As per Section 2(31) of Companies Act, 2013,”deposit” includes any receipt of money by way of depositor loan or in any other form by a company, but does not include such categories of amount as may be prescribed in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India.
As per Rule 2(1) (c) of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014, “deposit” includes any receipt of money by way of deposit or loan or in any other form, by a company, but does not include –
(i) any amount received from the Central Government or a State Government, or any amount received from any other source whose repayment is guaranteed by the Central Government or a State Government, or any amount received from a local authority, or any amount received from a statutory authority constituted under an Act of Parliament or a State Legislature ;
(ii) any amount received from foreign Governments, foreign or international banks, multilateral financial institutions (including, but not limited to, International Finance Corporation, Asian Development Bank, Commonwealth Development Corporation and International Bank for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction), foreign Governments owned development financial institutions, foreign export credit agencies, foreign collaborators, foreign bodies corporate and foreign citizens, foreign authorities or persons resident outside India subject to the provisions of Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (42 of 1999) and rules and regulations made there under;
(iii) any amount received as a loan or facility from any banking company or from the State Bank of India or any of its subsidiary banks or from a banking institution notified by the Central Government under section 51 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949), or a corresponding new bank as defined in clause (d) of section 2 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970 (5 of 1970) or in clause (b) of section (2) of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1980 (40 of 1980) , or from a co-operative bank as defined in clause (b-ii) of section 2 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934) ;
(iv) any amount received as a loan or financial assistance from Public Financial Institutions notified by the Central Government in this behalf in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India or any regional financial institutions or Insurance Companies or Scheduled Banks as defined in the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);
(v) Any amount received against issue of commercial paper or any other instruments issued in accordance with the guidelines or notification issued by the Reserve Bank of India;
(vi) Any amount received by a company from any other company;
(vii) any amount received and held pursuant to an offer made in accordance with the provisions of the Act towards subscription to any securities, including share application money or advance towards allotment of securities pending allotment, so long as such amount is appropriated only against the amount due on allotment of the securities applied for;
Explanation. – For the purposes of this sub-clause, it is hereby clarified that –
(a) Without prejudice to any other liability or action, if the securities for which application money or advance for such securities was received cannot be allotted within sixty days from the date of receipt of the application money or advance for such securities and such application money or advance is not refunded to the subscribers within fifteen days from the date of completion of sixty days, such amount shall be treated as a deposit under these rules.
(b) Any adjustment of the amount for any other purpose shall not be treated as refund.
(viii) Any amount received from a person who, at the time of the receipt of the amount, was a director of the company:
Provided that the director from whom money is received, furnishes to the company at the time of giving the money, a declaration in writing to the effect that the amount is not being given out of funds acquired by him by borrowing or accepting loans or deposits from others;
(ix) any amount raised by the issue of bonds or debentures secured by a first charge or a charge ranking pari passu with the first charge on any assets referred to in Schedule III of the Act excluding intangible assets of the company or bonds or debentures compulsorily convertible into shares of the company within five years: Provided that if such bonds or debentures are secured by the charge of any assets referred to in Schedule III of the Act, excluding intangible assets, the amount of such bonds or debentures shall not exceed the market value of such assets as assessed by a registered valuer;
(x) Any amount received from an employee of the company not exceeding his annual salary under a contract of employment with the company in the nature of non-interest bearing security deposit;
(xi) Any non-interest bearing amount received or held in trust;
(xii) Any amount received in the course of, or for the purposes of, the business of the company,-
(a) as an advance for the supply of goods or provision of services accounted for in any manner whatsoever provided that such advance is appropriated against supply of goods or provision of services within a period of three hundred and sixty five days from the date of acceptance of such advance:
Provided that in case of any advance which is subject matter of any legal proceedings before any court of law, the said time limit of three hundred and sixty five days shall not apply:
(b) As advance, accounted for in any manner whatsoever, received in connection with consideration for property under an agreement or arrangement, provided that such advance is adjusted against the property in accordance with the terms of agreement or arrangement;
(c) As security deposit for the performance of the contract for supply of goods or provision of services;
(d) As advance received under long term projects for supply of capital goods except those covered under item (b) above:
Provided that if the amount received under items (a), (b) and (d) above becomes refundable (with or without interest) due to the reasons that the company accepting the money does not have necessary permission or approval, wherever required, to deal in the goods or properties or services for which the money is taken, then the amount received shall be deemed to be a deposit under these rules:
Explanation. – For the purposes of this sub-clause the amount referred to in the first proviso shall be deemed to be deposits on the expiry of fifteen days from the date they become due for refund.
(xiii) any amount brought in by the promoters of the company by way of unsecured loan in pursuance of the stipulation of any lending financial institution or a bank subject to fulfillment of the following conditions, namely:-
(a) The loan is brought in pursuance of the stipulation imposed by the lending institutions on the promoters to contribute such finance;
(b) The loan is provided by the promoters themselves or by their relatives or by both; and
(c) The exemption under this sub-clause shall be available only till the loans of financial institution or bank are repaid and not thereafter;
(xiv) Any amount accepted by a Nidhi company in accordance with the rules made under section 406 of the Act.
Explanation. – For the purposes of this clause, any amount.-
(a) received by the company, whether in the form of installments or otherwise, from a person with promise or offer to give returns, in cash or in kind, on completion of the period specified in the promise or offer, or earlier, accounted for in any manner whatsoever, or
(b) any additional contributions, over and above the amount under item (a) above, made by the company as part of such promise or offer, shall be treated as a deposit.
2. Company eligible for this purpose:-
As per Rule 2(1)(e) of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014, a public company as referred to in sub-section (1) of section 76, having a net worth of not less than one hundred crore rupees or a turnover of not less than five hundred crore rupees and which has obtained the prior consent of the company in general meeting by means of a special resolution and also filed the said resolution with the Registrar of Companies before making any invitation to the Public for acceptance of deposits:
Provided that an eligible company, which is accepting deposits within the limits specified under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 180, may accept deposits by means of an ordinary resolution.
3. What is the prohibition on acceptance of deposits from public?
As per Section 73(1) of Companies Act, 2013, No Company shall invite, accept or renew deposits under this act from the public except in a manner provided:
Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to a banking company and nonbanking financial company as defined in the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and to such other company as the Central Government may, after consultation with the Reserve Bank of India, specify in this behalf.
4. Can a Company accept deposits from its members?
As per Section 73(2) of Companies Act, 2013, A company may, subject to the passing of a resolution in general meeting and subject to such rules as may be prescribed in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India, accept deposits from its members on such terms and conditions, including the provision of security, if any, or for the repayment of such deposits with interest, as may be agreed upon between the company and its members, subject to the fulfillment of the following conditions, namely:—
(a) issuance of a circular to its members including therein a statement showing the financial position of the company, the credit rating obtained, the total number of depositors and the amount due towards deposits in respect of any previous deposits accepted by the company and such other particulars in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed;
(b) Filing a copy of the circular along with such statement with the Registrar within thirty days before the date of issue of the circular;
(c) Depositing such sum which shall not be less than fifteen per cent. of the amount of its deposits maturing during a financial year and the financial year next following, and kept in a scheduled bank in a separate bank account to be called as deposit repayment reserve account;
(d) Providing such deposit insurance in such manner and to such extent as may be prescribed;
(e) Certifying that the company has not committed any default in the repayment of deposits accepted either before or after the commencement of this Act or payment of interest on such deposits; and
(f) Providing security, if any for the due repayment of the amount of deposit or the interest thereon including the creation of such charge on the property or assets of the company:
Provided that in case where a company does not secure the deposits or secures such deposits partially, then, the deposits shall be termed as ‘‘unsecured deposits’’ and shall be so quoted in every circular, form, advertisement or in any document related to invitation or acceptance of deposits.
As per Rule 4(1) of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014,
⇒ Shall issue a circular to all its members by registered post with acknowledgement due or speed post or by electronic mode in Form DPT-1:
Provided that in addition to issue of such circular to all members in the manner specified above, the circular may be published in English language in an English newspaper and in vernacular language in a vernacular newspaper having wide circulation in the State in which the registered office of the company is situated.
5. Provisions regarding acceptance of Deposits by ‘eligible company’
As per Section 76 of Companies Act, 2013, An eligible company may accept deposits from persons (other than its members) subject to compliance with the requirements provided in sub-section (2) of section 73 and subject to such rules as the Central Government may, in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India, prescribe:
Provided that such a company shall be required to obtain the rating (including its net worth, liquidity and ability to pay its deposits on due date) from a recognized credit rating agency for informing the public the rating given to the company at the time of invitation of deposits from the public which ensures adequate safety and the rating shall be obtained for every year during the tenure of deposits:
Provided further that every company accepting secured deposits from the public shall within thirty days of such acceptance, create a charge on its assets of an amount not less than the amount of deposits accepted in favour of the deposit holders in accordance with such rules as may be prescribed.
(2) The provisions of this Chapter shall, mutatis mutandis, apply to the acceptance of deposits from public under this section.
As per Rule 4(2) & 4(3) of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014,
⇒ Shall issue a circular in the form of advertisement in Form DPT-1 for the purpose in English language in an English newspaper and in vernacular language in one vernacular newspaper having wide circulation in the State in which the registered office of the company is situated.
⇒ Upload a copy of the circular on its website, if any.
6. Who can be a “depositor”?
As per Rule 2(1) (d) of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014,”depositor” means-
i) Any member of the company who has made a deposit with the company in accordance with the provisions of Section 73(2) of the Act, or
ii) Any person who has made a deposit with a public company in accordance with the provisions of Section 76 of the act.
7. Explain the concept of deposit insurance.
As per Rule 5 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014,
(1) Every company referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 and every other eligible company inviting deposits shall enter into a contract for providing deposit insurance at least thirty days before the issue of circular or advertisement or at least thirty days before the date of renewal, as the case may be. Explanation- For the purposes of this sub-rule, the amount as specified in the deposit insurance contract shall be deemed to be the amount in respect of both principal amount and interest due thereon.
(2) The deposit insurance contract shall specifically provide that in case the company defaults in repayment of principal amount and interest thereon, the depositor shall be entitled to the repayment of principal amount of deposits and the interest thereon by the insurer up to the aggregate monetary ceiling as specified in the contract:
Provided that in the case of any deposit and interest not exceeding twenty thousand rupees, the deposit insurance contract shall provide for payment of the full amount of the deposit and interest and in the case of any deposit and the interest thereon in excess of twenty thousand rupees, the deposit insurance contract shall provide for payment of an amount not less than twenty thousand rupees for each depositor.
(3) The amount of insurance premium paid on the insurance of such deposits shall be borne by the company itself and shall not be recovered from the depositors by deducting the same from the principal amount or interest payable thereon.
(4) If any default is made by the company in complying with the terms and conditions of the deposit insurance contract which makes the insurance cover ineffective, the company shall either rectify the default immediately or enter into a fresh contract within thirty days and in case of non-compliance, the amount of deposits covered under the deposit insurance contract and interest payable thereon shall be repaid within the next fifteen days and if such a company does not repay the amount of deposits within said fifteen days it shall pay fifteen per cent. interest per annum for the period of delay and shall be treated as having defaulted and shall be liable to be punished in accordance with the provisions of the Act
8. What is the purpose for creating security?
As per Rule 6 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014,
(1) For the purposes of providing security, every company referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 and every eligible company inviting secured deposits shall provide for security by way of a charge on its assets as referred to in Schedule III of the Act excluding intangible assets of the company for the due repayment of the amount of deposit and interest thereon for an amount which shall not be less than the amount remaining unsecured by the deposit insurance:
Provided that in the case of deposits which are secured by the charge on the assets referred to in Schedule III of the Act excluding intangible assets, the amount of such deposits and the interest payable thereon shall not exceed the market value of such assets as assessed by a registered valuer.
Explanation. I – For the purposes of this sub-rule it is clarified that the company shall ensure that the total value of the security either by way of deposit insurance or by way of charge or by both on company’s assets shall not be less than the amount of deposits accepted and the interest payable thereon.
Explanation. II- For the purposes of proviso to sub-clause (ix) of clause (c) of sub-rule (1) of rule 2 and this sub-rule, it is hereby clarified that pending notification of sub-section (1) of section 247 of the Act and finalization of qualifications and experience of valuers, valuation of stocks, shares, debentures, securities etc. shall be conducted by an independent merchant banker who is registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India or an independent chartered accountant in practice having a minimum experience of ten years.
(2) The security (not being in the nature of a pledge) for deposits as specified in sub-rule (1) shall be created in favour of a trustee for the depositors on:
(a) Specific movable property of the company, or
(b) Specific immovable property of the company wherever situated, or any interest therein.
9. What is the need for appointment of trustee?
As per Rule 7 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014,
(1) No company referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 or any eligible company shall issue a circular or advertisement inviting secured deposits unless the company has appointed one or more trustees for depositors for creating security for the deposits:
Provided that a written consent shall be obtained from the trustee for depositors before their appointment and a statement shall appear in the circular or circular in the form of advertisement with reasonable prominence to the effect that the trustees for depositors have given their consent to the company to be so appointed.
(2) The company shall execute a deposit trust deed in Form DPT-2 at least seven days before issuing the circular or circular in the form of advertisement.
(3) No person including a company that is in the business of providing trusteeship services shall be appointed as a trustee for the depositors, if the proposed trustee –
(a) Is a director, key managerial personnel or any other officer or an employee of the company or of its holding, subsidiary or associate company or a depositor in the company;
(b) Is indebted to the company, or its subsidiary or its holding or associate company or a subsidiary of such holding company;
(c) Has any material pecuniary relationship with the company;
(d) Has entered into any guarantee arrangement in respect of principal debts secured by the deposits or interest thereon;
(e) Is related to any person specified in clause (a) above.
(4) No trustee for depositors shall be removed from office after the issue of circular or advertisement and before the expiry of his term except with the consent of all the directors present at a meeting of the board.
Provided that in case the company is required to have independent directors, at least one independent director shall be present in such meeting of the Board.
10. What are the duties of Trustees?
♣ As per Rule 8 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014, it shall be the duty of every trustee for depositors to-
(a) ensure that the assets of the company on which charge is created together with the amount of deposit insurance are sufficient to cover the repayment of the principal amount of secured deposits outstanding and interest accrued thereon;
(b) satisfy himself that the circular or advertisement inviting deposits does not contain any information which is inconsistent with the terms of the deposit scheme or with the trust deed and is in compliance with the rules and provisions of the Act;
(c) Ensure that the company does not commit any breach of covenants and provisions of the trust deed;
(d) Take such reasonable steps as may be necessary to procure a remedy for any breach of covenants of the trust deed or the terms of invitation of deposits;
(e) Take steps to call a meeting of the holders of depositors as and when such meeting is required to be held;
(f) Supervise the implementation of the conditions regarding creation of security for deposits and the terms of deposit insurance;
(g) Do such acts as are necessary in the event the security becomes enforceable;
(h) Carry out such acts as are necessary for the protection of the interest of depositors and to resolve their grievances.
♣ As per Rule 9 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014, the trustee for depositors shall call a meeting of all the depositors on-
(a) Requisition in writing signed by at least one-tenth of the depositors in value for the time being outstanding;
(b) The happening of any event, which constitutes a default or which, in the opinion of the trustee for depositors, affects the interest of the depositors.
11. Need for maintenance of Registers.
As per Rule 14 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014,
(1) Every company accepting deposits shall maintain at its registered office one or more separate registers for deposits accepted or renewed, in which there shall be entered separately in the case of each depositor the following particulars, namely:-
(a) name, address and PAN of the depositor/s;
(b) Particulars of guardian, in case of a minor;
(c) Particulars of the nominee;
(d) Deposit receipt number;
(e) Date and the amount of each deposit;
(f) Duration of the deposit and the date on which each deposit is repayable;
(g) Rate of interest or such deposits to be payable to the depositor;
(h) due date for payment of interest;
(i) Mandate and instructions for payment of interest and for non-deduction of tax at source, if any;
(j) Date or dates on which the payment of interest shall be made;
(k) Details of deposit insurance including extent of deposit insurance;
(l) Particulars of security or charge created for repayment of deposits;
(m) Any other relevant particulars;
(2) The entries specified in sub-rule (1) shall be made within seven days from the date of issuance of the receipt duly authenticated by a director or secretary of the company or by any other officer authorised by the Board for this purpose.
(3) The register referred to in sub-rule (1) shall be preserved in good order for a period of not less than eight years from the financial year in which the latest entry is made in the register.
12. General Provision regarding Premature of deposits.
As per Rule 15 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014, Where a company makes a repayment of deposits, on the request of the depositor, after the expiry of a period of six months from the date of such deposit but before the expiry of the period for which such deposit was accepted, the rate of interest payable on such deposit shall be reduced by one per cent. from the rate which the company would have paid had the deposit been accepted for the period for which such deposit had actually run and the company shall not pay interest at any rate higher than the rate so reduced :
Provided that nothing contained in this rule shall apply to the repayment of any deposit before the expiry of the period for which such deposit was accepted by the company, if such repayment is made solely for the purpose of—
(a) Complying with the provisions of rule 3; or
(b) Providing war risk or other related benefits to the personnel of the naval, military or air forces or to their families, on an application made by the associations or societies formed by such personnel, during the period of emergency declared under article 352 of the Constitution:
Provided further that where a company referred to in under sub-section (2) of section 73 or any eligible company permits a depositor to renew his deposit, before the expiry of the period for which such deposit was accepted by the company, for availing of a higher rate of interest, the company shall pay interest to such depositor at the higher rate if such deposit is renewed in accordance with the other provisions of these rules and for a period longer than the unexpired period of the deposit.
Explanation: For the purposes of this rule, where the period for which the deposit had run contains any part of a year, then, if such part is less than six months, it shall be excluded and if such part is six months or more, it shall be reckoned as one year.
13. Provisions regarding return of deposits
As per Rule 16 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014, Every company to which these rules apply, shall on or before the 30th day of June, of every year, file with the Registrar, a return in Form DPT-3 along with the fee as provided in Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014 and furnish the information contained therein as on the 31st day of March of that year duly audited by the auditor of the company.
14. Penal rate of interest
As per Rule 17 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014, every company shall pay a penal rate of interest of eighteen per cent. per annum for the overdue period in case of deposits, whether secured or unsecured, matured and claimed but remaining unpaid.
15. Statement regarding existing deposits.
As per Rule 20 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014, the statement shall be in Form DPT-4.
16. What is the punishment for contravention?
As per Rule 21 of Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014, If any company referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 or any eligible company inviting deposits or any other person contravenes any provision of these rules for which no punishment is provided in the Act, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees and where the contravention is a continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to five hundred rupees for every day after the first day during which the contravention continues.
SPECIMEN RESOLUTION FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEPOSITS FROM MEMBERS AND/OR PUBLIC
“RESOLVED THAT pursuant to the provisions of Section 73 and 76 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the Act) read with the Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014 (the Rules) and other applicable provisions, if any, and subject to such conditions, approvals, permissions, as may be necessary, consent of the members be and is hereby accorded to the Company to invite/accept/renew/receive money by way of unsecured/secured deposits from its members and public.
RESOLVED FURTHER THAT Mr. _________, Chairman & Managing Director, be and is hereby authorized to issue the circular or circular in the form of advertisement, which has been approved by the Board of Directors of the company at their meeting held on _____ the _____ (day) of ______ (month), 2015 (year) and which delineates the silent features of the deposit scheme of the company and other relevant particulars as prescribed by the Act and the Rules.
RESOLVED FURTHER THAT Mr. _____, Chairman & Managing Director, be and is hereby authorized to have the circular or circular in the form of advertisement, which has been duly signed by the majority of directors, filed with the Registrar of Companies, NCT of Delhi & Haryana, New Delhi, pursuant to the Rules, and to publish the same in English language in _____ (Delhi edition) and in Hindi in ________ (Delhi edition).
RESOLVED FURTHER THAT for the purpose of giving effect to this Resolution, the Board of Directors be and is hereby authorized to do such acts, deeds, matters and things as Board of Directors may in its absolute discretion consider necessary, proper, expedient, desirable or appropriate for such invitation/acceptance/ renewal/ receipts as aforesaid and matters incidental thereto.”
CHECK LIST OF SECRETARIAL COMPLIANCE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEPOSITS AS PER COMPANIES ACT 2013:
Check list of secretarial compliance for acceptance of deposits under Companies Act, 2013 are discussed below. The Company Secretary should check:
1. Whether proper Board meeting has been held and the matter of acceptance of deposit has been proposed and issue of notice for holding general meeting for obtaining approval of the shareholder has been taken place.
2. Whether general meeting has been held and approval of the shareholders by means of a special or ordinary resolution has been passed.
3. Whether the said resolution has been filed with Registrar in Form MGT-14 within 30 days of passing of such resolution.
4. Whether Board meeting has been held to obtain the approval for the draft Circular/Form of Advertisement from the Board and the said draft Circular/Form of Advertisement has been signed by majority of the directors of the Company.
5. Whether copy of Circular/Form of Advertisement approved by the Board has been filed with the Registrar of Companies in Form DPT-1 for registration.
Whether one or more deposit trustees for creating security for the secured deposits has been appointed and the company has executed a deposit trust deed in Form DPT-2 at least seven days before issuing circular or circular in the form of advertisement.
These are the some of the checklist which are to be taken care of from compliance point of view: – (depends upon case to case)