To keep a watch on high value transactions undertaken by the taxpayer, the Income-tax Law has framed the concept of statement of financial transaction or reportable account (previously called as ‘Annual Information Return (AIR)’.With the help of the statement the tax authorities will collect information on certain prescribed high value transactions undertaken by a person during the year. Statement of financial transaction or reportable account is to be filed by certain prescribed entities (discussed later), and in such statement they are required to furnish the details of specified financial transactions or any reportable account registered/recorded/maintained (discussed later) by them during the year. Thus, on the basis of the information provided by certain prescribed entities in statement of financial transaction or reportable account, the Income-tax Department keeps a track of specified financial transactions carried on by a person during the year. In this part you can gain knowledge on various provisions relating to statement of financial transaction or reportable account.
What is statement of financial transaction or reportable account (previously called as ‘Annual Information Return (AIR)’?
As per section 285BA of the Income-tax Act, 1961 (as substituted by Finance Act, 2014 w.e.f. 01-04-2015), specified entities (Filers) are required to furnish a statement of financial transaction or reportable account (hereinafter referred to as ‘statement’) in respect of specified financial transactions or any reportable account registered/recorded/maintained by them during the financial year to the income-tax authority or such other prescribed authority.
Who is required to furnish statement of financial transactions and reportable accounts?
Following persons shall be required to furnish statement of financial transactions or reportable accounts registered or recorded or maintained by them during a financial year to the prescribed authority:
(a) an assessee;
(b) the prescribed person in the case of an office of Government;
(c) a local authority or other public body or association;
(d) the Registrar or Sub-Registrar appointed under section 6 of the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908);
(e) the registering authority empowered to register motor vehicles under Chapter IV of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988);
(f) the Post Master General as referred to in clause (j) of section 2 of the Indian Post Office Act, 1898 (6 of 1898);
(g) the Collector referred to in clause (g) of section 3 of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (30 of 2013);
(h) the recognised stock exchange referred to in clause (f) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956);
(i) an officer of the Reserve Bank of India, constituted under section 3 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);
(j) a depository referred to in clause (e) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Depositories Act, 1996 (22 of 1996); or
(k) a prescribed reporting financial institutions
|Nature and value of transaction||Class of person (reporting person)|
(a) Payment made in cash for purchase of bank drafts or pay orders or banker’s cheque of an amount aggregating to Rs. 10 lakh or more in a financial year.
(b) Payments made in cash aggregating to Rs. 10 lakh or more during the financial year for purchase of pre-paid instruments issued by Reserve Bank of India.
(c) Cash deposits or cash withdrawals (including through bearer’s cheque) aggregating to Rs. 50 lakh or more in a financial year, in or from one or more current account of a person.
|A banking company or a co-operative bank|
|2||(i) A banking company or a co-operative bank|
(ii) Post Master General
One or more time deposits (other than a time deposit made through renewal of another time deposit) of a person aggregating to Rs. 10 lakh or more in a financial year of a person.
|(i) A banking company or a co-operative bank|
(ii) Post Master General
(iii) Nidhi Company
(iv) Non-banking financial company
Payments made by any person of an amount aggregating to—
(i) Rs. 1 lakh or more in cash; or
(ii) Rs. 10 lakh or more by any other mode, against bills raised in respect of one or more credit cards issued to that person, in a financial year.
|A banking company or a co-operative bank or any other company or institution issuing credit card.|
Receipt from any person of an amount aggregating to Rs. 10 lakh or more in a financial year for acquiring bonds or debentures issued by the company or institution (other than the amount received on account of renewal of the bond or debenture issued by that company).
|A company or institution issuing bonds or debentures.|
Receipt from any person of an amount aggregating to Rs. 10 lakh or more in a financial year for acquiring shares (including share application money) issued by the company.
|A company issuing shares.|
Buy back of shares from any person (other than the shares bought in the open market) for an amount or value aggregating to Rs. 10 lakh or more in a financial year.
|A company listed on a recognised stock exchange purchasing its own securities under section 68 of the Companies Act, 2013|
Receipt from any person of an amount aggregating to Rs. 10 lakh or more in a financial year for acquiring units of one or more schemes of a Mutual Fund (other than the amount received on account of transfer from one scheme to another scheme of that Mutual Fund).
|A trustee of a Mutual Fund or such other person managing the affairs of the Mutual Fund|
Receipt from any person for sale of foreign currency including any credit of such currency to foreign exchange card or expense in such currency through a debit or credit card or through issue of travellers cheque or draft or any other instrument of an amount aggregating to Rs. 10 lakh or more during a financial year.
|Authorised person under Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999|
Purchase or sale by any person of immovable property for an amount of Rs. 10 lakh or more or valued by the stamp valuation authority referred to in section 50C of the Act at Rs. 30 lakh or more.
|Inspector-General or Registrar or Sub-Registrar appointed under the Registration Act, 1908|
Receipt of cash payment exceeding Rs. 2 lakh for sale, by any person, of goods or services of any nature (other than those specified at Sl. Nos. 1 to 10 of this rule, if any.)
|Any person who is liable for audit undersection 44AB of the Act.|
What is the due date for filing of statement of financial transaction or reportable account by prescribed reporting financial institution?
In order to facilitate effective exchange of information in respect of resident and non-resident, Section 285BA also provides for furnishing of statement by a prescribed reporting financial institution in respect of specified financial transaction or reportable account. The statement shall be furnished for each calendar year in Form No. 61B on or before 31st May of the next year. [For more details, see rules 114F, 114G and 114H of the Income-tax Rules, 1962]
What is the mode and due date for filing of financial transaction or reportable account?
The statement of financial transaction shall be furnished electronically (under digital signature) in Form No. 61A to the Director of Income-tax (Intelligence and Criminal Investigation) or the Joint Director of Income-tax (Intelligence and Criminal Investigation). However a Post Master General or a Registrar or an Inspector General may furnish Form No. 61A in a computer readable media being a Compact Disc or Digital Video Disc (DVD), alongwith the verification in Form-V on paper.
Further, the statement shall be furnished on or before 31st May immediately following the financial year in which the transaction is registered or recorded.
Is there any remedy available under the act, if a person does not file the statement within the prescribed time?
Section 285BA(5) empower the tax authorities to issue a notice to the person who had not filed the statement within prescribed time. In such a case, the tax authorities may serve upon such person a notice requiring him to furnish the statement within a period not exceeding 30 days from the date of service of such notice and in such a case the person shall furnish the statement within the time as specified in the notice.
What are the consequences of not filing statement of financial transaction or reportable account?
Non-furnishing of statement of financial transaction or reportable account will attract penalty under section 271FA. Penalty can be levied of Rs. 100 per day of default.
However, section 285BA(5) (as discussed earlier) empower the tax authorities to issue a notice to the person directing him to file the statement within a period not exceeding 30 days from the date of service of such notice and in such a case person shall furnish the statement within the time specified in the notice. If person fails to file the statement within the specified time, then a penalty of Rs. 500 per day will be levied from the day immediately following the day on which the time specified in such notice for furnishing the statement expires.
Is there any remedy available under the act, if a person filed inaccurate or defective statement?
If any person, after filing the statement, comes to know or discovers any inaccuracy in the information provided in the statement, he shall inform such inaccuracy to the prescribed income-tax authority within a period of ten days and furnish the correct information in such manner as may be prescribed.
On the other hand, the prescribed income-tax authority may also intimate the defect to the person and give him an opportunity of rectifying the defect within a period of thirty days from the date of such intimation or within such extended period as may be allowed by prescribed income-tax authority.
However, if a person fails to rectify the defect within the said period than such statement shall be treated as an invalid statement and the provisions of this Act shall apply as if such person had failed to furnish the statement.
What are the consequences for furnishing inaccurate statement of financial transaction or reportable account?
If a prescribed reporting financial institution referred to in Section 285BA(1)(k) who is required to furnish statement of financial transaction or reportable account, provides inaccurate information in the statement, and where:
(a) the inaccuracy is due to a failure to comply with the due diligence requirement prescribed* under section 285BA(7) or is deliberate on the part of that person;
(b) the person knows of the inaccuracy at the time of furnishing the statement but does not inform the prescribed income-tax authority or such other authority or agency;
(c) the person discovers the inaccuracy after the statement is furnished and fails to inform and furnish correct information within a period of 10 days as specified under section 285BA(6),
then, the prescribed income-tax authority may direct that such person shall pay, by way of penalty, a sum of fifty thousand rupees.