Case Law Details

Case Name : Larsen & Toubro Ltd and Anr. Vs State of Karnataka & Anr. (Supreme Court of India)
Appeal Number : Civil Appeal No. 8672 of 2013 (Arising out of SLP(C) No. 17741 of 2007)
Date of Judgement/Order : 26/09/2013
Related Assessment Year :
Courts : Supreme Court of India (979)

Supreme Court approves the Raheja Developments judgment as laying down correct legal provision and also rejects challenge to amendment to provisions of explanation (b)(ii) to section 2(24) of MVAT Act and valididy of Rule 58(1-A) of MVAT Rules is sustained.

In the Judgement delivered by Supreme Court on 26th September 2013 in the case of Larsen & Toubro Ltd and Anr. v/s State of Karnataka & Anr. [Civil Appeal No.8672 of 2013 (Arising out of SLP( C ) No.17741 of 2007)], Supreme Court has held as follows :-

1. We are clearly of the view that Raheja Development1 lays down the correct legal position and we approve the same.

2. There is challenge to the constitutional validity of explanation (b)(ii) to Section 2(24) which was brought by amendment with effect from 20.06.2006 in MVAT Act and sub-rule (1A) which was inserted into Rule 58 of the MVAT Rules by a notification dated 01.06.2009.

3. Clause (24)∗∗∗∗ of Section 2 defines sale to mean a sale of goods made within the State for cash or deferred payment or other valuable consideration but does not include a mortgage, hypothecation, charge of pledge; and the words “sell”, “buy” and “purchase”, with all their grammatical variations and cognate expressions. An explanation is appended to this clause. Clause (b)∗∗∗∗∗ of the explanation to Section 2(24) defines what would be a sale for the purpose of the clause and brought in its ambit the transactions mentioned therein. Explanation (b)(ii) was amended with effect from 20.06.2006 by inserting the following words after the words “works contract”: “including, an agreement for carrying out for cash, deferred payment or other valuable consideration, the building, construction, manufacture, processing, fabrication, erection, installation, fitting out, improvement, modification, repair or commissioning of any movable or immovable property”.

4.  There is no doubt in our mind that the amendment in explanation b(ii) to Section 2(24) was brought because of the judgment of this Court in Raheja Development1. We have already held that Raheja Development1 lays down the correct legal position. Thus, in our view, there is no merit in the challenge to the constitutional validity to the provisions of explanation (b)(ii) to Section 2(24) of MVAT which were amended with effect from 20.06.2006. The Division Bench of the Bombay High Court took the view that the provision under challenge was not in breach of any constitutional boundaries. This is what it said:

“34. The amended definition of the expression sale in clause b(ii) of the Explanation to Section 2(24) brings within the ambit of that expression transactions of that nature which are referable to Article 366(29A)(b). The transactions which the legislature had in mind involve works contracts. What the state legislatures can tax under the expanded definition contained in clause b of Article 366 (29A) must meet the governing requirements of that clause. There must be a transfer of property in goods involved in the execution of a works contract. The relevant clause in Section 2(24) is valid because it does not transgress the boundaries set out in Article 366(29A). Indeed, after the 46th Amendment, State legislation must confine itself to the limits set out even in the expanded concept of what constitutes a sale or purchase of goods in Article 366(29A). State legislation cannot expand the ambit of what constitutes a tax on the sale or purchase of goods beyond the constitutional frontiers. In order that Section 2(24) remains within constitutional boundaries, in the context of works contracts, it must be read to cover those cases which fall within the expanded definition as elaborated after the 46th Amendment. Whether there is a works contract in a given case is for assessing authorities to determine. As noted earlier, it is not possible to provide a comprehensive or all encompassing list of what contracts constitute works contracts. Section 2(24) properly construed, even after its amendment, reaches out to those cases which fall within the ambit of Article 366(29A). Explanation b(ii) to Section 2(24) in other words covers those transactions where there is a transfer of property in goods, whether as goods or in any other form, involved in the execution of a works contract. Once those parameters are met, the amended definition in the State legislation in the present case provides a clarification or clarificatory instances. When constitutional norms govern state legislation such as those provided in Article 366(29A) in this case, the legislation must be construed in the context of those norms which it cannot transgress. The law is valid because it does not breach those boundaries. There is no breach of constitutional boundaries.”

5.  We are in agreement with the above view and reject challenge to amendment to the provisions of explanation (b)(ii) to Section 2(24) of MVAT Act.

 6. Sub-rule (1A)∗∗∗∗∗∗ was inserted into Rule 58 by a notification dated 01.06.2009. As a matter of fact, Rule 58(1) of the MVAT Rules provides that the value of the goods at the time of the transfer of the property in goods involved in the execution of a works contract may be determined by effecting certain deductions from the value of the entire contract insofar as the amounts relating to deductions pertain to the said works contract. The challenge was laid to Rule 58(1A) of the MVAT Rules before the Bombay High Court. The Division Bench of the Bombay High Court found that there was nothing to show that the proviso to the said provision was arbitrary. It held that the Legislature was acting within the field of the legislative powers in devising a measure for the tax by excluding the cost of the land. The Division Bench recorded the following reasons in repelling the challenge to Rule 58(1A).

“35. The challenge to Rule 58(1A), may now be considered. The Rule has provided that in the case of construction contracts where the immovable property, land or as the case may be, interest therein is to be conveyed and the property involved in the execution of the construction contract is also transferred, it is the latter component which is brought to tax. The value of the goods at the time of transfer is to be calculated after making the deductions which are specified under sub-rule (1). The judgment in the second Gannon Dunkerley specifies the nature of such deductions which can be made from the entire value of the works contracts. This was permitted to the States as a convenient mode for determining the value of the goods in the execution of the works contract. Similarly, the cost of the land is required to be excluded from the total agreement value. Sub-rule (1A) stipulates that the cost shall be determined in accordance with the guidelines appended to the Annual Statement of Rates prepared under the provisions of the Bombay Stamp (Determination of True Market Value of Property) Rules, 1995 as applicable on 1 January of the year in which the agreement to sell the property is registered. The Proviso stipulates that deduction towards the cost of land under the sub-rule shall not exceed 70% of the agreement value. The petitioners have not brought on the record any material to indicate that the proviso to sub-rule (1A) of Rule 58 is arbitrary. Rule 58(1A) provides for the measure of the tax. The measure of the tax, as held by the Supreme Court in its decision in Union of India v. Bombay Tyre International Ltd. [(1984) 1 SCC 467], must be distinguished from the charge of tax and the incidence of tax. The Legislature was acting within the filed of its legislative powers in devising a measure for the tax by excluding the cost of the land.”

7.  The value of the goods which can constitute the measure of the levy of the tax has to be the value of the goods at the time of incorporation of goods in the works even though property in goods passes later. Taxing the sale of goods element in a works contract is permissible even after incorporation of goods provided tax is directed to the value of goods at the time of incorporation and does not purport to tax the transfer of immovable property. The mode of valuation of goods provided in Rule 58(1A) has to be read in the manner that meets this criteria and we read down Rule 58(1-A) accordingly. The Maharashtra Government has to bring clarity in Rule 58 (1-A) as indicated above. Subject to this, validity of Rule 58(1-A) of MVAT Rules is sustained.

8. Once we have held that Raheja Development1 lays down the correct law, in our opinion, nothing turns on the circular dated 07.02.2007 and the notification dated 09.07.2010. The circular is a trade circular which is clarificatory in nature only. The notification enables the registered dealer to opt for a composition scheme. The High Court has dealt with the circular and notification. We do not find any error in the view of the High Court in this regard. Moreover, the Advocate General for Maharashtra clearly stated before us that implementation of Rule 58(1-A) shall not result in double taxation and in any case all claims of alleged double taxation will be determined in the process of assessment of each individual case.

9. After having given answer to the reference, we send the matters back to the Regular Bench for final disposal.

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