Procurement Prowess: A Comprehensive Guide to Strategically Selecting Right Contracts for Project Excellence

Introduction:

Project procurement encompasses the process of acquiring goods, services, or work from external sources to successfully complete a project. It involves identifying requirements, sourcing suppliers, negotiating contracts, and managing supplier relationships, ensuring timely delivery and cost-effectiveness. Project procurement plays a crucial role in achieving project objectives and maximizing value for stakeholders. Procurement transactions are conducted through the medium of contracts, which serve as the legal framework for the acquisition of goods, services, or works.

Contracts are legally binding documents outline the rights, duties, responsibilities, obligations and expectations of the parties involved, ensuring transparency, accountability, and a fair procurement process. They outline the scope of work, deliverables, payment terms, risk allocation, and dispute resolution mechanisms, ensuring clarity, transparency, and accountability throughout the project lifecycle. Effective contracts protect the interests of both parties, mitigate potential risks, and facilitate successful project execution.

In this guide let’s discuss how we can Strategically Select the Right Contract Type for Project Success

After going through this guide, you will able to Understand:

1. Understanding Contract & Contract Management

2. Type of Project Procurement Contracts

3. Fixed-Price Contract (Lump Sum or Firm Fixed-Price)

4. Cost-Reimbursable Contract

5. Time and Materials (T&M) Contract

6. Choosing the Right Contract

1. Understanding Contract & Contract Management

Meaning of Contract

A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties that defines the terms and conditions of a transaction. It outlines the rights, obligations, and expectations of each party involved. Contracts are essential for conducting business and ensuring that transactions are fair and equitable.

Important Considerations or Aspects of Contract

In India, contracts are governed by the Indian Contract Act, 1872.

Contracts vs. Agreements

All contracts are agreements, but not all agreements are contracts. An agreement becomes a legally enforceable contract only when it meets the specific requirements outlined in the Indian Contract Act, 1872. These requirements ensure that contracts are fair, equitable, and enforceable by law.

 Essentials of a Valid Contract

Section 10 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, lays down the essentials which are required to make an agreement into a valid contract:

For a contract to be legally enforceable, it must meet following requirements:

1. Free Consent: Both parties must enter into the agreement voluntarily, without coercion or undue influence.

2. Capacity to Contract: Both parties must be legally competent to enter into a contract, meaning they must be of sound mind and not under any legal disability.

3. Lawful Consideration: The contract must involve an exchange of value, such as goods, services, or money.

4. Lawful Object: The purpose of the contract must be legal and not contrary to public policy.

5. Not Void: The contract must not be expressly declared void by any law.

Legal Formalities – Additional Essentials

In addition to the essentials outlined in Section 10 of the Indian Contract Act, valid contracts to be legally enforceable, it must meet certain requirements:

1. Offer and Acceptance: A clear offer must be made by one party and unequivocally accepted by the other.

2. Intention to Create Legal Relations: Both parties must intend for the agreement to be legally binding.

3. Mutual Assent: Both parties must agree to the terms and conditions of the contract.

4. Capacity: Both parties must have the legal capacity to enter into a contract.

5. Legality: The contract must not violate any laws or regulations.

6. Certainty of Terms: The terms of the contract must be clear and unambiguous, leaving no room for misinterpretation.

7. Possibility of Performance: The obligations under the contract must be capable of being fulfilled.

Essentials of a Valid Contract

By meeting these requirements, agreements can be transformed into valid contracts, ensuring legal protection for all parties involved.

When drafting or reviewing a contract, it is important to consider the following aspects:

  • Clarity and Completeness: The contract should be clear, concise, and comprehensive, leaving no room for ambiguity or misinterpretation.
  • Identification of Parties: Clearly identify all parties involved in the contract, including their legal names, addresses, and contact information.
  • Scope of Work: Clearly define the scope of work or services to be provided, including specifications, deliverables, and timelines.
  • Payment Terms: Specify the payment terms, including the amount, method of payment, and due dates.
  • Confidentiality: If applicable, include confidentiality provisions to protect sensitive information.
  • Intellectual Property: Define ownership and usage rights for intellectual property created during the project.
  • Dispute Resolution: Outline the process for resolving disputes, including mediation, arbitration, or litigation.

Seller-Buyer Relationship

Contracts define the relationship between the seller and the buyer, establishing their respective rights and obligations. The seller is responsible for providing the goods or services as specified in the contract, while the buyer is responsible for making payments in accordance with the agreed-upon terms.

Importance of Contracts in Project Procurement

Contracts play a crucial role in project procurement, ensuring that projects are executed successfully and that all parties involved are protected. They:

  • Define the scope of work and expectations: Contracts clearly outline the specific deliverables, deadlines, and performance standards expected of the supplier.
  • Protect the interests of all parties: Contracts protect the interests of the buyer, the seller, and any other stakeholders involved in the project.
  • Minimize risks and disputes: Contracts clearly define the rights and obligations of each party, reducing the likelihood of misunderstandings and disputes.
  • Facilitate effective communication: Contracts serve as a reference point for communication between the parties, ensuring alignment throughout the project.
  • Support project monitoring and control: Contracts provide a framework for monitoring project progress, measuring performance against agreed-upon criteria, and addressing any deviations.

In summary, contract is vital for ensuring legal compliance, clarifying relationships, managing risks, and facilitating successful project procurement by providing a structured framework for collaboration between parties.

Contract Management

Contract Management is an integral aspect of project success, ensuring that contractual obligations are met effectively and efficiently. It encompasses the processes of planning, organizing, executing, and monitoring contracts throughout the project lifecycle. Effective contract management involves proactive communication, risk mitigation, change management, and dispute resolution, safeguarding the interests of all stakeholders and contributing to project completion within the agreed-upon scope, budget, and schedule.

2. Type of Contracts

Procurement Contracts: Defining the Terms of Engagement

Procurement contracts serve as legally binding agreements between buyers and sellers, establishing the framework for their procurement relationship. These contracts outline the scope of work, responsibilities, and financial arrangements that govern the procurement process.

Types of Procurement Contracts: Tailored to Project Needs

Procurement contracts come in various forms to accommodate different project scenarios and risk profiles. The most common types include:

  • Fixed Price Contracts: These contracts establish a predetermined price for the entire project, providing cost certainty and predictability.
  • Cost Reimbursement Contracts: In cost reimbursement contracts, the buyer reimburses the seller for allowable costs incurred during the project, often with the addition of agreed-upon fees. This type of contract is suitable for projects with uncertain scope or requirements.
  • Time and Materials Contracts: Time and materials contracts compensate the seller based on the actual hours worked and materials used. This approach is well-suited for projects with evolving requirements or when the scope is not fully defined.

The choice of contract type depends on the specific project characteristics, risk factors, and the desired level of cost and performance control. Organizations carefully evaluate these factors to select the contract type that aligns best with their project objectives.

Types of Procurement Contracts

3. Fixed Price Contracts:

A Fixed Price Contract, is suitable where the scope of a specified product or service is known and well defined with details of technical specifications and buyer pays a predetermined, fixed amount. The agreed-upon price remains constant, regardless of the actual costs incurred by the seller during the contract period.

This approach offers cost certainty and predictability, making it a suitable choice for projects with the following characteristics:

  • Clear and Stable Project Requirements: Fixed-price contracts work best when the project scope is clearly defined and is unlikely to undergo significant changes during the project lifecycle.
  • Limited Scope Changes Expected: Since the price is fixed, unexpected changes to the project scope can lead to cost overruns or disputes between the buyer and seller.
  • Low Uncertainty in Project Execution: Fixed-price contracts are most effective when the project execution process is well-understood and the likelihood of unforeseen challenges is relatively low.

In these situations, fixed-price contracts provide a clear understanding of the total project cost, allowing for better budgeting and financial planning. Buyer may also incentivize the seller to deliver the project early, efficiently and within the agreed-upon budget. However, it’s important to note that fixed-price contracts may not be suitable for projects with a high degree of uncertainty or evolving requirements.

Who will bear the Risk in a Fixed-Price Contract: 

In a fixed-price contract, the seller bears the majority of the risk. This means that the seller is responsible for completing the project within the agreed-upon budget, regardless of the actual costs incurred. This can be a significant risk for the seller, as any unforeseen challenges or changes to the project scope could lead to cost overruns and financial losses.

Let’s now discuss different variants of Fixed Price (FFP) Contracts:

Firm Fixed Price (FFP) or Lumpsum Contracts

An FFP contract is a type of procurement agreement in which the buyer and seller agree on a fixed price for the entire project, regardless of the actual costs incurred by the seller. This type of contract is typically used for projects with well-defined scope and requirements, as any changes to the scope could result in cost overruns or disputes.

  • In a fixed-price contract, the seller agrees to provide goods or services for a fixed price, regardless of the actual costs incurred.
  • This type of contract is suitable when the scope of work is well-defined and the buyer is willing to accept the risk of cost overruns.

Examples :

Consider the construction of a new building with detailed plans and specifications. A Fixed Price Contract or Lump Sum contract would be suitable in this scenario as the scope is well-defined and changes are less likely to occur, providing cost certainty to the project owner.

Another example, consider the development of a new software application with well-defined requirements and specifications. An FFP contract would be suitable in this scenario as the scope and execution process are relatively predictable.

Fixed Price Plus Incentive Fee (FPIF):

 Fixed Price Plus Incentive Fee (FPIF) is a type of procurement contract that combines the elements of a fixed-price contract with an incentive fee structure. This means that the seller is still responsible for completing the project within the agreed-upon budget, but they can earn an additional fee if they meet or exceed certain performance targets.

In this contract it is essential to clearly determine the formula for calculating the incentive fee and the range of potential incentive payments. The incentive fee motivates the seller to work efficiently and manage their resources effectively up on achieving specific performance targets like early delivery target, achieve a certain quality rating on the project, system uptime, business process improvements, incorporate sustainable design and construction practices into the project, maintain a high safety record on the project etc.

Example:

Project: Construction of a new office building

Contracting parties:

  • Buyer: ABC Real Estate Company
  • Seller: XYZ Construction Company

Contract terms:

  • Fixed price: $10,000,000
  • Incentive fee: 2% of the fixed price for early delivery
  • Normal Delivery Period : 15 Months
  • Early delivery target: 12 months from the start of construction.

Incentive structure:

  • If the seller completes the project within the early delivery target, they will receive an incentive fee of $200,000 (2% of the fixed price of $10,000,000).
  • The incentive fee will be prorated if the project is completed between the early delivery target and the original completion date.

Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment (FP/EPA)

In a fixed-price with economic price adjustment contract, the seller agrees to provide goods or services for a fixed price, plus an adjustment to the price based on changes in certain economic factors. This type of contract is suitable for long term contracts, when the contracting parties are concerned about the impact of inflation, labor cost  or other economic factors on the cost of the project.

This type of contract is suitable for Long-term construction projects spanning several years where economic conditions may fluctuate. Benefits of using an FP/EPA contract are Protects the seller from inflationary risks, ensures fair pricing for the buyer, promotes a more collaborative relationship between the buyer and seller on long term basis.

Example :

A Long Terms Construction Contract with expected inflationary impact of Material

Say the agreed up on Fixed Price is $100,000,000 + / – Economic Price Adjustment (EPA).

Economic Price Adjustment (EPA) clause: The price will be adjusted based on changes in the cost of labor and materials.

EPA calculation:

The EPA will be calculated quarterly based on the following formula:

EPA = (New CPI – Base CPI) / Base CPI

  • Where:
    • New CPI: The current Consumer Price Index (CPI) for all urban consumers
    • Base CPI: The CPI as of the date the contract was signed

For example, if the contract was signed on January 1, 2023, with a Base CPI of 270, and the New CPI on April 1, 2023, is 275, then the EPA would be calculated as follows:

EPA = (275 – 270) / 270 = 0.0185

The EPA would then be applied to the fixed price to determine the adjusted contract price:

Adjusted contract price = Fixed price * (1 + EPA)

In this case, the adjusted contract price would be:

Adjusted contract price = $100,000,000 * (1 + 0.0185) = $101,851,917

FP/EPA contracts are a valuable tool for managing inflationary risks in construction projects. By using an FP/EPA contract, both the buyer and seller can be confident that the project will be completed within budget.

 4. Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

Cost-reimbursement contracts are a type of procurement agreement where the buyer agrees to reimburse the seller for the allowable costs incurred in completing a project. Unlike fixed-price contracts, which establish a predetermined price for the entire project, cost-reimbursement contracts allow for greater flexibility in project scope and cost management.

Essential Characteristics of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

Cost-reimbursement contracts are characterized by the following key elements:

  • Reimbursement of Allowable Costs by the Buyer: The buyer is obligated to reimburse the seller for the costs actually incurred during the project, provided they meet the criteria of being “allowable” as defined in the contract.
  • Fee Structure: In addition to reimbursing costs, the seller may also receive a fee for their services. The fee structure can vary depending on the type of cost-reimbursement contract and the specific project requirements.
  • Open-Ended Pricing: Unlike fixed-price contracts, the total cost of the project is not predetermined. The final cost depends on the actual costs incurred by the seller and the market price.

Applicability and Suitability of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

Cost-reimbursement contracts are particularly suitable for projects with the following characteristics:

  • Uncertain Scope or Requirements: When the project scope is not fully defined or may evolve during the project lifecycle, a cost-reimbursement contract provides the flexibility to accommodate changing requirements.
  • High Degree of Complexity: For complex projects with technical uncertainties, cost-reimbursement contracts allow for greater adaptability and risk management.
  • Emphasis on Innovation and Development: When the project involves research, development, or innovation, a cost-reimbursement contract can incentivize the seller to invest in new technologies or approaches.

Challenges of using a Cost-Reimbursement Contracts:

  • Cost Control: The buyer may have difficulty controlling costs, as they are responsible for reimbursing the seller for all allowable costs at actual.
  • Administrative Burden: Contracts can be more administratively burdensome than fixed-price contracts, as the buyer must review, verify authenticity and approve invoices for allowable costs.
  • Lack of Cost Certainty: The buyer does not have cost certainty, as the final cost of the project will depend on the actual costs incurred by the seller.

Under Cost-Reimbursement Contracts, the Buyer will reimburse to seller all costs that are directly related to the project and are reasonable, necessary, and allocable at actuals. This includes costs such as labor, materials, equipment rental, service cost and cost of subcontracting. Thorough verification is done by the buyer to verify and authenticate the genuineness of the Invoices.

Who Bears the Risk in Cost-Reimbursement Contracts:

In cost-reimbursement contracts, the buyer bears the majority of the risk. This is because the buyer is responsible for reimbursing the seller for all allowable costs incurred during the project, regardless of whether the project is completed on time and within budget. This means that the buyer is exposed to the risk of cost overruns, schedule delays, and quality issues.

The seller’s risk is mitigated by the fact that they are guaranteed to be reimbursed for all allowable costs. However, the seller is still incentivized to manage costs effectively, as they will receive a fixed fee for their services, and the amount of the fee may be affected by the project’s overall performance.

Four Main Variants of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts:

  • Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) : In a CPFF contract, the buyer agrees to reimburse the seller for all allowable costs incurred during the project, plus a predetermined fixed fee. The fixed fee is typically a percentage of the estimated project costs and is intended to compensate the seller for their overhead and profit. CPFF contracts are suitable for projects with a high degree of uncertainty or where the buyer wants to incentivize the seller to complete the project quickly and efficiently.

Example :

Project: Construction of a House.

Contract terms: Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF)

      • Estimated Cost: $1,000,000
      • Fixed Fee: 10% of Estimated Cost: $100,000

Performance:

      • Costs Actually Incurred by the Seller or Contractor: $1,500,000
      • Fixed Fee Payable : 10% of Estimated Costs : $100,000
      • Total Amount payable by the Buyer to Seller :

Costs Actually Incurred by the Seller + Fixed Fee

= $1,500,000 + $100,000 = $1,600,000

  • Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) : A CPIF contract is similar to a CPFF contract, but the seller gets apart from pre-determined fee some incentive based on their performance against predetermined incentive targets. These targets may be related to cost, schedule, quality, or other project metrics.

CPIF contracts are suitable for projects where the buyer wants to incentivize the seller to achieve specific performance goals. The incentive fee incentivizes the seller to achieve specific performance targets, such as completing the project on time and within budget.

Example:

Project: Construction of a new office building

Contract terms: Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF)

      • Estimated Project costs: $10,000,000
      • Fixed fee: $100,000
      • Project Normal Completion Period : 8 Months
      • Project Target Completion for Incentive : 6 Months
      • Incentive fee: 2% of the Estimated Project cost for achieving completion of project on targeted time (earlier than the Normal Completion Period).

Assume Actual Cost Incurred : $10,100,000

In case the Seller (Contractor) Completes the work on-time ie with in Target Period of 6 Months, then he will be Entitled for an Additional Incentive of 2% of the Estimated Project cost.

In such case the Buyer shall make following Payments:

Actual Cost Incurred : $10,100,000

+ Fixed fee: $100,000

+ Incentive 2% of the Estimated Project cost : $200,000

Total Amount Payable by the Buyer to Seller = $10,400,000

  • Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF): In a CPAF contract, the seller is reimbursed for allowable costs and receives an award fee based on a subjective evaluation of their performance. The award fee is typically a percentage of the project costs and is determined by a team of evaluators who consider factors such as technical achievement, cost control, and schedule adherence. CPAF contracts are suitable for complex projects where the buyer wants to reward the seller for exceptional performance.

Contract terms:

      • Estimated project costs: $5,000,000
      • Fixed fee: $500,000
      • Award fee: Up to 10% of the fixed fee ($50,000) if the the overall performance of the seller is satisfactory against a set of criteria.

Difference between Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) and Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF) contracts:

CPIF contracts are characterized by an objective incentive structure that is based on the achievement of specific and measurable performance targets. The seller receives an incentive fee if they meet or exceed the agreed-upon targets. CPIF contracts are suitable for projects where the buyer can clearly define the desired performance outcomes and where there is a clear link between performance and project success.

CPAF contracts, on the other hand, have a subjective incentive structure that is based on the overall performance of the seller. The seller receives an award fee based on the buyer’s evaluation of their performance against a set of criteria. CPAF contracts are suitable for complex projects where there are multiple performance objectives and where the buyer wants to reward the seller for overall excellence.      

Feature

CPIF CPAF
Incentive fee Based on achievement of specific targets Based on overall performance
Performance targets Specific and measurable Broad and subjective
Evaluation Objective Subjective
Suitability Projects with well-defined performance targets Complex projects with multiple performance objectives

 In general, CPIF contracts are more suitable for projects with a high degree of certainty and well-defined performance targets, while CPAF contracts are more suitable for complex projects with a moderate degree of uncertainty and multiple performance objectives.

  • Cost Plus Percentage of Cost (CPPC): A CPPC contract is the simplest type of cost-reimbursement contract. In a CPPC contract, the seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs, plus a percentage of those costs as their fee. The percentage fee is typically a fixed amount, but it may also be based on a sliding scale. CPPC contracts are suitable for projects where the buyer wants to incentivize the seller to keep costs low.
  • Example

Contract terms:

      • Estimated Project Costs: $500,000
      • Percentage fee: 10% of the Actual Cost
      • Say Actual Cost : $550,000
      • Fee Payable: 10% of the Actual cost costs: $55,000
      • Total Amount Payable by Buyer

       = Actual Cost $550,000 + Fee (10% of Actual Cost) $55,000

       = $ 605,000

If the Actual cost $600,000, then

      • Total Amount Payable by Buyer

       = Actual Cost $600,000 + Fee (10% of Actual Cost) $60,000

       = $ 660,000

In Cost Plus Percentage of Cost (CPPC) contracts, the fee is directly proportional to the actual project costs, meaning that as project costs increase, the fee and the total amount payable by the buyer also increase. This inherent characteristic of CPPC contracts can pose significant challenges for buyers, as it makes it difficult to control project costs and predict the overall cost of the project.

Buyers should exercise caution when considering CPPC contracts, especially for projects with a high potential for cost overruns. These contracts may be suitable for projects, where the buyer has a strong working relationship with the seller and is confident in the seller’s ability to manage costs effectively.

Summary :

Here is a table summarizing the key differences between the four types of cost-reimbursement contracts:

Feature

CPFF CPIF CPAF CPPC
Fee structure Fixed fee Incentive fee Award fee Percentage of cost
Incentive None Specific performance targets Subjective evaluation of performance As Cost Increases, Fee also Increases
Suitability High uncertainty, buyer wants quick completion, Fee is well Known Specific performance goals – Incentive for Better Performance Complex projects, buyer wants exceptional performance. Simple projects, Fee is linked to Cost

The decision to use a cost-reimbursement contract should be carefully considered based on the specific project characteristics, risk factors, and the desired level of cost control. Organizations should evaluate the trade-offs between cost certainty, flexibility, and risk allocation when selecting the appropriate contract type for their projects

5. Time and Materials (T&M) Contract:

Time & Material Contract combines elements of both Fixed Price and Cost Reimbursement contracts.

Time and materials (T&M) contracts represent a hybrid approach to project procurement, incorporating elements of both fixed-price and cost-reimbursement contracts. While the scope of work to be done is typically well-defined in T&M contracts, however, the exact quantity of work required may be uncertain. This inherent duality gives rise to a hybrid structure where fixed pricing is applied to the known, fixed-scope components, while actual costs are reimbursed for the variable, quantity-driven aspects of the project.

This means that the buyer agrees to pay a predetermined fixed price for certain well -defined deliverables or services, while the remaining costs are covered by Cost Reimbursement based on Actual Cost incurred. This hybrid approach aims to provide a balance between cost certainty and flexibility, making them suitable for projects with varying degrees of uncertainty or where the scope may evolve over time.

Who will bear the Risk in T&M Contract:

The risk distribution depends on the specific terms of the contract, with the fixed-price portion usually shouldered by the seller and the cost-reimbursable portion by the buyer.

Examples of T&M Contracts:

Example -1: T&M Contract for Air Conditioner Maintenance:

T&M contracts offer a practical approach for air conditioner maintenance, combining fixed pricing for routine servicing with variable cost reimbursement for component replacements. This hybrid model strikes a balance between cost predictability and flexibility, ensuring predictability for fixed-scope services and accommodating uncertainties related to variable costs.

Fixed-Scope Monthly Servicing:

The contract defines fixed pricing for monthly service visits, covering labor costs and travel expenses. This predictability ensures cost control based on fixed scope for routine maintenance tasks.

Variable-Scope Component Replacements:

Variable cost reimbursement is applied to component replacements as when required, accommodating the unpredictability of their need and cost. This mechanism aligns with the inherent uncertainty associated with component failures.

Example 2: Engineering and Design Projects

Engineering and design projects often involve phases of conceptual design, detailed engineering, and testing. The scope of work may encompass creating blueprints, specifications, and prototypes. Fixed pricing can be applied to the design and documentation phases, while the actual cost of materials, testing, and refinement is reimbursed based on the variable aspects of the project.

Example 3: IT Infrastructure Maintenance:

Just like air conditioner maintenance, IT infrastructure maintenance involves a combination of routine tasks and potential hardware replacements. A T&M contract can be structured similarly, with a fixed price for regular maintenance services, such as software updates, network monitoring, and preventive maintenance, and variable cost reimbursement for hardware replacements or upgrades.

Example 4:  Landscaping and Grounds keeping:

Landscaping and grounds keeping services often involve a mix of predictable and unpredictable tasks. Regular maintenance activities, such as mowing, weeding, and trimming, can be covered under a fixed-price contract, while unforeseen expenses for tree removal, irrigation repairs, or seasonal enhancements can be reimbursed based on actual costs.

Example 5 : Vehicle Fleet Maintenance:

Vehicle fleet maintenance contracts can also benefit from a T&M approach. Regular preventive maintenance services, such as oil changes, tire rotations, and brake inspections, can be covered under a fixed-price contract, while variable cost reimbursement can be used for unplanned repairs or component replacements.

6. Choosing the Right Contract:

Contracts are essential for managing project risks and ensuring the successful execution of project activities. Fixed-price contracts provide cost certainty for the buyer but may transfer some of the risks to the seller. Cost-reimbursement contracts offer flexibility and allow for adjustments as the project progresses, but the buyer bears the majority of the risk. Time and materials contracts are suitable for projects with a high degree of uncertainty in quantity requirements, even though the scope of work is known, especially with long term contracts like maintenance contracts and manpower supply contracts.

Contract Types

The choice of contract type depends on the specific characteristics of the project, the risk tolerance of the buyer, and the strength of the relationship between the buyer and seller. Organizations must carefully consider the project’s unique characteristics, potential risks, and desired level of cost and performance control when selecting the most suitable contract type. This strategic decision aligns the contract with the project’s objectives and ensures its success.

Author Bio

Qualification: MBA
Company: EssAnnPee Business Solutions, India
Location: Hyderabad, Telangana, IN
Member Since: 30 May 2017 | Total Posts: 113
 International Business Consultant - Corporate Trainer, Mentor & Author  BSc.Engg.+MBA+PGD TQM & ISO 9000 : 30+ Yrs of Corporate Experience + 6+ Yrs Consulting & Training Exp.  Fellow Institution of Engineers (FIE) & Chartered Engineer;  Worked in Aditya Birla Group, View Full Profile

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