes under the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 (IT Act) by paying a portion of tax arrears.
Thus, the two main components of the Scheme are dispute resolution and amnesty.
√ The dispute resolution component is for liquidating the pending cases of Direct Taxes, which are pending in litigation at various forums.
√ The amnesty component of the Scheme offers an opportunity to the taxpayers to pay the disputed tax and be free from any other consequence under the law. There is also a complete Immunity from initiation of proceedings in respect of offence in respect of tax arrears.
A wide range of appeals are eligible for settlement under the scheme. Illustratively,
TAX ARREARS THAT CAN BE SETTLED:
The following tax arrears as determined under the provisions of the IT Act could be settled under the Scheme:
A taxpayer if chooses to settle these disputed amounts has to pay the following amounts:
|Particulars||Payable up to 31 March 2020**||Payable from 1 April 2020 up to the last date to be notified **|
|Cases involving disputed tax, interest and penalty|
|1. All eligible cases (except search cases)||100 % of the disputed tax||110% of the disputed tax|
|2. Search cases||125 % of the disputed tax||135 % of the disputed tax|
|Cases involving disputed penalty or interest or fee||25% of disputed penalty or interest or fee||30% of disputed penalty or interest or fee|
** In the following cases, only 50% of the disputed tax/interest/penalty/fine as calculated above would be payable:
MANNER OF DETERMINING THE DISPUTED TAX (IN SOME SPECIAL CASES)
|Status of case as on 31 January 2020||Disputed tax*|
|Order has been passed by the Tax Officer on or before 31 January 2020 and the time limit for filing appeal against such order has not expired||Tax payable in accordance with such order|
|Order in an appeal or in writ petition has been passed by the appellate forum and the time limit for filing appeal or SLP has not expired||Tax payable after giving effect to the order so passed|
|Objections filed before the DRP but are yet to be disposed off||Tax payable, if DRP was to confirm the proposed variation in the draft order|
|DRP has issued directions but the Tax Officer is yet to pass final order||Tax payable as per the final order to be passed by the tax officer|
|Pending revision petition filed under section 264 of the IT Act||Tax payable if such revision application was not to be accepted|
|Appeal, writ petition or special leave petition (SLP) pending before the appellate forum||Tax payable if such appeal / writ / SLP is decided against the taxpayer|
|Where First Appellate Authority has issued enhancement notice under section 251 of the IT Act||Disputed tax computed is to be increased by the amount of tax pertaining to issues for which such notice has been issued|
*Tax is inclusive of surcharge and education cess
SPECIAL TRAETMENT IN CASE OF MINIMUM ALTERNATE TAX (MAT) CREDIT AND LOSS OR DEPRECIATION CARRIED FORWARD
Where the dispute pertains to either reduction of MAT credit or any loss or depreciation, the taxpayer has an option to either:
CLARIFICATION ON PAYMENT OF DISPUTED TAX
The CBDT has provided the following clarifications in connection with payment of disputed taxes:
– Credit of all taxes paid for the year shall be available against the payment of disputed taxes;
– In case the deductor settles appeals relating to TDS:
CAN THE BENEFITS UNDER THIS SCHEME BE WITHDRAWN?
The proceedings / claims withdrawn shall be deemed to have revived in case where:
LAST DATE FOR AVAILING SETTLING DISPUTES UNDER THE SCHEME:
The due date to pay the above-mentioned amounts of disputed tax has been extended to 30 June 2020 without any additional payment (earlier, 10% additional was payable if paid after 31 March 2020). However, there is no clarity on the additional taxes which would be due if a taxpayer opted for this scheme post 30 June 2020.
Some other key points to note are:
-If the tax payable in the scheme is lower than the amount already paid in the course of litigation, the scheme also provides that the excess will be refunded (but without interest due on such refunds).
-Declaration made under the scheme will not be considered as setting any precedence for the taxpayer or the tax authority, in relation to the issues covered under the declaration.
In conclusion, the revised scheme and the CBDT circular have cleared several doubts of taxpayers, enabling them to take a practical call for settling disputes and thus, seek finality of outcomes in those cases. Taxpayers can avail significant leverage on the waiver of interest and penalty being offered under the scheme. The scheme not only provides an opportunity for taxpayers to evaluate all open litigations, but also a way to minimise final payout. It may be beneficial for taxpayers to settle certain litigation matters such as one-time litigation cases, or cases where documentary evidence is lacking, cases where interest liability would be higher than the disputed tax, or cases where having duplicating tax impact (e.g.: litigation under section 40(a)(i) of the Act and litigation under section 201 of the Act) or cases pertaining to loss making companies where the losses are lapsing.
Moreover, it is heartening to note that settlement under the scheme does not set a precedence for either party and taxpayers keep a side of the bargain with themselves for cases, where they would like to pursue such cases on merit with their right to litigate.
A major dampener for taxpayers is the requirement to settle all disputes in a proceeding i.e. there is no option for the taxpayer to settle only limited issues and continue to litigate on the remaining.
Further, it would be pertinent to note that despite the clarifications, there are still many unanswered questions such as, pending miscellaneous applications, appeals filed with condonation of delay, orders received for appeals which were heard as on 31 January 2020, etc. In light of the scheme introduced as a measure to reduce litigation, it would be beneficial if the government also works towards and implements measures to streamline issue of refunds, credits for TDS, advance taxes etc. and process rectification applications quicker to reduce compliance burden and litigation on such issues.
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