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Ind AS 115, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” introduces a comprehensive framework that significantly alters how entities recognize revenue. This new standard harmonizes revenue recognition practices across industries and jurisdictions, providing a five-step model designed to enhance comparability and transparency in financial reporting. This article delves into the intricacies of Ind AS 115, elucidating each step of the revenue recognition process with practical examples to aid understanding.

1. Identify Contract with a Customer:

A contract is defined as an agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations. The contract must meet five criteria to be identified: 

  • Parties have approved the contract. 
  • Each party’s rights regarding goods or services to be transferred can be identified. 
  • Payment terms are identifiable. 
  • It is probable that the entity will collect the consideration it is entitled to. 
  • The entity can identify each party’s rights regarding goods or services to be transferred. 

Example: A software company signs a contract with a client to provide a customized software solution for $100,000. The contract clearly outlines the software specifications, delivery timelines, and payment terms. 

2. Identify Performance Obligations in the Contract:

A performance obligation is a promise to transfer a distinct good or service. Identify these promises and consider bundling or separating them based on distinctiveness. 

Example: A car manufacturer sells a car with an extended warranty and free maintenance for the first year. The car and the extended warranty are distinct performance obligations. 

Analysis of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers 

3. Determine Transaction Price:

The transaction price is the amount of consideration an entity expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods or services. This may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both. 

Example: An entity agrees to provide consulting services for a fixed fee of $50,000 plus a performance bonus of 10% of cost savings achieved by the client through the consulting services. 

4. Allocate the Transaction Price to the Performance Obligations in the Contract:

Allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the stand-alone selling prices. If not directly observable, estimate the stand-alone selling price. 

Example: A company sells a bundle of products for $1,000, consisting of a laptop ($800 stand-alone price) and a printer ($200 stand-alone price). Allocate the transaction price based on their stand-alone selling prices. 

5. Recognize Revenue when the Entity Satisfies a Performance Obligation:

Recognize revenue when the entity satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control of a promised good or service to the customer. 

Example: A construction company recognizes revenue as it completes milestones in a building project, transferring control of portions of the building to the customer. 

Contract Costs: 

Ind AS 115 also addresses the treatment of contract costs, distinguishing between incremental costs of obtaining a contract and costs to fulfill a contract. 

Example: If a salesperson incurs travel expenses to secure a contract, and these costs are incremental to obtaining the contract, they are recognized as an asset if recoverable. 

Presentation: 

The standard prescribes how to present contracts in the balance sheet based on the relationship between entity performance and customer payment. 

Example: If a customer pays before goods or services are transferred, the entity presents the contract as a liability until the performance obligation is satisfied. 

Sale with a Right of Return: 

For transactions with a right of return, revenue recognition and accounting for refund liabilities are specified. 

Example: A bookstore sells books with a right of return. Revenue is recognized for sold books, a refund liability is recognized for potential returns, and an asset is recognized for the right to recover unsold books. 

Warranties: 

Ind AS 115 provides guidance on accounting for warranties when offered separately. 

Example: A company sells electronic devices with a one-year warranty. If the warranty can be purchased separately, it is treated as a distinct service, and revenue is allocated accordingly. 

Principal vs. Agent Considerations: 

The standard helps in determining whether the entity is a principal or an agent in providing goods or services. 

Example: A travel agency may act as an agent for airline tickets but as a principal for selling its own tour packages. 

Repurchase Agreements and Bill-and-Hold Arrangements: 

Specific guidance is provided for these scenarios, ensuring proper accounting treatment. 

Example: A company enters a repurchase agreement to buy back products from a customer after a specified period. The agreement details the conditions and pricing for repurchase. 

Disclosure Requirements: 

Ind AS 115 requires entities to provide sufficient information for users to understand the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows. 

Example: An entity discloses information about significant judgments made in applying the standard, changes in judgments, and assets recognized from contract costs. 

Conclusion

Ind AS 115 revolutionizes revenue recognition with a detailed five-step process that ensures clarity, consistency, and comparability across financial reports. By addressing various contractual scenarios through examples, this article demonstrates the standard’s comprehensive approach to dealing with diverse transactions. As entities adopt Ind AS 115, they enhance transparency and reliability in financial reporting, fostering greater confidence among stakeholders in the reported financial performance.

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I'm Shivprasad Devidasrao sakhare, a Chartered Accountant, and here, we dive into the intricate world of finance, taxation, and all things accounting. Join me on a journey of demystifying the complexities, sharing practical insights, and making the world of numbers more approachable. Whether you' View Full Profile

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