All hear about electric vehicles (EV) and their future role in decarbonizing the transport sector. Equally true is our anxiety to learn about the infrastructure development for EVs and whether we are serious about its implementation. Who are the stakeholders in developing the infrastructure for EVs? NITI Aayog in association with the Ministry of power, the Department of Science and Technology, the Bureau of Energy Efficiency and WRI India has produced a publication titled “Handbook of Electric vehicle charging infrastructure implementation, Version 1”. It is available at following web address for all to read, understand and offer cooperation in welcoming EVs.

 http://www.niti.gov.in/sites/default/files/2021-08/HandbookforEVChargingInfrastructureImplementation081221.pdf

Dispersed in 7 chapters, three annexures A-C, 5 tables and boxes A-L, the book lead us step by step understanding of the development of infrastructure for EVs, stakeholders involved and what is the likely future for EVs. Yes, calling it a living book, it will get updated as soon as more information, scientific developments, or actual implementation of latest techniques reach ground levels.

Electric car charging station and banner isolated on white background Vector Illustration. Electricity eco new technology cars of the future, a symbol for your projects.

In their words, the book offers a systematic approach that guides implementing authorities and stakeholders on planning, authorization, and execution of EV charging infrastructure.   It presents an overview of the technological and regulatory frameworks and governance structures needed to facilitate EV charging, along with a step-by-step approach to build out the implementation roadmap. With ample clarity, it is time to learn the basics in detail.

To whom this book is useful?

  • Public and private sector stakeholders that are responsible for charging infrastructure implementation, such as electricity distribution companies, municipal corporations, urban development authorities, and charge point solutions providers and operators.
  • The secondary audience is the regulatory authorities in state and central government agencies responsible for creating an enabling governance framework to support implementation.
  • Without the actual users of EV charging nothing moves.

At the beginning itself, we learn about EVs the following:

  • Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) is the basic unit of EV charging infrastructure. The EVSE accesses power from the local electricity supply and utilizes a control system and wired connection to safely charge EVs.
  • Yes, user identification, authorization for charging, information recording and exchange for network management, and data privacy play a primary role before technology to charging steps in.
  • Conductive charging, or plug-in (wired) charging, is the mainstream charging technology in use. Requirements of EVSE for conductive charging depend on factors such as vehicle type, battery type, and its capacity to hold the charge.
  • Let us be frank. What will be the vehicles that may use EVs as the means? Page 14 of main book leads us as under:
VEHICLE SEGMENT BATTERY CAPACITY-kWh BATTERY VOLTAGE- V
E-2W 1.2-3.3 48-72
E-3W  3.6-8 48-60
E cars, 1st generation 21 72
—-do—– 2nd generation 38-80 350-500
  • Charging methods and power ratings get adequate coverage on pages 15-16. Then on page 17, we hear about battery swapping.
  • Battery swapping: What is this? “An alternative battery recharging method that is receiving global attention is battery swapping, in which a depleted EV battery is removed from the vehicle and replaced with a fully charged one. The technology is being tried out for various EV segments, including e-2Ws, e-3Ws, e-cars and even e-buses.”
  • EV charging standards for interoperability: The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the national standards body of India has cooperated with e International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which is the global body that is developing reference standards to ensure interoperability and minimize trade barriers for electric vehicles and their components.
  • Pages 21-22 explains the charging stations that may be used at various places where the vehicles are stationed and the charging points which emanate from the stations.
  • You are tempted to ask what are EV charging ecosystems? Yes, multiple components and processes constitute these. To explain in simple terms, they are provision of land, electricity for EV charging, relevant advanced equipment’s, day to day operations, and maintenance of these facilities by providing human resources.
  • Broad classification makes them, private charging, semi-public charging, and public charging. Common thread connects them with the expenses to be shared by the users.

What is the role of various public authorities? In Indian context, the central, state, or other civil authorities who are working as policy-making and regulatory functions, and executive or implementing functions.

The implementing agencies are:

1. The MoP designated the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) as the central nodal agency (CNA) for the rollout of EV public charging infrastructure implementation across the country. (MoP – Ministry of Power)

2. The department of heavy industry

3. State nodal agencies

4. DISCOMs

5. unified metropolitan transport authorities (UMTAs) wherever applicable.

6. The state and regional transport authorities (RTAs)

Let me talk about Delhi.

The ‘Working Group for Accelerated Rollout of Charging Infrastructure in Delhi’ was formed in 2019 by the Department of Power of the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD), to support timely coordination between different government agencies. Similar opportunities exist around the nation to popularize EVs at all places.

Charge point operators (CPOs) and e-mobility service providers (e-MSPs) manage and enable day-to-day operations of EV charging infrastructure, for semipublic and public charging facilities. Right from setting up the infrastructure till completion of all formalities in this regard would obviously fall on them.

Let us talk of EV infrastructure planning in details.

The first step of the planning process is to assess the EV charging demand, which is based on the current or projected number of EVs on the road. At the same time, availability of EV charging infrastructure is also a pre-requisite to achieve EV adoption targets. Simple demand and supply economics.

What are central government guidelines for EVs?

In its Charging Infrastructure Guidelines and Standards, the Ministry of Power, provides the following minimum requirements for the location of public charging stations:

  • At least one charging station should be available in a grid of 3km x 3km.
  • One charging station to be set up every 25km on both sides of highways/roads.

The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) amended its Model Building Byelaws (MBBL) 2016 to include the provision of EV charging in buildings. Amendments are made to Chapter 10 (Sustainability and Green Provisions) of the MBBL-2016, with Section 10.4 titled “Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure”.

  • Charging infrastructure shall be provided for EVs at 20% of all ‘vehicle holding capacity’/’parking capacity’ at the premises.
  • The building premises will have to contain an additional power load, equivalent to the power required for all charging points to be operated simultaneously, with a safety factor of 1.25.

Whenever you decide to buy a flat, please verify whether the above guidelines are incorporated by your builders.

What about provision norms for charging points? (SC – slow chargers, FC-fast chargers)

4Ws – 1 SC per 3 EVs 1 FC per 10 EVs, 3Ws – 1 SC per 2 EVs, 2Ws – 1 SC per 2 EVs, PV Buses – 1 FC per 10 EVs. Pages 37 and 38 contain some photos for your feeling the EV pleasure.

In March 2021, the Delhi Government directed all commercial and institutional buildings with a parking capacity of more than 100 vehicles to set aside 5% of their parking spaces for EV charging. This includes shopping malls, hospitals, hotels, offices, educational institutions, movie theaters, etc.

Let me project you to future with running EVs. “How many” may be your natural urge to know. (2030)

E-2W – 612353, E-3W (passenger/cargo – 115804, E- Car(personal) – 42561, E(car) commercial – 41992.

CHARGING DEMAND BY VEHICLE SEGMENT

E 2W – 7,65,442, E-3W (passenger/cargo – 972757, E- Car(personal) – 164786, E(car) commercial – 491838.

Location planning for public charging infrastructure helps identify optimal locations for setting up public charging facilities. It can be undertaken at different scales, from a city-level exercise to one at a neighborhood level.

 SNAs or ULBs may conduct or commission a location planning study as part of their mandate to ensure a well-planned public charging network.

 CPOs that are setting up charge point networks may also carry out location planning to identify optimal locations with high charging demand.

The above suggestions taken out of the book kindly reminds the planners that the charging points or locations will be totally bound by demand for charging, safety of the place, economic viability of the place and with a clear mission that they will be self sufficient in the long run though government subsidy at the initial stage can be taken for granted for entrepreneurs.

From page 49 of the book, we are informed that when planning for EV charging integration at a given site, the following planning guidelines should be kept in mind:

  • Allocate space that is easily accessible and clearly visible from the site entrance.
  • Select the charging location to minimize civil work and wiring requirements, wherever possible.
  • Follow all safety provisions for EV charging planning as defined by the CEA (Measures relating to Safety and Electric Supply) (Amendment) Regulations, 2019.
  • Clearly demarcate the parking spaces reserved for EV charging with appropriate signage and markings.
  • Provide ample space for vehicle circulation i.e., to enter and exit the charging bays.

The above guidelines will avoid planning for EV parking or charging areas on ad hoc basis. It is possible civic authorities will specify more details. Security will form the basis for their construction apart from socio-economic factors. With minimum projection of usage of vehicles, I am afraid we would face too much demand for charging points than the availability.

From page 49,

SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR UPSTREAM ELECTRICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Estimated load area requirement Recommended DT set-up Minimum
100 kW to 300 Kw m x 5 m Installation of one 11 kV pole or plinth mounted DT 4 m x 4 m (pole) 8 (plinth)
300 kW to 700 Kw Installation of one 11 kV plinth mounted DT  9 m x 5 m
300 kW to 700 kW Installation of one 11 kV plinth mounted DT 9 m x 5m
700 kW to 1,500 kW Installation of two 11 kV plinth mounted DTs 10 m x 8 m

Let me underline “CHARGING LAYOUT FOR OFF-STREET PUBLIC PARKING”

CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE INSTALLATION WITH 6 CHARGERS

2 nos. DC chargers-1 x 25 kW (CCS2 and Chademo)

4 nos. AC chargers- 1 x 3.3 kW (industrial socket)

4 EV parking bays- 2.5m x 5m each

 2 bays for e-cars, 2 bays for e-scooters/e-autos.

With so much technical or legal explanations, do we have anywhere a simple infrastructure for EV Charging actually existing?

Kindly go to page 54 of the book with a photo.

LEVERAGING STREET INFRASTRUCTURE FOR EV CHARGING

A Berlin-based startup has developed physical and digital infrastructure that allows the upgrade of existing street infrastructure including streetlights and bollards into e-car charging points at low cost.

This startup works with local civic authorities to make this happen.

It is equally interesting to know that there are now multiple EVSE products available, globally and in India, which enable street charging for ease of public charging infrastructure provision.

CENTRAL TECHNICAL REGULATIONS AND GUIDELINES:

What are they?

The CEA has notified amendments to existing regulations to facilitate grid connectivity for charging infrastructure.

The applicable regulations are as under.

Technical standards for connectivity of the distributed generation resources(amendment) Regulations, 2019.

Measures relating to safety and electric supply (amendment) regulations, 2019.

What can one deduce for states?

State regulations

The State Electricity Supply Code & Performance Standards Regulation, the purview of SERCs, is the key regulatory framework governing the provision of electricity connection and supply by DISCOMs.

We are all aware that factors like type of electricity connection, supply of power from existing network, or need for system augmentation for new connections play their part in fixing tariff for EV electricity.

However, it is very encouraging to know that as of March 2021, 21 states and Union Territories have introduced specific tariffs for EV charging with reduced energy charges and/or demand charge exemptions.

How can one utilize the electric grid more effectively for EVs? You may refer to page 71 which gives an active case projection in 2025 at California for residential level 1, residential level 2, Work L2, Public L2, and Fast Charging.

The following vital conclusion makes relevant sense.

“Pilot projects in different parts of the world have demonstrated that smart charging in coordination with passive management measures is effective in shifting a substantial share of the EV charging load to off-peak times, while still satisfying customers’ charging needs.”

Let us admit that India being led by youngsters who would experiment with new innovations, would invariably use 2W vehicles electrically run and create demand for sustainable and the cheapest electricity from the grid or renewable energy. Our startups would revolutionize the whole sector.

Page No. 74 identifies the stakeholders like private EV user, CPO, DISCOM, SERC, CEA and SNA and their responsibilities in enabling managed charging.

Yes, let us augment our knowledge with the fact that electricity grids will be forced to meet conversion to EVs and their special requirements including smart charging measures.

It is a must for anyone interested in green energy and that too in Delhi to read on page 77 the study “EV – A New Entrant to India’s Electricity Consumer-Basket” which evaluates the seasonal impact of charging requirements for 10,100 EVs (comprising 7,100 e-2Ws, 1,550 e-3Ws, 1,350 e-4Ws and 100 e-buses) on the peak power demand of each of the four DISCOMs in Delhi.

  At the projected rate of 200,000 EVs by 2030, EV charging demand as a component of total electricity demand in a DISCOM service area is expected to grow exponentially. DISCOMs will have to update their knowledge, action plans and equip their human resources to meet the challenge equally well.

Conclusion

Let me enthrall your energies with the following fast moving news items:

Delhi Transco Ltd (DTL), as the State Nodal Agency (SNA) for charging infrastructure, has invited bids from private agencies to set up and operate public charging stations (PCS) across the city.

EESL (Energy Efficiency Services Limited), a public-sector undertaking, had more than 200 charging stations operational by January 2021. Private-sector DISCOMs such as BSES Rajdhani and Tata Power have also been active in public charging infrastructure provision.

Yes, I agree with you that both of us may not survive with our current cars with decadent technology and will be forced to shift to EVs with the sky as the limit for green technology. Our kids may only read about hydrocarbons in books.

******

Disclaimer: The contents of this article are for information purposes only and do not constitute an advice or a legal opinion and are personal views of the author. It is based upon relevant law and/or facts available at that point of time and prepared with due accuracy & reliability. Readers are requested to check and refer relevant provisions of statute, latest judicial pronouncements, circulars, clarifications etc. before acting on the basis of the above write up.  The possibility of other views on the subject matter cannot be ruled out. By the use of the said information, you agree that Author/TaxGuru is not responsible or liable in any manner for the authenticity, accuracy, completeness, errors or any kind of omissions in this piece of information for any action taken thereof. This is not any kind of advertisement or solicitation of work by a professional.

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Company: subramanian natarajan cpa firm
Location: NEW DELHI, Delhi, India
Member Since: 09 May 2017 | Total Posts: 236
A banker with 27 years of experience, a CPA from USA with specialization in US taxation, individual, partnership, S corporation or LLC taxation etc View Full Profile

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