The assessee procured a foreign currency loan for expansion of its existing business. To ensure availability of foreign currency, the assessee booked forward contracts with a bank. The contract was for the entire amount and delivery of foreign currency was obtained from the bank for the installment due from time to time.
The balance value of the contract was rolled over for a further period up to the date of the next installment. The assessee paid “roll over premium charges” for the same. The AO disallowed the said charges on the ground that as it were incurred for purchase of plant & machinery, it was capital expenditure. The CIT (A) reversed the AO on the ground that the charges were expenditure for raising a loan and was consequently revenue in nature. The Tribunal reversed the CIT (A) on the ground that u/s 43A the expenditure had to be capitalized. The High Court reversed the Tribunal on the ground that the charges were in the nature of interest or commitment charges and allowable u/s 36(1) (iii). On appeal
(a) Exchange differences are required to be capitalized if the liabilities are incurred for acquiring fixed assets like plant and machinery. It is the purpose for which the loan is raised that is of prime significance. Whether the purpose of the loan is to finance the fixed asset or working capital is the question which one needs to answer;
(b) The cost for carrying forward the contracted foreign currency not immediately required for repayment is called the roll over charge(s). The argument that s. 43A applies only to cases where there is a fluctuation in the rate of exchange and that since roll over charges are paid to avoid increase or reduction in liability on account of such fluctuation, s. 43A does not apply has no merit because s. 43A applies to the entire liability remaining outstanding at the year end and is not restricted merely to the installments actually paid during the year. Therefore the year-end liability of the assessee has to be looked into. Further, it cannot be said that roll over charge has nothing to do with the fluctuation in the rate of exchange. Roll over charges represent the difference arising on account of change in foreign exchange rates. Roll over charges paid/ received in respect of liabilities relating to the acquisition of fixed assets should be debited/ credited to the asset in respect of which liability was incurred. However, roll over charges not relating to fixed assets should be charged to the Profit & Loss Account.
Note: This matter best exemplifies the uncertainties of litigation. The AO was reversed by the CIT (A). The CIT (A) was reversed by the ITAT. The ITAT was reversed by the High Court and finally the High Court was reversed by the Supreme Court. As a great jurist lamented “Those who enter this labyrinth find exit by different paths“.