Discipline in Income tax return is very important. Failing which, you will be liable to file additional penalties on the amount due. However, there are plenty of issues that can result in failure of tax deposits. These issues can be related to individuals or companies. For companies, it can occur due to failure to deposit advance tax or payment of tax which is less than the actual tax liability.

In case of individuals, if he does not deposit the tax at  right time or does not provide for FORM 16 to current employer after change of his company, he will be liable for interest on tax payable. This is also known as default in furnishing the income. These penalties are slapped under Section 234A, Section 234B and Section 234C.

Section 234A:  Interest for defaults in furnishing return of income

The IT Act has made provisions for a penalty of 1% every month or part of the month on the amount of tax payable. This interest is calculated from the due date to the date of actually filing the income tax return.

For example, ABC has failed to file the tax return on tax payable of Rs 2,00,000, on stipulated date of 31st July 2018, and submits it on 2nd  December 2013. The Simple interest due on the tax will be-

Tax Payable:  Rs 200000

Delay in Payment of Tax from 31st July 2018: 5 months (August, September, October, November and December)

Penalty: 2,00,000 * 5% = Rs 10,000

Section 234B: Interest for defaults in payment of advance tax

This penalty provision activates in two cases:

1. If the Assessee was liable to pay advance tax, but failed to deposit that.

2. If the amount deposited was less than 90% of the tax to be deposited.

In both the above cases, assessee will be levied a  Simple Interest @ 1% per month or part of the month . Please remember, if you deposited the advance tax which was more than 90% of the total tax, then no interest will be charged from you. This interest is chargeable from 1st April of the Assessment Year. It can also be charged from the initiation date of assessment year to the date of determination of total income under sub-section (1) of section 143 and where a regular assessment is made, to the date of such regular assessment, on an amount equal to the assessed tax or, as the case may be, on the amount by which the advance tax paid as aforesaid falls short of the assessed tax.

In calculation of 90% we will consider the amount of tax payable after TDS.

Consider this example:

The tax liability of the Individual Assessee was Rs 2,40,000 while TDS due was Rs 40,000.

Advance tax already paid was Rs 1,20,000.

Calculation of Interest:

Tax Liability was Rs 2,40,000, while TDS was Rs 40,000.

Tax Assessment: Rs 2,00,000 (2,40,000-40,000)

Now IT department assesses, whether partial payment comes under limit of 90%.

Rs 2,00,000* 90% = Rs 1,80,000

Therefore amount of Tax paid was less than amount due by Rs 60,000 (1,80,000-1,20,000).

The total interest due under section 234B will be: Rs 60,000 * 1%* 4 months (April-July) = Rs 2,400.

The interest is taken till July because which is the due date of payment for individual assesese and assumed as month of return filing.

Section 234C: Payment of Advance tax not in time or Interest for deferment of advance tax

A. Wef A.y 2017-18:The table below shows the payment rate. These payment rate is applicable to:-

i. Corporate Assessee

ii. Non-Corporate Assessee ( not being the assessee who declares income under section 44AD(1)/44ADA(1).

Corporate/Non- corporate Assesee
Due Date Amount due Rate of interest
On or before 15 June 15% of tax due on the returned income or the amount of such advance tax paid Simple Interest @ 1% per month or part of the month for 3 months
On or before 15 September 45% of tax due on the returned income or the amount of such advance tax paid Simple Interest @ 1% per month or part of the month for 3 months
On or before 15 December 75% of tax due on the returned income or the amount of such advance tax paid Simple Interest @ 1% per month or part of the month for 3 months
On or before 15 March 100% of tax due on the returned income or the amount of such advance tax paid Simple Interest @ 1% per month or part of the month for 1 month

However  if the advance tax paid by the assessee on the current income, on or before the 15th day of June or the 15th day of September  is not less than twelve per cent or,  thirty-six per cent respectively  of the tax due on the returned income, then, the assessee shall not be liable to pay any interest on the amount of the shortfall on those dates

Mr. Ratan is an assessee whose income tax computed was Rs 6,00,000

He paid the following advance tax:

1. 10th June: Rs 30,000

2. 15th September: Rs 50,000

3. 15th December: Rs 25,000

4. 15th March : Rs 30,000

Total = Rs 1,35,000

TDS= Rs 1,20,000

Tax Assessment: Rs 6,00,000- 1,20,000= Rs 4,80,000

Penalty on the Advance Tax is calculated on the basis of difference between actual amount paid and due.

15% of Rs 4,80,000 = 72,000 differential = 72,000- 30,000 = Rs 42,000

45% of 4,80,000 = 2,16,000 differential = 2,88,000- 80,000 = Rs 1,36,000

75% of 4,80,000=3,60,000 differential =3,60,000-1,05,000= Rs 2,55,000

100% of 4,80,000 = 4,80,000, differential = 4,80,000-1,35,000 = Rs 3,45,000

Interest Charges:

Rs 42,000*1%*3 months = Rs 1,260

1,36,000*1%*3 months = Rs 4,080

2,55,000*1%*3 months = Rs 7,650

3,45,000*1%*1 months = Rs 3,450

Total Penalty= Rs 16,440.

It is important to understand the penalties under Sec 234A, 234B and 234C when you are trying to keep away from tax evasion. It’s always better to keep you IT file clean and complete to avoid such interest penalties.

B. Wef A.y 2017-18: The assessee who declares income u/s 44AD(1)/44ADA(1) should pay pay the entire tax (100%) as advance tax on or before 15th March .If there is any shortfall, interest shall be levied simple [email protected]% per month or part of the month on the short amount.

Source: InvestmentYogi is one of the leading personal finance websites in India

(Republished With Amendments)

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  1. Ankita says:

    If I missed the due date for advance tax payment on 15 December and if I pay the advance tax on 31st December then what will be the interest l have to pay

  2. sunil says:

    IN recent assessed cases at CPC for assessment year 2019-20 they have not deducted TDS from the total tax due to calculate the interest for sec 234B and C
    Quite unfortunate.
    A salaried person is charged intt. under 234 Band C qhen whloe of his tax due of Rs.234000 has been deducted as TDS.

  3. K Bharath says:

    can total interest u\s sec 234 be more than the tax amount or ristricted to tax liability for ex if the tax liability is rs 1 lakh can interest be more than 1 lakh or restricted to 1 lakh

  4. anil says:

    I have filed return within due date. I am salaried person. the interest section were nil at the time of filing . the intimation under 143(I) was issued showing demand of interest under section 234 b and c for ay 201718. Is is correct to deposit the demand amount or to rectify the return that no dues are payable

  5. Amar says:


    When should i pass provision entry for Interest u/s 234B, is it on 31/3/XX being the closing date or is it the date of actual payment of tax or is it on filing of return for Income tax.

    Thanks in advance.

  6. Shailender kumar says:

    Dear sir I filled itr of assessment year 15-16then it so refund aMt rs 2070 but some clarical mistake in assessment year 13-14 these amount will be stopped by cpc government

  7. neelam says:


    i am paying tax first time. my employer already gave me form 16. that does not include my income from interest on FD. so where will i mention that income. My income from interest is 17000. that interest from two banks such as 9000+7000.

  8. neelam says:


    my employer gave me form 16. it does not include income from interest on FD. where should i include that income. my income from interest is 17000/-
    those interest are from two different bank such as 9000+8000. i am paying first time. so please help me. my form 16 does not include that income.

  9. Sushim Gupta says:

    sir.i.am working in northern railway. TDS of Rs 45606/-by railway from my salaryfor which form -16 Issued to me.l paid my all income tax but incometax deptt.levied 234B & 234C.also demanded 25606/- to be paid. Why? How am i responsible .

  10. aniket says:

    sir ,

    I m working with software company .I filed income tax for 0 return they charge me interest 5000 under 234 A,B,C what to do .This is my responsibility or my company responsibility.

  11. Karthick S says:


    In the 234B computation example, the interest has to be computed on the difference of Rs.80000 (ieRs.200000-120000) and not on the difference of Rs.180000 (90% of Rs.200000) minus Rs.120000 (Advance tax paid).

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